Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut

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The Austrian Archeological Institute (OeAI) is an extramural research institute of the Federal Ministry for Science and Research. Its assignments encompass archaeological research both at home and abroad as well as its scientific publication. The research sites of the OeAI are concentrated in Egypt and the Greco-Roman cultural regions in Europe and the Mediterranean lands, with consideration of the chronological and geographical peripheries. The advanced training of junior researchers in the area of archaeological fieldwork is equally a legally mandated task of the OeAI, as well as the ongoing implementation of the protection and preservation of archaeological sites and monuments. The assignments of the OeAI are implemented from its institutes in Vienna, Athens and Cairo, within the framework of national and international cooperation.

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Peer-Review at the FWF: All funded books pass through an independent academic peer review process prior to publication. Either the FWF or the publisher handle the peer review process. The FWF asks for at least one written review from an international renowned expert outside of Austria. In cases where the publisher itself handles the peer review process, the publisher has to ask for at least two peer reviews meeting the requirements of the FWF. This means: Reviews must not be carried out by persons who may have or may be suspected to have a conflict of interest with regard to the authors, editors or other persons involved in the publication. Reviewers are considered to have a conflict of interest in cases where they might benefit personally or financially from the approval or rejection of the application. The same applies to cases where reviewers have worked at the same research institution, published or cooperated with the applicant or another person involved in the publication in the last five years, or where the reviewers have fundamental differences of scholarly opinion or close professional and/or personal relationships with the applicant or another person involved in the publication. Scholars who work in Austria must not be called in as reviewers. Peer reviews must be meaningful and comparable with reviews obtained by the FWF. Publishers could only conduct the peer review by themselves if they have an international peer review process for the selection of publications. The review process must be described in a transparent manner on the web site of the publisher.

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Antike Grabbauten in Noricum

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ISBN: 9783900305338 Year: Pages: 436 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437190 Language: German
Publisher: Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut Grant: Austrian Science Fund (FWF) - D 3244
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:26
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Most of the stone blocks left from roman time in the province of Noricum were initially part of funerary monuments. The aim of this book is to reconstruct the architectural form of these monumental tombs, to develope a typological classification and to draw conclusions concerning the history and the arts of the province.The shape of the blocks and the technical details to observe on the surfaces at the same time as the structure and the representations of the reliefs give us informations about the function of these blocks in an architectural context. By comparison to the well preserved monuments of Sempeter - whose reconstruction is critically reviewed - and to funerary monuments of Italy and other roman provinces, it is possible to propose a reconstruction of numerous monuments in Noricum. A classification of excavated funeral sites including workpieces of stone provides further information.Thus a survey of the different types of funerary monuments existing in roman Noricum is given and most of the recorded stone blocks may be typologically classified.A total of 227 workpieces or groups of workpieces are collected in catalogue L classified as parts of the monument types 'ae&cu1a', 'canopy', 'altar', 'pile', 'masonry construction', 'tumulus' or 'enclosure'. For some of them a theoretical reconstruction is proposed and they are mostly represented by drawings or photographs. The 414 pieces in catalogue 11 may not be determined typologically, but nevertheless allow a discussion of their initial architectural function. Catalogue III includes the evidence of 44 excavated monuments.The analysis of the presented material shows the chronological and regional evolution of the different types of funerary monuments. The evidence given by the inscriptions, the portraits and the reliefs allows to examine the correlation which is possibly existing between the type of monument chosen and the social position of its owner. Finally the geographical spreading and the variabel frequency of the different types in Noricum is shown and discussed.In appendix I some relevant measurements and proportions of architectural elements are listed- Appendix H gives a survey of the monuments with are typologically classified and whose owners are known at least partly.

Archäologische Forschungen in Teurnia

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ISBN: 3900305307 Year: Pages: 292 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_477715 Language: German
Publisher: Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut Grant: Austrian Science Fund (FWF) - D 3095
Added to DOAB on : 2014-05-31 13:20:46
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The Claudian-era Municipium Teurnia, today's St. Peter in Holz, is situated four kilometers west of Spittal an der Drau (Carinthia, Austria). Along with Virunum, Celeia, luvavum and Aguntum, Teurnia counts as one of the oldest Roman cities in the province of Noricum. Due to its strategic location on the Drava River and at the intersection of two principal routes, namely the Drava Valley and the Tauern roads, Teurnia developed from a LaTène-period settlement to a Roman city, whose territory included large parts of Upper Carinthia and the Lungau in modern Salzburg.The assessment of La Tène period settlement activity in Teurnia is based solely on the finds assigned to the La Tène culture of Mokronog group centered in the south-east Alps. Continuous settlement in Teurnia can be proven from the late La Tène until the early Imperial period. A comparable trend can be seen at Celeia-Celje, where the initial Celtic hill settlement eventually developed into a Roman vicus in the valley. In contrast to this, the oldest identifiable settlement activity at Aguntum, luvavum and the Flavian municipium of Solva dates to the Augustan period, while Virunum was created as a new, planned provincial capital during the reign of the emperor, Claudius.The first settlement expansion in Teurnia is identifiable as early as the 3rd and 2nd decades of the first century BCE, as the first turf and timber constructions originated east of the 620m-high Holzer Mountain where habitation areas were located, built on serveral terraces on the eastern slope of the hill. Through the combined analysis of finds and results from the 1971-1978 excavations as well as several series of aerial photographs, the expansion and resulting monumentality of Teurnia’s cityscape, after being awarded municipal status, is understandable. In this regard discussion continues as to whether the forum of the imperial-era city was actually located up on the hill, as proposed by R. Egger at the beginning of the last century, or in the lower town situated east of Holzer Mountain, as the preliminary interpretation of recent aerial photographs suggests. After a catastrophic fire in the early 3rd century CE this habitation area, a neighborhood with several prestigious homes and a public thermal bath furnished with high quality fittings such as stucco decoration, marble-cladding, wall paintings, window glass, and hypocaust heating technology, was not reconstructed. The abandonment of this settlement area may already have occurred before the Germanic invasions in the late 3rd century CE, maybe as a result of the Severan prospription measures.

Damous-el-Karita

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ISBN: 3900305323 Year: Pages: 260 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437219 Language: German
Publisher: Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut Grant: Austrian Science Fund (FWF) - D 3203
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:53
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Two seasons of excavation (1996 and 1997) have been completed at the "subterranean rotunda" southeast of the Basilica Damous-el-Karita on the outskirts of ancient Carthage (Blg. 1/15, 16; Blg. 3; Abb. 1). 'Me purpose of the present study was re-evaluate the structures, construction period, finiction and wider significance of what was undoubtedly one of the most important Christian pilgrimage complexes in Norther Africa.The rectangular structure, which connected the basilica to the rotunda and has been seen as a porticus-fi-amed court turned out to be a three-aisled, basilica-Eke hall without an apse. The date of construction could be put at late fourth/early fifth century AD. Subsequently the structurre had been substantially rebuilt in two phases, firstly sometime between 530/565 AD and secondly at the end of the 6th to the beginning of the 7th century AD.A search of the literary sources allows one to tentatively suggest that the church-complex, known under its toponym "Damous-el-Kafita", could well be the celebrated basilica Fausti (Teil 1. 4).After the reconquista of Northerm Africa under the reign of emperor Justinian in 533 large hall (52 in by 30 in) was transformed. This transformation involved extensive rebuilding. To the north an atrium had been added. Whilst the eastern and western aisles were now Ranked by a rebuilt series of small rooms used as burial - cubicula (Blg. 1/14; Abb. 15). There is evidence for another renovation of the hall at the end of the 6th to the beginning of the 7th century by the construction of unsymmetrically situated ciborium foundations (BIg. 1/14), that refer to a one meter higher floor level.The rotunda was built no earlier than the second third of the 6th century, taking over the area of a pagan cemetery (Teil M. 3; Abb. 20), and is to be seen as an architectural mixtum compositurn (Teil M; BIg. 1, Blg. 3). As a Justinianic annex to the restored pilgrimage complex, the building typologically consists of a sigma (semicircular forecourt surrounded by a porticus; Tail 111. 4; Blg. 1/16), a martyriurn of the central type (groundfloor-ordtory possibly with an opaion; Teil Ill. 6; Abb. 86, Abb. 92) and a circular hall-crypt (sanctuary, Teil M. 5; Abb. 53, Abb. 59). Lateral, counterrotating staircases connect the different parts of the martyrium and are designed for massive pilgrimcirculation. 'Me centre of the crypt formed a ciborium of yellow Numidian marblestone, protecting the lost reliquary-shrine. The topography, metrological conception (reil Ill. 8; Abb. 96), architectural design and principle of pilgimage-circulation discussed above, suggests that this building was the spiritual center of the early Byzantine, orthodox pilgrimage complex of Damous-el-Karita. The design and the construction of the building suggest that the architect was from the Eastern pails of the empire, whilst the building force were native to Carthage. The nexus of a rotunda with a sigma, can typologicaly be traced back to 5th century AD palace-architecture in Constantinople. Elsewhere such a design is unknown. The realisation of a congruent plan of groundfloor and hall-crypt is until now unique in late antique architecture. As with the basilical hall, the groundfloor building of the martyrium was restyled and enlarged at the end of the 6th or at the beginning of 7th century AD by the creation of an ambulatory. The building seems to have fallen out of use some time around the end of that century.To sum up, the subterranean rotunda behind the basilica Damous-elKarita in Carthage was a two-perioded, early Byzantine martyriurn of the central type and the religious centre of the largest pilgrimage complex so far discovered in Carthage.

Diateichismata

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ISBN: 9783900305543 Year: Pages: 248 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437145 Language: German
Publisher: Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut Grant: Austrian Science Fund (FWF) - D 4001
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:43
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A Diateichisma is part of a city´s fortification system. Unlike a city wall it was built within the urban area dividing a city in two parts. This study focuses on two aspects. On the one hand, the phenomenon of diateichismata is considered as part of fortification architecture, on the other hand the influence of diateichism on the organisation of the urban space is pointed out. Furthermore, the reasons, why diateichismata were build are considered as a focal point of the study. The settlement are displayed in a catalogue, technical data is in charts. Written sources mentioning diatechisma are put together including relevant passages of the text.In scientific research diateichismata have been regarded as mere functional buildings, however, they have been studied systematically. In this study, the significance of diateichismata is analysed beyond the aspects of fortification; in particular, the impact of diateichismata on the development and utilisation of urban space is a spezial interest. A comparative analysis of settlements with diateichisma has needs of comparable criteria. The most applicable term, after which settlements with diateichisma can be discerned and put in order, is the chronological relation of diateichisma and city wall, because here chronology is the only variable giving valuable information on settlement development. Hence three variations of settlements with diateichisma can be discerned: 1. Settlements with diateichisma built together with the enceinte. 2. Settlements with secondarily but diateichisma. 3. Settlements with diateichisma which originate after expansion of walled urban space. Most of the studied settlements have diateichismata which were built after the enceinte (23 examples) or which origins from expansion of walled city space (19 settlements). Contemporaneous diateichismate are rare (14 settlements), only in a few cities the relation between diateichisma and city wall remains unclear. The earliest diateichismata be dated in late 7th cent. B.C., the latest was build in the middle of the 2nd cent. B.C. Within this chronological frame the highest concentration of diateichismata can be traced in classical and hellenistic times. The distriution of cities is spead from the Iberian Peninsula to Greek parts of modern Afghanistan (Graeco-bactria). Only any regions do show concentrations of settlements with diateichisma. In the Western Mediterranean there are more cities with secondarily built diateichisma, in the area of north-western Greek in a lot of cities the walled urban space was enlarged establishind diateichismata between the original city area and the newly acquired space. Generally, diateichismata serve as obstacles to enemies which conquered the enceinte already or as barrier wall for hostile parties fighting within the boundaries of the city wall. Despite of the clear military function only cities of military character have a diateichisma; there it always serves as a barrier wall protecting free spaceMeant to host soldiers when attacked. The predominate group of settlements with dateichisma are free poleis. Concerning poleis in Greek cities in a non-Greek environment, the significance of diateichismata gains more interest, envolving the conflicts of different ethnical groups. In these cities ("colonies") one can detect mostly enlargement of urban space with covers the period of the 5th to the middle 3rd centuries B.C. Probably this process is conneted with the moving of large groups of people by the Western Greek tyrants in late archaic classical times and with the renewed founding of cities in the 4th cent. B.C. Contrary of the processs of enlargement of city space, in some areas of the Western Mediterranean cities were diminished insize. Diateichismata have a deep impact on the organisation of the urban space and also have representative and determine function. In most cities diateichismata remain standing as a ruin, detached from their original function of a barrier wall, or they int

Ein Brandhorizont aus der Zeit der Markomannenkriege im südostnorischen Munizipium Flavia Solva

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ISBN: 9783900305703 Year: Pages: 343 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_482372 Language: German
Publisher: Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut Grant: Image Certificate - PUB 97
Added to DOAB on : 2014-07-06 11:01:09
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The publication provides a detailed study of a burnt layer from Insula XLI in Flavia Solva (Wagna, Austria), dated ca. AD 170, i.e. within the period of the Marcomannic Wars. In addition to cultural and historical topics, the problem of historicity of archaeological features, particularly burnt layers, is given special consideration. Apart from the presentation of an exceptional archaeological feature within the eastern Alpine-Adriatic region the book provides methodical contributions to the understanding of archaeology as a historically oriented cultural science.The connection of event-historical data and archaeological features or their interpretation has been a central research concern since the beginnings of the archaeology of the Roman provinces. The affiliation of Roman provincial archaeology with the historical sciences or the historical cultural sciences has also been confirmed by different researchers (e. g. R. Fellmann, M. K. H. Eggert).For the history of the Danube provinces, the Marcomannic Wars (166–180 AD) of Marc Aurel constitute a significant and crucial chronology of historic events during the second half of the 2nd century AD. The topic of this publication deals with the consequences of these wars and their evidence in the archaeological sources. Regarding the historic events of the Marcomannic Wars, the Germanic invasion as far as Upper Italy – which probably took place during the year 170 AD – is the centerpiece of the examination. Concerning the archaeological sources, the attention focuses on an almost contemporary burnt layer in the Insula XLI of the South-Eastern Noric Municipium Flavia Solva.This research paper is a two-level approach of the connection of the mentioned event history and the archaeological evidences.The first – concrete – level introduces the burnt feature of Insula XLI and evaluates it in detail in order to illustrate in a well-founded way the following usage of the feature as a case study for the different methodical problems in connection with the topic.In order to create a comprehensible starting position for these advanced considerations, it is necessary to take a close look at the historic background, its written sources of antique writers and to examine critically some historical interpretations of the classical and ancient studies regarding the consequences of the Marcomannic Wars, in particular in connection with the case study Flavia Solva.An additional precondition for the evaluation and interpretation of the feature is the analysis of the genesis of the existing archaeological sources regarding their archaeological recovery and processing and the interpretation and reconstruction of depositional and post-depositional processes.Only these preparatory considerations allow the further methodically clean evaluation and interpretation of the features and the findings.All essential data of the findings are noted in a detailed catalogue. Thereby, a basis for an assessment and documentation of cultural-historical framework conditions is finally created.A comparison with statements made on the occasion of the connection of archaeological features – in particular in the western Danube provinces – with the Marcomannic Wars illustrates different research assessments of the sources.Significant methodical problems and uncertainties emerge which can be created in connection with the heterogeneous sources, especially the connection of archaeological features with historical events.Finally, this research paper intends to go beyond the first interpretation level concentrated in particular on the existing case study and enable considerations on a second, abstract level.However, at first is discussed – in connection with the existing case study – to what extent the results of the evaluation of the archaeological feature can be combined with the context of the event history. A catalogue of premises – whose fulfillment or non-fulfillment speaks for or against such a connection – become

Forschungen im südostnorischen Vicus am Saazkogel (Steiermark)

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ISBN: 9783900305475 Year: Pages: 328 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437151 Language: German
Publisher: Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut Grant: Austrian Science Fund (FWF) - D 3813
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:49
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The roman vicus at the Saazkogel represents with an expansion of about 9 ha one of the largest so far well-known Roman settlements in eastern Styria, beside the vici of Gleisdorf and Kalsdorf it can however be designated as one of the best investigated vici in southeast Noricum. Based on the results of the excavations of 2002 to 2005 and an approximately surface covering geographical investigation a detailed overall view of the settlement can be sketched. Without a doubt the plant of the settlement is due to the traffic-geographically position at the inlet of the Saaz- into the Raab-valley. Here the road in the Raab-valley, which connected Savaria-Szombathely over the vicus of Gleisdorf with central Noricum, meets the southwest road from Flavia Solva. If one regards the structure of the vicus of Saaz, then its pronounced multipartness is noticeable including the entire hill. The settlement can be pursued at the south slope of the Saazkogel on a length of at least 600 m with a gravelled slope-parallel road. North and south this road group building complexes of different size, but very similar in the sketch on artifical terraces. Approximately in the centre of the settlement the greographical prospection shows a larger place-like open space. In the western part the road is flanked by graves, under expanded grave districts were remainders of older buildings of graves, which are probably to be assumed as building in hill graves. This ensemble from actual settlement and grave road with hill graves and younger monumental buildings of graves in Roman manners is to be confronted to the large hill grave field at the north slope of the Saazkogel.The oldest settlement horizon of the Flavian-Traianic period is characterized by timber constructions. The development in stone and the associated restructuring of the settlement with a system of property units oriented uniformly in slope drop direction is to be accepted in the Hadrianic period. This development can be well compared with further findings in southeast Norican settlements (Kalsdorf, Gleisdorf). The typical living and work building of this period is the one-and/or multi-space house in an enclosure. The abandonment of these structures and a new beginning of the activities toward the end of the 2nd century A.D. is to be pointed out in Saaz on the basis of the findings in different settlements sections. This break of the settlement development ist so far not to be seized in a comparable clarity in the neighbouring vici, but shown exclusively with the necessary distinctiveness in the urban centre of the region, Flavia Solva, by a horizon of destruction of the Markomannic Wars. In Saaz the significant findings of a destruction by force, are missing, the reasons for a break of the settlement development could nevertheless be brougth in connection with social and economic injury of wartime situations. With the new settlement activity toward the end of the 2nd century A.D. is to be seized a last prospering. A shift of the settlement emphasis led in further consequence to a cease of the use during the middle decades of the 3rd century A.D.

Die hellenistischen Reliefbecher aus Lousoi

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ISBN: 9783900305505 Year: Pages: 224 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437158 Language: German
Publisher: Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut Grant: Austrian Science Fund (FWF) - D 3982
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:56
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The ancient city of Lousoi was located to west of the well known Artemis Hemera sanctuary, at the foot of Mount Ilias. In the year 1983 the Austrian Archaeological Institute (ÖAI) in Athens started with systematic excavations in two house-complexes which are situated on terraces within the urban area. In the cadastral maps this location is known as "Phournoi".During the excavations, which continued till 1994, around 350 moldmade fragments with relief decoration from the hellenistic period were found. The moldmade bowls form the largest part of these finds. They were used as drinking vessels during the Greek symposion. Apart from larger bowls and a very small bowl ("miniature") there are also relief-decorated craters, amphoras, jugs, funnels and two bowls of which one has a round stand and the other a high foot. A relief-plate of grey clay from Lousoi has already been published elsewhere. With these finds Lousoi offers a wide variety of moldmade relief-decorated pottery. The various vessels could be composed into complete sets.A few bowls have been preserved almost intact, but the majority of the material is fragmentary in various degrees. For the moment the moldmade bowls are dated tentaively by comparing stamps, decoration-schemes and styles with other specimens, not by contexts, within the second and first half of the first century B.C.There are several imported pieces (around 20%) which considerably differ from the regional and local products. This becomes obvious by comparing and analysing stamps, profiles, dimensions, fabrics and other "individual" peculiarities of the bowls. The local production shows various influences but also strong individual features. The quality of the local production varies from very high to rather mediocre. For the locally produced bowls the term "Brown ware/Lousoi" was chosen. A distinction is made between a series 1 and 2 based on the type of rosette-stamp in the bottom medaillon and the profile.A peculiar feature of ancient Lousoi, which nowadays seems lost in the middle of nowhere, are its commercial relations. There are imports from Argos, a centre for moldmade pottery production on the Peloponnese, from the region around Corinth, Sikyon and from Egio. And there is also evidence for strong connections with more northern regions such as Phokis with parallel examples in Amphissa (compare also the honorary inscriptions on bronze from the propylon in the Artemis sanctuary which were found during the old Austrian excavations in the years 1898 - 1899).

Pannonische Glanztonware aus dem Auxiliarkastell von Carnuntum

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ISBN: 9783900305444 Year: Pages: 192 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_477713 Language: German
Publisher: Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut Grant: Austrian Science Fund (FWF) - D 3405
Added to DOAB on : 2014-05-31 13:20:44
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The "Pannonische Glanztonware" (PGW) is a type of ceramics, which was wide-spread in Pannonia from the end of the 1st well into the 3rd century A.D. It is a product of local potteries, in which the influence of ceramics in the La Tène tradition and of imported Roman ceramics joined to create a new, typical Pannonian ware.In the PGW was produced exclusively table ware. The shapes of the vessels are to a large extent taken over from the Terra Sigillata resp. influenced by it; some of them also show the influence of the raetic-germanic area and the local utility ware.The vessels have a fine paste, a slip and are fired at the beginning of production, in most cases in a reducing atmosphere. But from the beginning oxidized fired pieces also appeared; their portion is - regionally scattered - increasing in the 3rd century.A number of the vessels are decorated in a for typical PGW way with stamps either inside at the base or outside; most of them, however are undecorated.The basis of the investigations into the PGW are the finds, which were unearthened at the excavations 1977-1988 conducted by H. Stiglitz in the auxiliary fort of Carnuntum. The finds of the "Steinkastell I" and the over it lying levelling layer give a representative view of the PGW in the second third of the 2nd century in the area of Carnuntum.On the basis of the finds published here, a open classification-system was created, so that it can be expanded with further finds, which are until now only known from unpublished locations or from other publications.Regarding the material of the vessels five fabrics ("STyp 1-5") and four types of slip ("ÜTyp A-D") could be distinguished. Petrographic and heavy mineral analysis, which were carried out by R. Sauer, showed that the vessels of fabric 2, 3 and 5 were probably produced in the area of Carnuntum.Apart from the emphasis on north-western Pannonia, which results from the basis of the finds of Carnuntum, a summary is given of the spectrum of the PGW, the potter's stamps, workshops and finds from dated locations in eastern and south-western Pannonia. A short discourse on the stamped ceramics found in south-eastern Pannonia, Moesia and Dacia completes the picture.

Plataiai

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ISBN: 9783900305659 Year: Pages: 485 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_451002 Language: German
Publisher: Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut Grant: Austrian Science Fund (FWF) - D 4309
Added to DOAB on : 2013-08-16 18:46:33
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Plataiai, in SW-Boiotia, is famous above all for the events which took place in its vicinity in the autumn of 479 B.C. This victory of the Greeks over the Persian army, in concert with the Battle of Salamis, was an event of the utmost significance for European history and is often the topic of modern scientific analysis. Nevertheless, the ancient polis which gave its name to the battle has been overlooked by modern historians and all the more by archaeologists, in a rather curious way. The Plataiai Project was consequently inaugurated in 1996 in order to gain a better understanding of the history and chronology of this ancient place. Results from the investigations have made it possible to establish a settlement sequence for Plataiai; this sequence spans seven millennia, from the Middle Neolithic Age to the modern era. Plataiai is situated in a relatively secure location on the lower slopes of Mt. Kithairon where the first settlers established a small hamlet. The site continued to be inhabited in a nearly unbroken sequence into historical times. During the formative period of Classical Hellas Plataiai developed into an independent polis. The town became entangled in the internecine struggles of 6th and 5th century B.C. Greece and suffered accordingly. Plataiai was twice destroyed and depopulated as a result of the wars between Athens, Sparta and Thebes. Only a final shift of the political and strategic focusses under Philip and Alexander helped secure the existence of the town. During Hellenistic times and the time of the Roman Empire Plataiai remained undisturbed. Plataiai's existence during the 6th, 5th and 4th centuries B.C. is documented mainly by way of surface finds and its earliest known fortification. In addition to the discovery of fragmentary dwellings from the 6th century B.C., small scale excavations appear to have uncovered a cult deposit from the same period. The main characteristics of Plataiai in the late 4th century B.C. and beyond consist of an ambitious extension of the settlement, structured internally along an orthogonal grid of urban blocks and roads which was protected by an extended belt of fortifications. Geophysical survey has helped to locate and document the main urban monuments, such as the Agora, the precinct of Dionysos, the Temple of Hera, and other public buildings, in addition to an extended area covered by private dwellings, some of truly impressive size. The evidence of such large buildings confirms, beyond a doubt, that several very wealthy families existed in Plataiai, who made good use of their dwellings to express their social and political status. Late Antiquity seems to have severely curtailed Plataiai's prosperity. Urgent military threats led to the building of an emergency fortification which re-used the building materials of many Hellenistic and Roman structures. Nevertheless, a bishopric at Plataiai, a note in Procopius' de aedeficiis and the remains of several churches at the site prove that the town still existed during the reign of the emperor Justinian, whereas it is possible that the site was abandoned after this time. Only from the 11th and 12th centuries A.D. onwards does the surface material again corroborate the existence of a settlement at the site. The modern village of Kokla was renamed Plataies during the 1920s and thus continues the tradition of the ancient polis right into the 21st century A.D.

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