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"Ob Dir es sauer wird mit Deiner Nahrung und Ackerwerk, das laß Dich nicht verdrießen, denn Gott hat es also geschaffen" - Gottfreid Dietrich Wilhelm Berthold (1854 - 1937) Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Biologie an der Georgia Augusta Göttingen

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ISBN: 9783863950224 Year: Pages: 159 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Science (General) --- Education --- History --- Biology
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Gottfried Dietrich Wilhelm Berthold (1854-1937) was one the foremost botanists and phycologists at the end of the 19th century. Born and educated in Westphalia, he enrolled at the Georgia Augusta to study plant sciences and focused on algae. After research stays at the Zoological Station at Naples he succeeded his mentor Johannes Reinke on his chair at the Institute of Plant Physiology at the Georgia Augusta Göttingen until 1923. In this study we focus on the biography of Berthold, his private and scientific life, interaction with J. Reinke and other topics related to the life of Berthold. In a second part we highlight his research on algae at the Gulf of Naples. We conclude with an evaluation of his scientific work in the light of the different phases in his life including a full bibliography of his scientific publications. Our study contributes to history of science at the Georgia Augusta.

Der aus Westfalen stammende Gottfried Dietrich Wilhelm Berthold (1854- 1937) ist als Botaniker des 19. und beginnenden 20. Jahrhunderts eng mit der Geschichte der Georgia Augusta in Göttingen verwoben. Er hatte sich bereits als Student an der Universität Göttingen mit Algen beschäftigt und seine Dissertation dieser Thematik gewidmet. Nach Forschungsaufenthalten an der Zoologischen Station in Neapel, wo er intensiv Untersuchungen an Algen durchführte, habilitierte er sich 1881 in Göttingen bei Johannes Reinke. Später übernahm er dessen Professur für Botanik sowie dessen Direktorat am Pflanzenphysiologischen Institut und widmete sich entwicklungsmechanischen bzw. physiologischen Fragen bei höheren Pflanzen. Die vorliegende Monografie untersucht erstmalig anhand der gegenwärtigen Forschungslage Leben und Wirken Bertholds. Bertholds Lebensgeschichte wird chronologisch und in größtmöglicher Vollständigkeit dargestellt. Bildungsgeschichtliche Akzente, der personelle Konnex zu Johannes Reinke und der Einfluss der Zoologischen Station Neapel finden hier ebenso Platz wie die Rekonstruktion der Lehr- und Forschungstätigkeiten und der familiären Verhältnisse. Da Berthold vorrangig als Phykologe, also Algenkundler anzusehen ist, widmet sich der zweite Teil dem Forschungsschwerpunkt Algen. Dabei werden vor allem die meeresbiologischen Aspekte seiner Forschung am Golf von Neapel untersucht. Bertholds unterschiedliche Lebensstationen können in Zusammenhang mit seinen Publikationen betrachtet werden, dieser Teil untersucht daher das wissenschaftliche Wirken Bertholds. Anhand der aktuellen Quellenlage wird der Bestand seiner Werke aufgearbeitet und katalogisiert. Die vollständige Bibliografie ermöglicht die Bestimmung von Schwerpunkten in Bertholds wissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen. So bietet diese erste Monografie über Gottfried D. W. Berthold ein Fundament für die Beurteilung seines OEuvres und seiner Wirkung auf die Phykologie bzw. die Botanik. Sie ist eine angemessene Erinnerung an ihn und ermöglicht eine gebührende Würdigung seines Wirkens. Die vorliegende Studie ist ein Beitrag zur Universitäts- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte der Georgia Augusta.

Adrenal Cortex: From Physiology to Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199198 Year: Pages: 89 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-919-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine --- Science (General) --- Biology
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The adrenal gland plays essential roles in the control of body homeostasis, stress and immune responses. The adrenal cortex represents up to 90% of the gland and is specialised in the production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. This production is tightly coordinated and results from a unique zonal organisation. Although our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms controlling adrenal steroidogenesis is quite extensive, for decades, the mechanisms of adrenal cortex development, cellular homeostasis and renewal have remained elusive. The advent of new high-throughput technologies and sophisticated genetic approaches has brought tremendous progress in our understanding of how the adrenal cortex achieves and maintains its particular organisation. The aim of this Frontiers in Endocrinology Topic is to provide readers with a snapshot of our current knowledge on adrenal physiology and how deregulations of these processes result in adrenal diseases. This includes but is not limited to, basic research on adrenal development, cell lineage identification, progenitor cells, tissue renewal, control of differentiation and zonation and clinical research on the identification of disease-related genes.

Advances in Systems Immunology and Cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193134 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-313-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Biology --- Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Psychiatry --- Medicine (General) --- Physiology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
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Aims and Scope: The Research Topic is designed to feature the latest innovative and leading-edge research, reviews and opinions on the study of complex and dynamic processes related to the mammalian immune system and cancer. All papers were meticulously selected to present our readers the multidisciplinary approach to tackle the existing challenges faced in these important fields. From high throughput experimental methodologies to computational and theoretical approaches, the articles are intended to introduce physicists, chemists, computer scientists, biologists and immunologists the idea of systems biology approach to the understanding of mammalian immune system and cancer processes. Attention was given to works that developed more effective approaches to the treatment of proinflammatory disease and cancer. The strong interdisciplinary focus will discuss biological systems at the level from a few molecules to the entire organism. Specific focus domain includes: Innate and adaptive immunity, cancer and cancer stem cell, genomic, proteomic and metabolic analysis, imaging, biophysics of immune and cancer response, computational modeling, non-linear analysis, statistical analysis, translational and disease models Types of articles: Viewpoint, commentaries, research letters, research articles, review and methodologies

Alterations of Epigenetics and MicroRNAs in Cancer and Cancer Stem Cell

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193455 Year: Pages: 79 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-345-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Genetics --- Science (General)
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Studies have shown that alterations of epigenetics and microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the initiation and progression of human cancer. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells is generally mediated by DNA hypermethylation of CpG island promoter and histone modification such as methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and tri-methylation of H3K27. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of various target genes. Specific miRNAs are aberrantly expressed and play roles as tumor suppressors or oncogenes during carcinogenesis. Important tumor suppressor miRNAs are silenced by epigenetic alterations, resulting in activation of target oncogenes in human malignancies. Stem cells have the ability to perpetuate themselves through self-renewal and to generate mature cells of various tissues through differentiation. Accumulating evidence suggests that a subpopulation of cancer cells with distinct stem-like properties is responsible for tumor initiation, invasive growth, and metastasis formation, which is defined as cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are considered to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, suggesting that these cells are important targets of cancer therapy. DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNAs may be deeply involved in stem-like properties in cancer cells. Restoring the expression of tumor suppressor genes and miRNAs by chromatin modifying drugs may be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer stem cells. In this Research Topic, we discuss about alterations of epigenetics and miRNAs in cancer and cancer stem cell and understand the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of cancer stem cell, which may provide a novel insight for treatment of refractory cancer.

Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 14/2009 - Plastidules to Humans Leopoldo Maggi (1840-1905) and Ernst Haeckel´s naturalist philosophy in the Kingdom of Italy

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Book Series: Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology ISSN: 18630197 ISBN: 9783941875975 Year: Pages: 182 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Philosophy --- Sports Science --- Biology
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The name DGGTB (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie; German Society for the History and Theory of Biology) reflects recent history as well as German tradition. The Society is a relatively late addition to a series of German societies of science and medicine that began with the »Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften«, founded in 1910 by Leipzig University's Karl Sudhoff (1853-1938), who wrote: »We want to establish a ,German' society in order to gather German-speaking historians together in our special disciplines so that they form the core of an international society...«. Yet Sudhoff, at this time of burgeoning academic internationalism, was »quite willing« to accommodate the wishes of a number of founding members and »drop the word German in the title of the Society and have it merge with an international society«. The founding and naming of the Society at that time derived from a specific set of historical circumstances, and the same was true some 80 years later when in 1991, in the wake of German reunification, the »Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie« was founded. From the start, the Society has been committed to bringing studies in the history and philosophy of biology to a wide audience, using for this purpose its Jahrbuch für Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie. Parallel to the Jahrbuch, the Verhandlungen zur Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie has become the by now traditional medium for the publication of papers delivered at the Society's annual meetings. In 2005 the Jahrbuch was renamed Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology, reflecting the Society's internationalist aspirations in addressing comparative biology as a subject of historical and philosophical studies.

The name DGGTB (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie; German Society for the History and Theory of Biology) reflects recent history as well as German tradition. The Society is a relatively late addition to a series of German societies of science and medicine that began with the »Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften«, founded in 1910 by Leipzig University's Karl Sudhoff (1853-1938), who wrote: »We want to establish a ,German' society in order to gather German-speaking historians together in our special disciplines so that they form the core of an international society...«. Yet Sudhoff, at this time of burgeoning academic internationalism, was »quite willing« to accommodate the wishes of a number of founding members and »drop the word German in the title of the Society and have it merge with an international society«. The founding and naming of the Society at that time derived from a specific set of historical circumstances, and the same was true some 80 years later when in 1991, in the wake of German reunification, the »Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie« was founded. From the start, the Society has been committed to bringing studies in the history and philosophy of biology to a wide audience, using for this purpose its Jahrbuch für Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie. Parallel to the Jahrbuch, the Verhandlungen zur Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie has become the by now traditional medium for the publication of papers delivered at the Society's annual meetings. In 2005 the Jahrbuch was renamed Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology, reflecting the Society's internationalist aspirations in addressing comparative biology as a subject of historical and philosophical studies.

Anthropologies of Cancer in Transnational Worlds

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in Anthropology ISBN: 9781138776937 Year: Pages: 270
Publisher: Routledge Grant: Wellcome Trust - 084128
Subject: Biology --- Medicine (General)
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Cancer is a transnational condition involving the unprecedented flow of health information, technologies, and people across national borders. Such movement raises questions about the nature of therapeutic citizenship, how and where structurally vulnerable populations obtain care, and the political geography of blame associated with this disease. This volume brings together cutting-edge anthropological research carried out across North and South America, Europe, Africa and Asia, representing low-, middle- and high-resource countries with a diversity of national health care systems. Contributors ethnographically map the varied nature of cancer experiences and articulate the multiplicity of meanings that survivorship, risk, charity and care entail. They explore institutional frameworks shaping local responses to cancer and underlying political forces and structural variables that frame individual experiences. Of particular concern is the need to interrogate underlying assumptions of research designs that may lead to the naturalizing of hidden agendas or intentions. Running throughout the chapters, moreover, are considerations of moral and ethical issues related to cancer treatment and research. Thematic emphases include the importance of local biologies in the framing of cancer diagnosis and treatment protocols, uncertainty and ambiguity in definitions of biosociality, shifting definitions of patienthood, and the sociality of care and support.

Astrocytic-neuronal-astrocytic Pathway Selection for Formation and Degradation of Glutamate/GABA

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192434 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-243-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
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Endocrinological research early recognized the importance of intercellular interactions and realized the importance of glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling. In turn this signalling depends on elaborate interactions between astrocytes and neurons, without which neurons would be unable to produce, reuse and metabolize transmitter glutamate and GABA. Details of these subjects are described in this Research Topic by key investigators in this field. It focuses on the intricate and extremely swift pathway producing these amino acid transmitters from glucose in brain but also discusses difficulties in determining expression of some of the necessary genes in astrocytes and related processes in pancreatic islets. However, it does not discuss how closely associated astrocytes and neurons are anatomically, enabling these interactions. This is elegantly shown in this cover image, kindly provided by Professor Andreas Reichenbach (University of Leipzig, Germany).

Behaviour, Development and Evolution

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ISBN: 9781783742486 9781783742509 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 134 DOI: http://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0097 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Biology --- Zoology
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The role of parents in shaping the characters of their children, the causes of violence and crime, and the roots of personal unhappiness are central to humanity. Like so many fundamental questions about human existence, these issues all relate to behavioural development. In this lucid and accessible book, eminent biologist Professor Sir Patrick Bateson suggests that the nature/nurture dichotomy we often use to think about questions of development in both humans and animals is misleading. Instead, he argues that we should pay attention to whole systems, rather than to simple causes, when trying to understand the complexity of development. In his wide-ranging approach Bateson discusses why so much behaviour appears to be well-designed. He explores issues such as ‘imprinting’ and its importance to the attachment of offspring to their parents; the mutual benefits that characterise communication between parent and offspring; the importance of play in learning how to choose and control the optimal conditions in which to thrive; and the vital function of adaptability in the interplay between development and evolution. Bateson disputes the idea that a simple link can be found between genetics and behaviour. What an individual human or animal does in its life depends on the reciprocal nature of its relationships with the world about it. This knowledge also points to ways in which an animal’s own behaviour can provide the variation that influences the subsequent course of evolution. This has relevance not only for our scientific approaches to the systems of development and evolution, but also on how humans change institutional rules that have become dysfunctional, or design public health measures when mismatches occur between themselves and their environments. It affects how we think about ourselves and our own capacity for change.

Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038423492 9783038423485 Year: Pages: VIII, 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-349-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI AG - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Genetics
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During the last decade, a high volume of work has been published on the health-promoting effects of berries (e.g., blueberries, cranberries, blackberries, etc.) that are rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, polyphenols. Consuming a diet rich in polyphenols has been documented to attenuate the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent evidence also reveals that the biological effects of polyphenols extend beyond their traditional antioxidant role. This Special Issue includes 10 peer-reviewed papers, including original research papers and reviews. They present the most recent advances in the role of berry antioxidants, not only in maintaining health but also in preventing and/or reversing disease both in cell culture, animal models and in humans. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways modulated by berry antioxidants are presented. Chapters include the role of berry antioxidants in whole fruit and leaves on the metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and glucose intolerance, cancer, inflammation, oxidative stress and neuroprotection as well as cardiovascular disease. As a guest editor, I would like to acknowledge the authors of all chapters for their valuable contributions and reviewers for their thoughtful and constructive suggestions and time. Special thanks to the publishing team of the Antioxidants Journal for their professionalism, attention to detail and timely completion of this volume.

Beten, Impfen, Sammeln - Zur Viehseuchen- und Schädlingsbekämpfung in der Frühen Neuzeit Graduiertenkolleg Interdisziplinäre Umweltgeschichte

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ISBN: 9783938616956 Year: Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology
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The collection covers the presentations held at the workshop on „Challenge: Securing Resources - Animal Diseases and Pest Control in the 18th and 19 Century“ held in Goettingen on 21 and 22 June 2006 by the graduate school „Interdisciplinary Environmental History, Natual Environment and Society in Central Europe“, which is funded by the German Research Foundation, and operative since July 1 2004 at the Georg-August University in Goettingen.

Das von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft geförderte Graduiertenkolleg „Interdisziplinäre Umweltgeschichte. Naturale Umwelt und gesellschaftliches Handeln in Mitteleuropa“ hat am 1. Juli 2004 an der Georg-August-Universität in Göttingen seine Arbeit aufgenommen. Im Interesse forschungsorientierter Interdisziplinarität gruppiert sich das Studienprogramm des Graduiertenkollegs um eine Reihe von Workshops mit deutschen und internationalen Vertretern umweltgeschichtlicher Disziplinen. Der vorliegende Band ist das Ergebnis eines Workshops, welchen die HerausgeberInnen am 21. und 22. Juni 2006 in Göttingen unter dem Titel: „Herausforderung Ressourcensicherung – Zur Viehseuchen- und Schädlingsbekämpfung im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert“ veranstalteten. WissenschaftlerInnen aus Dänemark, Deutschland, Kanada, Österreich, der Schweiz und den USA waren eingeladen worden, in diesem Kontext unterschiedliche Aspekte des Mensch-Natur-Verhältnisses zu erörtern. Der Workshop hatte das Ziel, durch die Verknüpfung verschiedener geschichtswissenschaftlicher Ansätze neue Perspektiven auf die Geschichte der Wahrnehmung und Bekämpfung von Schädlingen und Tierseuchen in der frühen Neuzeit zu eröffnen. Dieser Tagungsband enthält ausgewählte Beiträge des Workshops, welche besonders die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Ökonomie, Umwelt und Gesellschaft in Krisenzeiten analysieren.

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