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Advances in Systems Immunology and Cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193134 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-313-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Biology --- Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Psychiatry --- Medicine (General) --- Physiology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
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Aims and Scope: The Research Topic is designed to feature the latest innovative and leading-edge research, reviews and opinions on the study of complex and dynamic processes related to the mammalian immune system and cancer. All papers were meticulously selected to present our readers the multidisciplinary approach to tackle the existing challenges faced in these important fields. From high throughput experimental methodologies to computational and theoretical approaches, the articles are intended to introduce physicists, chemists, computer scientists, biologists and immunologists the idea of systems biology approach to the understanding of mammalian immune system and cancer processes. Attention was given to works that developed more effective approaches to the treatment of proinflammatory disease and cancer. The strong interdisciplinary focus will discuss biological systems at the level from a few molecules to the entire organism. Specific focus domain includes: Innate and adaptive immunity, cancer and cancer stem cell, genomic, proteomic and metabolic analysis, imaging, biophysics of immune and cancer response, computational modeling, non-linear analysis, statistical analysis, translational and disease models Types of articles: Viewpoint, commentaries, research letters, research articles, review and methodologies

Astrocytic-neuronal-astrocytic Pathway Selection for Formation and Degradation of Glutamate/GABA

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192434 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-243-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
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Endocrinological research early recognized the importance of intercellular interactions and realized the importance of glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling. In turn this signalling depends on elaborate interactions between astrocytes and neurons, without which neurons would be unable to produce, reuse and metabolize transmitter glutamate and GABA. Details of these subjects are described in this Research Topic by key investigators in this field. It focuses on the intricate and extremely swift pathway producing these amino acid transmitters from glucose in brain but also discusses difficulties in determining expression of some of the necessary genes in astrocytes and related processes in pancreatic islets. However, it does not discuss how closely associated astrocytes and neurons are anatomically, enabling these interactions. This is elegantly shown in this cover image, kindly provided by Professor Andreas Reichenbach (University of Leipzig, Germany).

Biological Invasions in Changing Ecosystems. Vectors, Ecological Impacts, Management and Predictions

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ISBN: 9783110438659, 9783110438666 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 488 DOI: 10.1515/9783110438666 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Biology --- Ecology
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When organisms are deliberately or accidentally introduced into a new ecosystem a biological invasion may take place. These so-called ‘invasive species’ may establish, spread and ecologically alter the invaded community. Biological invasions by animals, plants, pathogens or vectors are one of the greatest environmental and economic threats and, along with habitat destruction, a leading cause of global biodiversity loss. In this book, more than 50 worldwide invasion scientists cover our current understanding of biological invasions, its impacts, patterns and mechanisms in both aquatic and terrestrial systems.

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Brandbestattungen von der mittleren Donau bis zur Ägäis zwischen 1300 und 750 v. Chr.

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ISBN: 9783700172604 Year: Pages: 286 Seiten Language: de^English
Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Subject: Archaeology --- Biology
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In these conference proceedings particular attention is paid to the performance of burials and burial rites between 1300 and 750 BC. A change in burial customs took place in large parts of central Europe during the 13th century BC. The dead were no longer buried in inhumation graves – as was customary until then – but were burned and laid to rest in urns. This transformation of burial customs is probably connected to far reaching changes in society and religious beliefs.

In dem vorliegenden Kongressband werden Bestattung und Ritual in der Region zwischen Mitteleuropa und Griechenland zwischen 1300 und 750 v. Chr. besondere Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. Im 13. Jahrhundert v. Chr. fand in weiten Teilen Mitteleuropas eine radikale Veränderung der Grabsitten statt. Die Toten wurden nicht mehr, wie bis dahin üblich, in Körpergräbern bestattet, sondern verbrannt und in Urnen beigesetzt. Es ist wahrscheinlich, dass sich hinter dem Wandel des Begräbnisrituals weitreichende Veränderungen der Gesellschaft und der religiösen Vorstellungen verbergen.

Démographie, climat et alimentation mondiale

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ISBN: 9782759805815 Year: Pages: 408 Language: French
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Subject: Biology
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Demography, climate, world alimentation

Préface d'Alain Vicaud (Directeur de l’environnement et de la prospective EDF – Production nucléaire)Permettre à la nouvelle génération d’exploitant des centrales nucléaires d’EDF d’acquérir une base robuste sur l’environnement et les centrales nucléaires ... ... offrir à tous, amateurs de vrais livres, ou internautes convaincus, une information pédagogique sur les besoins en eau d’une centrale nucléaire, ses rejets d’effluents dans l’environnement, la surveillance de leurs éventuels impacts, sans oublier le corpus réglementaire applicable, le rôle des autorités de contrôle, ... ... c’est ce double défi qu’a relevé une équipe de chercheurs, ingénieurs, juristes, exploitants, tout juste sortis d’une vie professionnelle consacrée entièrement au domaine et forts d’une expertise reconnue, patiemment accumulée au fil des ans dans tous les métiers de l’Entreprise ; ils ont mis toutes leurs connaissances et expériences au service de ce guide. Le résultat est à la hauteur de leur talent.Après une synthèse de tout ce qu’il faut savoir en 10 pages, le guide décrit les interactions de ces grands ouvrages industriels avec leur environnement :– dans un sens, les services écologiques apportés aux centrales nucléaires pour leur permettre de produire l’électricité la moins carbonée et l’une des plus compétitives d’Europe au service du bien-être des hommes et,– dans l’autre sens, les nombreuses actions mises en oeuvre par EDF pour connaître, éviter ou réduire les effets des centrales sur les écosystèmes.L’organisation de ce guide permet au lecteur de s’y promener au gré de ses besoins ou de sa curiosité. Il y découvre l’importance qu’accorde l’exploitant à informer le public faisant sienne la définition de la transparence d’André Comte-Sponville : « Dire au public tout ce qu’il n’aimerait pas apprendre par d’autre que nous ».Un tour de la réglementation applicable aux centrales nucléaires amène le lecteur au pied de la pyramide réglementaire française des installations nucléaires de base (INB) avec à son sommet la fameuse loi TSN (Transparence et Sécurité Nucléaire) transposée aujourd’hui dans le code de l’environnement. Un détour par Oslo et Paris avec la convention OSPAR sur la protection du milieu marin ; un saut à Berne et sa convention pour la protection du Rhin, puis, bien sûr, Kyoto et le protocole sur la réduction des gaz à effet de serre, pour terminer à Bruxelles avec nombre de directives et règlements.Enfin, le guide aborde le contrôle des rejets et la surveillance de l’environnement au voisinage des centrales nucléaires, ce qui permet de suivre les principaux paramètres indicateurs de la qualité des écosystèmes terrestre et aquatique. Référence est faite aux études et aux techniques de mesures les plus sophistiquées pour déceler le moindre effet.Je remercie les auteurs pour la qualité de ce guide qui éclairera les parcours de tous nos collaborateurs qui entrent dans ce métier passionnant et rigoureux d’exploitant de centrales nucléaires. Sans nul doute, ce guide permettra aussi à un plus grand nombre de mieux connaître comment EDF conjugue les enjeux sociétaux, environnementaux et économiques au service de sa mission de producteur d’électricité.

Emerging roles of long noncoding RNAs in neurological diseases and metabolic disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195718 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-571-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Genetics
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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new class of transcripts that are in general longer than 200 nucleotides and that have no protein-coding potential. The vast majority of vertebrate genomes encode diverse and complex lncRNAs that play regulatory roles at almost every step of gene expression. Recently, increasing evidence has implicated lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. The purpose of the Research Topic, "Emerging roles of long noncoding RNAs in neurological diseases and metabolic disorders", is to bring together leading researchers in the field who, through contributing to an organized and comprehensive collection of peer-reviewed articles, provide a broad perspective on the latest advances in the field. A number of interesting and cutting-edge areas will be covered as below, but this list is not exclusive: - The methodologies and technologies of identifying and studying lncRNAs - LncRNAs in gene-specific transcription - LncRNAs in epigenetic regulation - LncRNAs in post-transcriptional regulation - LncRNAs in disease - Mapping of noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with disease.

From Darwinian Metaphysics towards Understanding the Evolution of Evolutionary Mechanisms - A Historical and Philosophical Analysis of Gene-Darwinism and Universal Darwinism

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ISBN: 9783863950064 Year: Pages: 502 Language: English
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Biology
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Although Charles Darwin predicted that his theory “would give zest to [...] metaphysics,” even he would be astonished at the variety of paths his theory has in fact taken. This holds with regard to both gene-Darwinism, a purified Darwinian approach biologizing the social sciences, and process- Darwinism found in the disciplines of psychology, philosophy of science, and economics. Although Darwinism is often linked to highly confirmed biological theories, some of its interpretations seem to profit from tautological claims as well, where scientific reputation cloaks ideological usage. This book discusses central tenets of Darwinism historically as well as systematically, for example the history of different Darwinian paradigms, the units-of-selection debate, and the philosophical problem of induction as basis of metaphysical Darwinism. Crucially the book addresses the Darwinian claim that evolution is governed by an immutable and unrelentingly cruel law of natural selection. Paradoxically, Darwin’s theory is a static, non-evolutionary theory of evolution. The current book sketches the historical background and provides suggestions that may help to replace this approach by the idea of an evolution of evolutionary mechanisms (see Escher’s “Drawing Hands” on the cover). This view even suggests a tendency to overcome the blindness of the knowledge acquisition of primordial Darwinian processes and allows for some freedom from external environments. This book first develops a radically Darwinian approach, then criticises this approach from within. Even Darwinism has a tendency to transcend itself. Although the book addresses several empirical issues, it does not challenge particular findings. Instead it builds on many insights of Darwinism and provides a proposal for interpreting known empirical evidence in a different light. It should help pave the way for further developing an understanding of nature that transcends Darwinian metaphysics.

Keywords

Darwinism --- Evolution

Genetics and epigenetics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195732 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-573-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Genetics
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Women drinking during pregnancy can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which may feature variable neurodevelopmental deficits, facial dysmorphology, growth retardation, and learning disabilities. Research suggests the human brain is precisely formed through an intrinsic, genetic-cellular expression that is carefully orchestrated by an epigenetic program. This program can be influenced by environmental inputs such as alcohol. Current research suggests the genetic and epigenetic elements of FASD are heavily intertwined and highly dependent on one another. As such, now is the time for investigators to combine genetic, genomic and epigenetic components of alcohol research into a centralized, accessible platform for discussion. Genetic analyses inform gene sets which may be vulnerable to alcohol exposure during early neurulation. Prenatal alcohol exposure indeed alters expression of gene subsets, including genes involved in neural specification, hematopoiesis, methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone variants, eye and heart development. Recently, quantitative genomic mapping has revealed loci (QTLs) that mediate alcohol-induced phenotypes identified between two alcohol-drinking mouse strains. One question to consider is (besides the role of dose and stage of alcohol exposure) why only 5% of drinking women deliver newborns diagnosed with FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)? Studies are ongoing to answer this question by characterizing genome-wide expression, allele-specific expression (ASE), gene polymorphisms (SNPs) and maternal genetic factors that influence alcohol vulnerability. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy, which can lead to FASD, has been used as a model to resolve the epigenetic pathway between environment and phenotype. Epigenetic mechanisms modify genetic outputs through alteration of 3D chromatin structure and accessibility of transcriptional machinery. Several laboratories have reported altered epigenetics, including DNA methylation and histone modification, in multiple models of FASD. During development DNA methylation is dynamic yet orchestrated in a precise spatiotemporal manner during neurulation and coincidental with neural differentiation. Alcohol can directly influence epigenetics through alterations of the methionine pathway and subsequent DNA or histone methylation/acetylation. Alcohol also alters noncoding RNA including miRNA and transposable elements (TEs). Evidence suggests that miRNA expression may mediate ethanol teratology, and TEs may be affected by alcohol through the alteration of DNA methylation at its regulatory region. In this manner, the epigenetic and genetic components of FASD are revealing themselves to be mechanistically intertwined. Can alcohol-induced epigenomic alterations be passed across generations? Early epidemiological studies have revealed infants with FASD-like features in the absence of maternal alcohol, where the fathers were alcoholics. Novel mechanisms for alcohol-induced phenotypes include altered sperm DNA methylation, hypomethylated paternal allele and heritable epimutations. These studies predict the heritability of alcohol-induced epigenetic abnormalities and gene functionality across generations. We opened a forum to researchers and investigators the field of FASD to discuss their insights, hypotheses, fresh data, past research, and future research themes embedded in this rising field of the genetics and epigenetics of FASD. This eBook is a product of the collective sharing and debate among researchers who have contributed or reviewed each subject.

Handeln in Hungerkrisen - Neue Perspektiven auf soziale und klimatische Vulnerabilität

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ISBN: 9783863950408 Year: Pages: 245 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: History --- Environmental Sciences --- Biology
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In der Hungerforschung zeichnet sich ein neues Forschungsnarrativ ab, das naturale Umwelt und menschliches Handeln als eng miteinander verflochten versteht. Das Konzept der Vulnerabilität menschlicher Gesellschaften spielt in diesem Zusammenhang eine zentrale Rolle. Dieser Zugang sucht die postkoloniale Frontstellung von klima- und sozialdeterministischen Hungermodellen zugunsten einer integrativen Perspektive auf das Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Natur zu überwinden. Die Praktiken der Akteure, ihr Handeln in Hungerkrisen, stehen dabei im Zentrum. Ziel des Bandes ist es, den Vulnerabilitätsansatz als mögliches Brückenkonzept der multidisziplinär organisierten Hungerforschung vorzustellen. Das Buch vereint zu diesem Zweck Autorinnen und Autoren aus den Bereichen der Anthropologie, der Soziologie, der Geographie, der Geschichtswissenschaft und der Entwicklungsforschung. Die Beiträge analysieren aus historisierender, umweltgeschichtlicher Perspektive, wie das konstitutive Wechselspiel klimatischer und kultureller Faktoren den Betroffenen Handlungsspielräume eröffnet. Damit ermöglicht der Band nicht nur einen neuen Blick auf ein Feld, das mit dem globalen Klimawandel wieder zu einem Gegenwartsproblem geworden ist. Er weist auch darüber hinaus und illustriert die vielfältigen Formen der Sozialisierung klimatischer Impulse.

Humanity from African Naissance to Coming Millennia

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Book Series: Atti ISBN: 8884530032 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Firenze University Press
Subject: Biology --- Anthropology
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Humanity From African Naissance to Coming Millennia arises out of the world's first Dual Congress that was held at Sun City (South Africa) in 1998 that refers to a conjoint, integrated meeting of two international scientific associations, the International Association for the Study of Human Palaeontology - IV Congress - and the International Association of Human Biologists. The volume includes 39 refereed papers covering a wide range of topics, from Human Biology, Human Evolution (Emerging Homo, Evolving Homo, Early Modern Humans), Dating, Taxonomy and Systematics, Diet, Brain Evolution, offering the most recent analyses and interpretations in different areas of evolutionary anthropology.

Humanity From African Naissance to Coming Millennia arises out of the world's first Dual Congress that was held at Sun City (South Africa) in 1998 that refers to a conjoint, integrated meeting of two international scientific associations, the International Association for the Study of Human Palaeontology - IV Congress - and the International Association of Human Biologists. The volume includes 39 refereed papers covering a wide range of topics, from Human Biology, Human Evolution (Emerging Homo, Evolving Homo, Early Modern Humans), Dating, Taxonomy and Systematics, Diet, Brain Evolution, offering the most recent analyses and interpretations in different areas of evolutionary anthropology.

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