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Advances in Systems Immunology and Cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193134 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-313-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Biology --- Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Psychiatry --- Medicine (General) --- Physiology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
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Aims and Scope: The Research Topic is designed to feature the latest innovative and leading-edge research, reviews and opinions on the study of complex and dynamic processes related to the mammalian immune system and cancer. All papers were meticulously selected to present our readers the multidisciplinary approach to tackle the existing challenges faced in these important fields. From high throughput experimental methodologies to computational and theoretical approaches, the articles are intended to introduce physicists, chemists, computer scientists, biologists and immunologists the idea of systems biology approach to the understanding of mammalian immune system and cancer processes. Attention was given to works that developed more effective approaches to the treatment of proinflammatory disease and cancer. The strong interdisciplinary focus will discuss biological systems at the level from a few molecules to the entire organism. Specific focus domain includes: Innate and adaptive immunity, cancer and cancer stem cell, genomic, proteomic and metabolic analysis, imaging, biophysics of immune and cancer response, computational modeling, non-linear analysis, statistical analysis, translational and disease models Types of articles: Viewpoint, commentaries, research letters, research articles, review and methodologies

Alterations of Epigenetics and MicroRNAs in Cancer and Cancer Stem Cell

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193455 Year: Pages: 79 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-345-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Genetics --- Science (General)
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Studies have shown that alterations of epigenetics and microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the initiation and progression of human cancer. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells is generally mediated by DNA hypermethylation of CpG island promoter and histone modification such as methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and tri-methylation of H3K27. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of various target genes. Specific miRNAs are aberrantly expressed and play roles as tumor suppressors or oncogenes during carcinogenesis. Important tumor suppressor miRNAs are silenced by epigenetic alterations, resulting in activation of target oncogenes in human malignancies. Stem cells have the ability to perpetuate themselves through self-renewal and to generate mature cells of various tissues through differentiation. Accumulating evidence suggests that a subpopulation of cancer cells with distinct stem-like properties is responsible for tumor initiation, invasive growth, and metastasis formation, which is defined as cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are considered to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, suggesting that these cells are important targets of cancer therapy. DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNAs may be deeply involved in stem-like properties in cancer cells. Restoring the expression of tumor suppressor genes and miRNAs by chromatin modifying drugs may be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer stem cells. In this Research Topic, we discuss about alterations of epigenetics and miRNAs in cancer and cancer stem cell and understand the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of cancer stem cell, which may provide a novel insight for treatment of refractory cancer.

Anthropologies of Cancer in Transnational Worlds

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in Anthropology ISBN: 9781138776937 Year: Pages: 270
Publisher: Routledge
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Biology
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Cancer is a transnational condition involving the unprecedented flow of health information, technologies, and people across national borders. Such movement raises questions about the nature of therapeutic citizenship, how and where structurally vulnerable populations obtain care, and the political geography of blame associated with this disease. This volume brings together cutting-edge anthropological research carried out across North and South America, Europe, Africa and Asia, representing low-, middle- and high-resource countries with a diversity of national health care systems. Contributors ethnographically map the varied nature of cancer experiences and articulate the multiplicity of meanings that survivorship, risk, charity and care entail. They explore institutional frameworks shaping local responses to cancer and underlying political forces and structural variables that frame individual experiences. Of particular concern is the need to interrogate underlying assumptions of research designs that may lead to the naturalizing of hidden agendas or intentions. Running throughout the chapters, moreover, are considerations of moral and ethical issues related to cancer treatment and research. Thematic emphases include the importance of local biologies in the framing of cancer diagnosis and treatment protocols, uncertainty and ambiguity in definitions of biosociality, shifting definitions of patienthood, and the sociality of care and support.

Astrocytic-neuronal-astrocytic Pathway Selection for Formation and Degradation of Glutamate/GABA

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192434 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-243-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
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Endocrinological research early recognized the importance of intercellular interactions and realized the importance of glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling. In turn this signalling depends on elaborate interactions between astrocytes and neurons, without which neurons would be unable to produce, reuse and metabolize transmitter glutamate and GABA. Details of these subjects are described in this Research Topic by key investigators in this field. It focuses on the intricate and extremely swift pathway producing these amino acid transmitters from glucose in brain but also discusses difficulties in determining expression of some of the necessary genes in astrocytes and related processes in pancreatic islets. However, it does not discuss how closely associated astrocytes and neurons are anatomically, enabling these interactions. This is elegantly shown in this cover image, kindly provided by Professor Andreas Reichenbach (University of Leipzig, Germany).

Beyond the conventional Renin Angiotensin System

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193349 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-334-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General) --- Biology --- Science (General)
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It is well known that the activation of the circulating renin angiotensin system is involved in cardiovascular pathology including hypertension, heart failure and is responsible for important organic changes induced by diabetes. Evidence is now available that independently of the classical system, there are local renin angiotensin systems in different organs including the heart, circulatory vessels, kidney and probably brain and that components of these local systems participate in important aspects of physiology and pathology. Of particular interest is the presence of an intracellular component-the so called intracrine renin angiotensin system, which seems related to regulation of several cellular functions. A discussion of the different aspects of this important topic is of relevance to cell biology, endocrinology, physiology and pathology and justify a comprehensive presentation to the scientific community organized by experts in their respective fields.

Keywords

renin

Biological Invasions in Changing Ecosystems. Vectors, Ecological Impacts, Management and Predictions

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ISBN: 9783110438659, 9783110438666 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 488 DOI: 10.1515/9783110438666 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Biology --- Ecology
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When organisms are deliberately or accidentally introduced into a new ecosystem a biological invasion may take place. These so-called ‘invasive species’ may establish, spread and ecologically alter the invaded community. Biological invasions by animals, plants, pathogens or vectors are one of the greatest environmental and economic threats and, along with habitat destruction, a leading cause of global biodiversity loss. In this book, more than 50 worldwide invasion scientists cover our current understanding of biological invasions, its impacts, patterns and mechanisms in both aquatic and terrestrial systems.

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Brandbestattungen von der mittleren Donau bis zur Ägäis zwischen 1300 und 750 v. Chr.

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ISBN: 9783700172604 Year: Pages: 286 Seiten Language: de^English
Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Subject: Archaeology --- Biology
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In these conference proceedings particular attention is paid to the performance of burials and burial rites between 1300 and 750 BC. A change in burial customs took place in large parts of central Europe during the 13th century BC. The dead were no longer buried in inhumation graves – as was customary until then – but were burned and laid to rest in urns. This transformation of burial customs is probably connected to far reaching changes in society and religious beliefs.

In dem vorliegenden Kongressband werden Bestattung und Ritual in der Region zwischen Mitteleuropa und Griechenland zwischen 1300 und 750 v. Chr. besondere Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. Im 13. Jahrhundert v. Chr. fand in weiten Teilen Mitteleuropas eine radikale Veränderung der Grabsitten statt. Die Toten wurden nicht mehr, wie bis dahin üblich, in Körpergräbern bestattet, sondern verbrannt und in Urnen beigesetzt. Es ist wahrscheinlich, dass sich hinter dem Wandel des Begräbnisrituals weitreichende Veränderungen der Gesellschaft und der religiösen Vorstellungen verbergen.

Current Challenges in Modeling Cellular Metabolism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197545 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-754-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering
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Mathematical and computational models play an essential role in understanding the cellular metabolism. They are used as platforms to integrate current knowledge on a biological system and to systematically test and predict the effect of manipulations to such systems. The recent advances in genome sequencing techniques have facilitated the reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks for a wide variety of organisms from microbes to human cells. These models have been successfully used in multiple biotechnological applications. Despite these advancements, modeling cellular metabolism still presents many challenges. The aim of this Research Topic is not only to expose and consolidate the state-of-the-art in metabolic modeling approaches, but also to push this frontier beyond the current edge through the introduction of innovative solutions. The articles presented in this e-book address some of the main challenges in the field, including the integration of different modeling formalisms, the integration of heterogeneous data sources into metabolic models, explicit representation of other biological processes during phenotype simulation, and standardization efforts in the representation of metabolic models and simulation results.

Démographie, climat et alimentation mondiale

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ISBN: 9782759805815 Year: Pages: 408 Language: French
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Subject: Biology
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Demography, climate, world alimentation

Préface d'Alain Vicaud (Directeur de l’environnement et de la prospective EDF – Production nucléaire)Permettre à la nouvelle génération d’exploitant des centrales nucléaires d’EDF d’acquérir une base robuste sur l’environnement et les centrales nucléaires ... ... offrir à tous, amateurs de vrais livres, ou internautes convaincus, une information pédagogique sur les besoins en eau d’une centrale nucléaire, ses rejets d’effluents dans l’environnement, la surveillance de leurs éventuels impacts, sans oublier le corpus réglementaire applicable, le rôle des autorités de contrôle, ... ... c’est ce double défi qu’a relevé une équipe de chercheurs, ingénieurs, juristes, exploitants, tout juste sortis d’une vie professionnelle consacrée entièrement au domaine et forts d’une expertise reconnue, patiemment accumulée au fil des ans dans tous les métiers de l’Entreprise ; ils ont mis toutes leurs connaissances et expériences au service de ce guide. Le résultat est à la hauteur de leur talent.Après une synthèse de tout ce qu’il faut savoir en 10 pages, le guide décrit les interactions de ces grands ouvrages industriels avec leur environnement :– dans un sens, les services écologiques apportés aux centrales nucléaires pour leur permettre de produire l’électricité la moins carbonée et l’une des plus compétitives d’Europe au service du bien-être des hommes et,– dans l’autre sens, les nombreuses actions mises en oeuvre par EDF pour connaître, éviter ou réduire les effets des centrales sur les écosystèmes.L’organisation de ce guide permet au lecteur de s’y promener au gré de ses besoins ou de sa curiosité. Il y découvre l’importance qu’accorde l’exploitant à informer le public faisant sienne la définition de la transparence d’André Comte-Sponville : « Dire au public tout ce qu’il n’aimerait pas apprendre par d’autre que nous ».Un tour de la réglementation applicable aux centrales nucléaires amène le lecteur au pied de la pyramide réglementaire française des installations nucléaires de base (INB) avec à son sommet la fameuse loi TSN (Transparence et Sécurité Nucléaire) transposée aujourd’hui dans le code de l’environnement. Un détour par Oslo et Paris avec la convention OSPAR sur la protection du milieu marin ; un saut à Berne et sa convention pour la protection du Rhin, puis, bien sûr, Kyoto et le protocole sur la réduction des gaz à effet de serre, pour terminer à Bruxelles avec nombre de directives et règlements.Enfin, le guide aborde le contrôle des rejets et la surveillance de l’environnement au voisinage des centrales nucléaires, ce qui permet de suivre les principaux paramètres indicateurs de la qualité des écosystèmes terrestre et aquatique. Référence est faite aux études et aux techniques de mesures les plus sophistiquées pour déceler le moindre effet.Je remercie les auteurs pour la qualité de ce guide qui éclairera les parcours de tous nos collaborateurs qui entrent dans ce métier passionnant et rigoureux d’exploitant de centrales nucléaires. Sans nul doute, ce guide permettra aussi à un plus grand nombre de mieux connaître comment EDF conjugue les enjeux sociétaux, environnementaux et économiques au service de sa mission de producteur d’électricité.

Emerging roles of long noncoding RNAs in neurological diseases and metabolic disorders

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195718 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-571-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Genetics
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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new class of transcripts that are in general longer than 200 nucleotides and that have no protein-coding potential. The vast majority of vertebrate genomes encode diverse and complex lncRNAs that play regulatory roles at almost every step of gene expression. Recently, increasing evidence has implicated lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. The purpose of the Research Topic, "Emerging roles of long noncoding RNAs in neurological diseases and metabolic disorders", is to bring together leading researchers in the field who, through contributing to an organized and comprehensive collection of peer-reviewed articles, provide a broad perspective on the latest advances in the field. A number of interesting and cutting-edge areas will be covered as below, but this list is not exclusive: - The methodologies and technologies of identifying and studying lncRNAs - LncRNAs in gene-specific transcription - LncRNAs in epigenetic regulation - LncRNAs in post-transcriptional regulation - LncRNAs in disease - Mapping of noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with disease.

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