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14th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM2019)

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Book Series: Springer Proceedings in Earth and Environmental Sciences ISBN: 9783030229740 Year: Pages: 488 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-22974-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Mathematics --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:16
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This open access proceedings of the 14th International Council for Applied Mineralogy Congress (ICAM) in Belgorod, Russia cover a wide range of topics including applied mineralogy, advanced and construction materials, ore and industrial minerals, mineral exploration, cultural heritage, etc. It includes contributions to geometallurgy, industrial minerals, oil and gas reservoirs as well as stone artifacts and their preservation. The International Congress on Applied Mineralogy strengthens the relation between the research on applied mineralogy and the industry.

Anti-fragile ICT Systems

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Book Series: Simula SpringerBriefs on Computing ISBN: 9783319300689 9783319300702 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 151 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-30070-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Simula Research Laboratory
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Computer Science --- Media and communication --- Transportation --- Manufactures
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-25 16:55:27
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This book introduces a novel approach to the design and operation of large ICT systems. It views the technical solutions and their stakeholders as complex adaptive systems and argues that traditional risk analyses cannot predict all future incidents with major impacts. To avoid unacceptable events, it is necessary to establish and operate anti-fragile ICT systems that limit the impact of all incidents, and which learn from small-impact incidents how to function increasingly well in changing environments. The book applies four design principles and one operational principle to achieve anti-fragility for different classes of incidents. It discusses how systems can achieve high availability, prevent malware epidemics, and detect anomalies. Analyses of Netflix’s media streaming solution, Norwegian telecom infrastructures, e-government platforms, and Numenta’s anomaly detection software show that cloud computing is essential to achieving anti-fragility for classes of events with negative impacts.

3D Recording and Interpretation for Maritime Archaeology

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Coastal Research Library ISBN: 9783030036355 Year: Pages: 237 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-03635-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Geography --- Mathematics --- Archaeology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:12
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This open access peer-reviewed volume was inspired by the UNESCO UNITWIN Network for Underwater Archaeology International Workshop held at Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia in November 2016. Content is based on, but not limited to, the work presented at the workshop which was dedicated to 3D recording and interpretation for maritime archaeology. The volume consists of contributions from leading international experts as well as up-and-coming early career researchers from around the globe. The content of the book includes recording and analysis of maritime archaeology through emerging technologies, including both practical and theoretical contributions. Topics include photogrammetric recording, laser scanning, marine geophysical 3D survey techniques, virtual reality, 3D modelling and reconstruction, data integration and Geographic Information Systems. The principal incentive for this publication is the ongoing rapid shift in the methodologies of maritime archaeology within recent years and a marked increase in the use of 3D and digital approaches. This convergence of digital technologies such as underwater photography and photogrammetry, 3D sonar, 3D virtual reality, and 3D printing has highlighted a pressing need for these new methodologies to be considered together, both in terms of defining the state-of-the-art and for consideration of future directions. As a scholarly publication, the audience for the book includes students and researchers, as well as professionals working in various aspects of archaeology, heritage management, education, museums, and public policy. It will be of special interest to those working in the field of coastal cultural resource management and underwater archaeology but will also be of broader interest to anyone interested in archaeology and to those in other disciplines who are now engaging with 3D recording and visualization.

Abbreviations (Book chapter)

Book title: Dissecting the Criminal Corpse

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Book Series: Palgrave Historical Studies in the Criminal Corpse and its Afterlife ISBN: 9781137582485 Year: Pages: 326 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Wellcome Trust - 095904
Subject: Science (General) --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:02

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Those convicted of homicide were hanged on the public gallows before being dissected under the Murder Act in Georgian England. Yet, from 1752, whether criminals actually died on the hanging tree or in the dissection room remained a medical mystery in early modern society. Dissecting the Criminal Corpse takes issue with the historical cliché of corpses dangling from the hangman’s rope in crime studies. Some convicted murderers did survive execution in early modern England. Establishing medical death in the heart-lungs-brain was a physical enigma. Criminals had large bull-necks, strong willpowers, and hearty survival instincts. Extreme hypothermia often disguised coma in a prisoner hanged in the winter cold. The youngest and fittest were capable of reviving on the dissection table. Many died under the lancet. Capital legislation disguised a complex medical choreography that surgeons staged. They broke the Hippocratic Oath by executing the Dangerous Dead across England from 1752 until 1832.

Abbreviations (Book chapter)

Book title: Fungal Disease in Britain and the United States 1850–2000 : Mycoses and Modernity

Authors: ---
Book Series: Science, Technology and Medicine in Modern History ISBN: 9781137377012 Year: Pages: 225 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Wellcome Trust - 074971
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:57

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In this book, we discuss the changing medical and public profile of fungal infections in the period 1850–2000. We consider four sets of diseases: ringworm and athlete’s foot (dermatophytosis); thrush or candidiasis (infection with Candida albicans); endemic, geographically specific infections in North America (coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis and histoplasmosis) and mycotoxins; and aspergillosis (infection with Aspergillus fumigatus). We discuss each disease in relation to developing medical knowledge and practices, and to social changes associated with ‘modernity’. Thus, mass schooling provided ideal conditions for the spread of ringworm of the scalp in children, and the rise of college sports and improvement of personal hygiene led to the spread of athlete’s foot. Antibiotics seemed to open the body to more serious Candida infections, as did new methods to treat cancers and the development of transplantation. Regional fungal infections in North America came to the fore due to the economic development of certain regions, where population movement brought in non-immune groups who were vulnerable to endemic mycoses. Fungal toxins or mycotoxins were discovered as by-products of modern food storage and distribution technologies. Lastly, the rapid development and deployment of new medical technologies, such as intensive care and immunosuppression in the last quarter of the twentieth century, increased the incidence of aspergillosis and other systemic mycoses.

Access to Online Resources: A Guide for the Modern Librarian

Authors:
ISBN: 9783319739892 9783319739908 Year: Pages: 42 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73990-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Information theory --- Library and Information Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-04 15:05:40
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The book offers a concise guide for librarians, helping them understand the challenges, processes and technologies involved in managing access to online resources. After an introduction the book presents cases of general authentication and authorisation. It helps readers understand web based authentication and provides the fundamentals of IP address recognition in an easy to understand manner. A special chapter is dedicated to Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML), followed by an overview of the key concepts of OpenID Connect. The book concludes with basic troubleshooting guidelines and recommendations for further assistance. Librarians will benefit from this quick and easy read, which demystifies the technologies used, features real-life scenarios, and explains how to competently employ authentication and access management.

Accountability in Public Policy Partnerships

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ISBN: 9780230238978 9780230290617 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_392745 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: OAPEN-UK
Subject: Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-15 11:01:06
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"Public-private partnerships have become an important tool for delivering essential public goods, but critics fear that they erode public accountability. Making partnerships more accountable requires a clear understanding of what accountability means for partnerships and which mechanisms can be used to strengthen it. Accountability in Public Policy Partnerships develops a new model of accountability based on principal-agent theory. This model provides a firm normative foundation for accountability demands. At the same time, it shows which accountability standards apply to which kinds of partnerships. Norm-setting partnerships, for example, require strong mechanisms for participation, whereas implementation partnerships must focus on performance evaluation, competitive bidding and beneficiary feedback processes. The accountability model and standards developed in this book provide a guide for partnership practitioners who are developing the governance structures of their partnerships; they serve as benchmarks for evaluating partnerships; and they provide new inputs for the ongoing accountability debates in the public, the corporate and the civil society sectors. "

Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals

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ISBN: 9783030058432 Year: Pages: 491 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-05843-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:11
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This open access book presents detailed pathways to achieve 100% renewable energy by 2050, globally and across ten geographical regions. Based on state-of-the-art scenario modelling, it provides the vital missing link between renewable energy targets and the measures needed to achieve them. Bringing together the latest research in climate science, renewable energy technology, employment and resource impacts, the book breaks new ground by covering all the elements essential to achieving the ambitious climate mitigation targets set out in the Paris Climate Agreement. For example, sectoral implementation pathways, with special emphasis on differences between developed and developing countries and regional conditions, provide tools to implement the scenarios globally and domestically. Non-energy greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios define a sustainable pathway for land-use change and the agricultural sector. Furthermore, results of the impact of the scenarios on employment and mineral and resource requirements provide vital insight on economic and resource management implications. The book clearly demonstrates that the goals of the Paris Agreement are achievable and feasible with current technology and are beneficial in economic and employment terms. It is essential reading for anyone with responsibility for implementing renewable energy or climate targets internationally or domestically, including climate policy negotiators, policy-makers at all levels of government, businesses with renewable energy commitments, researchers and the renewable energy industry.

Acknowledgements (Book chapter)

Book title: A History of Force Feeding

Authors:
ISBN: 9783319311135 Year: Pages: 267 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Wellcome Trust - 101538
Subject: Science (General) --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:02

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It is the first monograph-length study of the force-feeding of hunger strikers in English, Irish and Northern Irish prisons. It examines ethical debates that arose throughout the twentieth century when governments authorised the force-feeding of imprisoned suffragettes, Irish republicans and convict prisoners. It also explores the fraught role of prison doctors called upon to perform the procedure. Since the Home Office first authorised force-feeding in 1909, a number of questions have been raised about the procedure. Is force-feeding safe? Can it kill? Are doctors who feed prisoners against their will abandoning the medical ethical norms of their profession? And do state bodies use prison doctors to help tackle political dissidence at times of political crisis?

Acknowledgements (Book chapter)

Book title: Constructions of Cancer in Early Modern England

Authors:
ISBN: 9781137569196 9781137487537 Year: Pages: 219 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Wellcome Trust - 093090
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:03

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The study of early modern cancer is significant for our understanding of the period’s medical theory and practice. In many respects, cancer exemplifies the flexibility of early modern medical thought, which managed to accommodate, seemingly without friction, the notion that cancer was a disease with humoral origins alongside the conviction that the malady was in some sense ontologically independent. Discussions of why cancer spread rapidly through the body, and was difficult, if not impossible, to cure, prompted various medical explanations at the same time that physicians and surgeons joined with non-medical authors in describing the disease as acting in a way that was ‘malignant’ in the fullest sense, purposely ‘fierce’, ‘rebellious’ and intractable.3 Theories seeking to explain why cancer appeared most often in the female breast similarly joined culturally mediated anatomical and humoral theory with recognition of the peculiarities of women’s social, domestic and emotional life-cycles. Moreover, as a morbid disease, cancer generated eclectic and sometimes extreme medical responses, the mixed results of which would prompt many questions over the proper extent of pharmaceutical or surgical intervention.

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