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Brandbestattungen von der mittleren Donau bis zur Ägäis zwischen 1300 und 750 v. Chr.

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ISBN: 9783700172604 Year: Pages: 286 Seiten Language: de^English
Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Subject: Archaeology --- Biology
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In these conference proceedings particular attention is paid to the performance of burials and burial rites between 1300 and 750 BC. A change in burial customs took place in large parts of central Europe during the 13th century BC. The dead were no longer buried in inhumation graves – as was customary until then – but were burned and laid to rest in urns. This transformation of burial customs is probably connected to far reaching changes in society and religious beliefs.

In dem vorliegenden Kongressband werden Bestattung und Ritual in der Region zwischen Mitteleuropa und Griechenland zwischen 1300 und 750 v. Chr. besondere Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. Im 13. Jahrhundert v. Chr. fand in weiten Teilen Mitteleuropas eine radikale Veränderung der Grabsitten statt. Die Toten wurden nicht mehr, wie bis dahin üblich, in Körpergräbern bestattet, sondern verbrannt und in Urnen beigesetzt. Es ist wahrscheinlich, dass sich hinter dem Wandel des Begräbnisrituals weitreichende Veränderungen der Gesellschaft und der religiösen Vorstellungen verbergen.

Démographie, climat et alimentation mondiale

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ISBN: 9782759805815 Year: Pages: 408 Language: French
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Subject: Biology
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Demography, climate, world alimentation

Préface d'Alain Vicaud (Directeur de l’environnement et de la prospective EDF – Production nucléaire)Permettre à la nouvelle génération d’exploitant des centrales nucléaires d’EDF d’acquérir une base robuste sur l’environnement et les centrales nucléaires ... ... offrir à tous, amateurs de vrais livres, ou internautes convaincus, une information pédagogique sur les besoins en eau d’une centrale nucléaire, ses rejets d’effluents dans l’environnement, la surveillance de leurs éventuels impacts, sans oublier le corpus réglementaire applicable, le rôle des autorités de contrôle, ... ... c’est ce double défi qu’a relevé une équipe de chercheurs, ingénieurs, juristes, exploitants, tout juste sortis d’une vie professionnelle consacrée entièrement au domaine et forts d’une expertise reconnue, patiemment accumulée au fil des ans dans tous les métiers de l’Entreprise ; ils ont mis toutes leurs connaissances et expériences au service de ce guide. Le résultat est à la hauteur de leur talent.Après une synthèse de tout ce qu’il faut savoir en 10 pages, le guide décrit les interactions de ces grands ouvrages industriels avec leur environnement :– dans un sens, les services écologiques apportés aux centrales nucléaires pour leur permettre de produire l’électricité la moins carbonée et l’une des plus compétitives d’Europe au service du bien-être des hommes et,– dans l’autre sens, les nombreuses actions mises en oeuvre par EDF pour connaître, éviter ou réduire les effets des centrales sur les écosystèmes.L’organisation de ce guide permet au lecteur de s’y promener au gré de ses besoins ou de sa curiosité. Il y découvre l’importance qu’accorde l’exploitant à informer le public faisant sienne la définition de la transparence d’André Comte-Sponville : « Dire au public tout ce qu’il n’aimerait pas apprendre par d’autre que nous ».Un tour de la réglementation applicable aux centrales nucléaires amène le lecteur au pied de la pyramide réglementaire française des installations nucléaires de base (INB) avec à son sommet la fameuse loi TSN (Transparence et Sécurité Nucléaire) transposée aujourd’hui dans le code de l’environnement. Un détour par Oslo et Paris avec la convention OSPAR sur la protection du milieu marin ; un saut à Berne et sa convention pour la protection du Rhin, puis, bien sûr, Kyoto et le protocole sur la réduction des gaz à effet de serre, pour terminer à Bruxelles avec nombre de directives et règlements.Enfin, le guide aborde le contrôle des rejets et la surveillance de l’environnement au voisinage des centrales nucléaires, ce qui permet de suivre les principaux paramètres indicateurs de la qualité des écosystèmes terrestre et aquatique. Référence est faite aux études et aux techniques de mesures les plus sophistiquées pour déceler le moindre effet.Je remercie les auteurs pour la qualité de ce guide qui éclairera les parcours de tous nos collaborateurs qui entrent dans ce métier passionnant et rigoureux d’exploitant de centrales nucléaires. Sans nul doute, ce guide permettra aussi à un plus grand nombre de mieux connaître comment EDF conjugue les enjeux sociétaux, environnementaux et économiques au service de sa mission de producteur d’électricité.

From Darwinian Metaphysics towards Understanding the Evolution of Evolutionary Mechanisms - A Historical and Philosophical Analysis of Gene-Darwinism and Universal Darwinism

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ISBN: 9783863950064 Year: Pages: 502 Language: English
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Biology
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Although Charles Darwin predicted that his theory “would give zest to [...] metaphysics,” even he would be astonished at the variety of paths his theory has in fact taken. This holds with regard to both gene-Darwinism, a purified Darwinian approach biologizing the social sciences, and process- Darwinism found in the disciplines of psychology, philosophy of science, and economics. Although Darwinism is often linked to highly confirmed biological theories, some of its interpretations seem to profit from tautological claims as well, where scientific reputation cloaks ideological usage. This book discusses central tenets of Darwinism historically as well as systematically, for example the history of different Darwinian paradigms, the units-of-selection debate, and the philosophical problem of induction as basis of metaphysical Darwinism. Crucially the book addresses the Darwinian claim that evolution is governed by an immutable and unrelentingly cruel law of natural selection. Paradoxically, Darwin’s theory is a static, non-evolutionary theory of evolution. The current book sketches the historical background and provides suggestions that may help to replace this approach by the idea of an evolution of evolutionary mechanisms (see Escher’s “Drawing Hands” on the cover). This view even suggests a tendency to overcome the blindness of the knowledge acquisition of primordial Darwinian processes and allows for some freedom from external environments. This book first develops a radically Darwinian approach, then criticises this approach from within. Even Darwinism has a tendency to transcend itself. Although the book addresses several empirical issues, it does not challenge particular findings. Instead it builds on many insights of Darwinism and provides a proposal for interpreting known empirical evidence in a different light. It should help pave the way for further developing an understanding of nature that transcends Darwinian metaphysics.

Keywords

Darwinism --- Evolution

Handeln in Hungerkrisen - Neue Perspektiven auf soziale und klimatische Vulnerabilität

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ISBN: 9783863950408 Year: Pages: 245 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: History --- Environmental Sciences --- Biology
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In der Hungerforschung zeichnet sich ein neues Forschungsnarrativ ab, das naturale Umwelt und menschliches Handeln als eng miteinander verflochten versteht. Das Konzept der Vulnerabilität menschlicher Gesellschaften spielt in diesem Zusammenhang eine zentrale Rolle. Dieser Zugang sucht die postkoloniale Frontstellung von klima- und sozialdeterministischen Hungermodellen zugunsten einer integrativen Perspektive auf das Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Natur zu überwinden. Die Praktiken der Akteure, ihr Handeln in Hungerkrisen, stehen dabei im Zentrum. Ziel des Bandes ist es, den Vulnerabilitätsansatz als mögliches Brückenkonzept der multidisziplinär organisierten Hungerforschung vorzustellen. Das Buch vereint zu diesem Zweck Autorinnen und Autoren aus den Bereichen der Anthropologie, der Soziologie, der Geographie, der Geschichtswissenschaft und der Entwicklungsforschung. Die Beiträge analysieren aus historisierender, umweltgeschichtlicher Perspektive, wie das konstitutive Wechselspiel klimatischer und kultureller Faktoren den Betroffenen Handlungsspielräume eröffnet. Damit ermöglicht der Band nicht nur einen neuen Blick auf ein Feld, das mit dem globalen Klimawandel wieder zu einem Gegenwartsproblem geworden ist. Er weist auch darüber hinaus und illustriert die vielfältigen Formen der Sozialisierung klimatischer Impulse.

Humanity from African Naissance to Coming Millennia

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Book Series: Atti ISBN: 8884530032 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Firenze University Press
Subject: Biology --- Anthropology
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Humanity From African Naissance to Coming Millennia arises out of the world's first Dual Congress that was held at Sun City (South Africa) in 1998 that refers to a conjoint, integrated meeting of two international scientific associations, the International Association for the Study of Human Palaeontology - IV Congress - and the International Association of Human Biologists. The volume includes 39 refereed papers covering a wide range of topics, from Human Biology, Human Evolution (Emerging Homo, Evolving Homo, Early Modern Humans), Dating, Taxonomy and Systematics, Diet, Brain Evolution, offering the most recent analyses and interpretations in different areas of evolutionary anthropology.

Humanity From African Naissance to Coming Millennia arises out of the world's first Dual Congress that was held at Sun City (South Africa) in 1998 that refers to a conjoint, integrated meeting of two international scientific associations, the International Association for the Study of Human Palaeontology - IV Congress - and the International Association of Human Biologists. The volume includes 39 refereed papers covering a wide range of topics, from Human Biology, Human Evolution (Emerging Homo, Evolving Homo, Early Modern Humans), Dating, Taxonomy and Systematics, Diet, Brain Evolution, offering the most recent analyses and interpretations in different areas of evolutionary anthropology.

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach: Bibliographie seiner Schriften

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Book Series: Schriften zur Göttinger Universitätsgeschichte ISSN: 18665144 ISBN: 9783941875647 Year: Pages: 242 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Bibliography --- Education
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This bibliography documents the printed works of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752–1840) and makes them accessible for research purposes. Blumenbach was Professor of Medicine and Natural History at the University of Göttingen. He was one of the leading exponents of the revolutionary change of the geo-biological concept of the world at the turn of the 18th to the 19th century. His works exemplarily show the interactions between the life sciences, the humanities and the social sciences of his day.

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840) war Professor der Medizin und Naturgeschichte an der Universität Göttingen. Er ist einer der führenden Exponenten der revolutionären Umwandlung des geologischen und biologischen Weltbildes um die Wende vom 18. zum 19. Jahrhundert. Seine lange Lebensspanne wirkte als Brücke zwischen der Biologie Carl von Linnés und der Biologie Charles Darwins. Die vorliegende Bibliographie dokumentiert und erschließt das wissenschaftliche Werk Blumenbachs, das von entscheidender Bedeutung für unser Verständnis der Wissenschaftskultur Europas im späten 18. und frühen 19. Jahrhundert ist. Erkennbar wird darin die intensive Wechselwirkung zwischen den Wissenschaften vom Leben und insbesondere vom Menschen einerseits und andererseits den Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften dieser Epoche.

Landnutzungswandel in Mitteleuropa - Forschungsgegenstand und methodische Annäherung an die historische Landschaftsanalyse

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ISBN: 9783863950767 Year: Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Biology
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„Annäherung an die historische Landschaftsanalyse“ – lautete das Themaeines Workshops, der am 16. und 17. Februar 2011 im Rahmen des „Graduiertenkollegs Interdisziplinäre Umweltgeschichte“ in Göttingen stattfand und dessen Beiträge nun in diesem Sammelband erscheinen. In acht Beiträgen wird die Vielschichtigkeit des Themenkomplexes und die Bedeutung für den Natur- und Landschaftsschutz deutlich.

Maternal-Child Health

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ISBN: 9783863950842 Year: Pages: 546 Language: English
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Biology --- Public Health
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Maternal-Child Health is one of the greatest challenges the world has to cope with today. Every year, thousands of women, newborns and children die unnecessarily, particularly in resource-poor settings. There is a great disparity caused by food insecurity and hunger, environmental health risks, sanitation challenges, cultural barriers and non-accessibility to diagnosis and treatment. "Maternal-Child Health: Interdisciplinary Aspects within the Perspective of Global Health" addresses these issues. The contributions of this book are based on the ONE HEALTH concept by focusing on infectious and non-communicable diseases and to present interdisciplinary views from more than 60 authors who come from 14 countries. The aim is to shape our understanding on Maternal-Child Health Solutions by looking at > agricultural and environmental economic, social and theological biomedical and nutritional clinical human and veterinary as well as > epidemiology and public health expertise. The Göttingen International Health Network is corresponding to a variety of different geographic regions and programs to improve global health perspective and health of the most vulnerable: mothers and their children.

Negotiating bioethics : the governance of UNESCO's Bioethics Programme

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Book Series: Genetics and society ISBN: 9780415533461 9780203101797 Year: Pages: 192 Language: English
Publisher: Routledge
Subject: Biology
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The sequencing of the entire human genome has opened up unprecedented possibilities for healthcare, but also ethical and social dilemmas about how these can be achieved, particularly in developing countries. UNESCO's Bioethics Programme was established to address such issues in 1993. Since then, it has adopted three declarations on human genetics and bioethics (1997, 2003 and 2005), set up numerous training programmes around the world and debated the need for an international convention on human reproductive cloning. Negotiating Bioethics presents Langlois' research on the negotiation and implementation of the three declarations and the human cloning debate, based on fieldwork carried out in Kenya, South Africa, France and the UK, among policy-makers, geneticists, ethicists, civil society representatives and industry professionals. The book examines whether the UNESCO Bioethics Programme is an effective forum for (a) decision-making on bioethics issues and (b) ensuring ethical practice. Considering two different aspects of the UNESCO Bioethics Programme - deliberation and implementation - at international and national levels, Langlois explores: - how relations between developed and developing countries can be made more equal - who should be involved in global level decision-making and how this should proceed - how overlap between initiatives can be avoided - what can be done to improve the implementation of international norms by sovereign states - how far universal norms can be contextualized - what impact the efficacy of national level governance has at international level Drawing on extensive empirical research, Negotiating Bioethics presents a truly global perspective on bioethics

The Origin and the Evolution of Firms : Information as a Driving Force

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ISBN: 9781607509561 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3233/978-1-60750-957-8-i Language: English
Publisher: IOS Press
Subject: Science (General) --- Astronomy (General) --- Heat --- Biology --- Economics
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The firms and markets of today's complex socio-economic system developed in a spontaneous process termed evolution, in just the same way as the universe, the solar system, the Earth and all that lives upon it. Darwin's theory of evolution clearly demonstrated that evolution involved increasing organization. As we began to explore the molecular basis of life and its evolution, it became equally clear that it depended on the processing and communication of information. This book develops a consistent theory of evolution in its wider sense, examining the information based laws and forces that drive it. Exploring subjects as diverse as economics and the theories of thermodynamics, the author revisits the paradox of the apparent conflict between the laws of thermodynamics and evolution to arrive at a systems theory, tracing a continuous line of evolving information sets that connect the Big-Bang to the firms and markets of our current socio-economic system.

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