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Cultural Revolutions

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ISBN: 9780271025247 9780271030241 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_625750 Language: English
Publisher: Penn State University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100091
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-18 11:01:17
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Cultural Revolutions argues that reason itself is cultural, but no less reasonable for it. Lawrence Cahoone systematically defines culture and gauges the consequences of the ineradicably cultural nature of cognition and action, yet argues that none of this implies relativism. Cahoone offers a definition of culture as teleologically organized practices, artifacts, and narratives and analyzes the notion of cultural membership in relation to race, ethnicity, and “primordialism.” He provides a theory of culture’s role in how we form our sense of reality and argues that the proper conception of culture dissolves “the problem” of cultural relativism. Applying this perspective to Islamic fundamentalism, Cahoone identifies its conflict with the West as representing the break between two of three historically distinctive forms of reason. Rather than being “irrational,” he shows, fundamentalism embodies a rationality only recently devalued—but not entirely abandoned—by the West.

Keywords

philosophy

Feudal America

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ISBN: 9780271037813 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_625752 Language: English
Publisher: Penn State University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100092
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-18 11:01:21
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Do Americans live in a liberal capitalist society, or a society in which big money, private security, and personal relations determine key social outcomes? Shlapentokh and Woods argue that the answer to these questions cannot be found among the conventional models. Offering a new analytical tool, the authors present a provocative explanation of the nature of contemporary society by comparing its essential characteristics to those of medieval European societies. Their feudal model emphasizes five elements: the weakness of the state to protect its citizens, conflict and collusion between and within organizations that involve corruption and other forms of illegal or semilegal actions, the dominance of personal relations in political and economic life, the prevalence of an elitist ideology, and the use of private agents and organizations to provide safety and security. Feudal America urges readers to look for explanations of contemporary social problems in medieval European history.

Keywords

history

Friendship and Politics in Post-Revolutionary France

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ISBN: 9780271061924 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_625754 Language: English
Publisher: Penn State University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100090
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-18 11:01:25
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In Friendship and Politics in Post-Revolutionary France, Horowitz brings together the political and cultural history of post-revolutionary France to show how French society responded to and recovered from the upheaval of the French Revolution. The Revolution led to a heightened sense of distrust and divided the nation along ideological lines. In the wake of the Terror, many began to express concerns about the atomization of French society. Friendship was regarded as one bond that could restore trust and cohesion. Because trust and cohesion were necessary to post-revolutionary parliamentary life, politicians turned to friends and ideas about friendship to create solidarity. Relying on detailed analyses of politicians’ social networks, new tools from the digital humanities, and examinations of behind-the-scenes political transactions, Horowitz makes clear the connection between politics and emotions in the early nineteenth century, and reevaluates the role of women in political life.

Keywords

history

Genius Envy

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ISBN: 9780271077086 9780271079196 Year: Pages: 304 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_625764 Language: English
Publisher: Penn State University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100094
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-18 11:01:41
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In Genius Envy Adrianna M. Paliyenko uncovers a forgotten past: the multiplicity and diversity of nineteenth-century French women’s poetic voices. Conservative critics of the time attributed genius to masculinity and dismissed the work of female authors as “feminine literature.” Despite the efforts of leading thinkers, critics, and historians to erase women from the pages of literary history, Paliyenko shows how female poets invigorated the debate about the origins of genius and garnered recognition in their time for their creativity and bold aesthetic ideas.This fresh account of French women poets’ contributions to literature probes the history of their critical reception and considers the texts of celebrated writers such as Desbordes-Valmore, Ségalas, Blanchecotte, Siefert, and Ackermann. The results show that these women explicitly challenged the notion of genius as gendered, advocating for their rightful place in the canon.

Keywords

Literature

Kimbanguism

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Book Series: Signifying (on) Scriptures ISBN: 9780271077550 9780271079707 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_627658 Language: English
Publisher: Penn State University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100093
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-20 11:01:33
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From the early days of Christianity in Sub-Saharan Africa, a Eurocentric view of Christian teaching was a primary tool in the subjugation and domination of native populations. Since 1921 Kimbanguism, an African Initiated Church, has advocated a reconstruction of Blackness by appropriating the parameters of Christian identity. The prophet Simon Kimbangu, the founder of the movement, has inspired 17 million followers with Pan-African messages of political and spiritual liberation.The Spurned Race is the first comprehensive study of Kimbanguism since the pioneering books of the 1980s. The son of a Kimbanguist pastor, Gampiot uses his inside resources to offer new sociological and theological analyses of the church’s interpretation of and signification on the Christian bible. The Spurned Race provides a unique and important look at the independent nature of early African Christian prophetic movements.

Keywords

Theology

Literary Obscenities

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ISBN: 9780271080055 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Penn State University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101740
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 11:02:36
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In Literary Obscenities, Erik Bachman offers a comparative historical account of the parallel development of legal obscenity and literary modernism in this period. Getting Off the Page demonstrates that obscenity trials in the early twentieth century staged a wide-ranging cultural debate about the broader ramifications of the printed word’s power to “deprave,” “excite,” and offend—or, more generally, to incite emotion and shape behavior. Bachman shows that far from seeking simply to transgress cultural norms or sexual boundaries, proscribed authors such as Wyndham Lewis, Erskine Caldwell, Lillian Smith, and James T. Farrell refigured the capacity of writing to evoke the obscene so that readers might become aware of the social processes by which they were being turned into mass consumers, voyeurs, and racialized subjects.

Keywords

Literature

Posthumous America

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ISBN: 9780271080079 000000000000000 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Penn State University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101739
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-10 11:01:02
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Posthumous America examines the literary idealization of a lost American past. It investigates the reasons why, for a group of French writers of the 18th and 19th centuries, America was never more potent as a driving ideal than in its loss. For example, Hoffmann examines the paradoxical American paradise depicted in Crèvecœur’s Lettres d’un cultivateur américain (1784); the “uchronotopia” of Lezay-Marnésia’s Lettres écrites des rives de l’Ohio (1800)—the imaginary perfect society set in America and based on what France might have become without the Revolution; and the political and nationalistic motivations behind Chateaubriand’s idealization of America in Voyage en Amérique (1827) and Mémoires d’outre-tombe (1850). From an historical perspective, Posthumous Americas works to determine when exactly these writers stopped transcribing what they actually observed in America and started giving imaginary accounts of their experiences.

Keywords

Literature

Rousseau and the Problem of Human Relations

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ISBN: 9780271074641 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_605032 Language: English
Publisher: Penn State University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-23 11:01:19
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Among Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s chief preoccupations was the problem of self-interest implicit in all social relationships. A person with divided loyalties (i.e., to both himself and his cohorts) was, in Rousseau’s thinking, a divided person. According to John Warner’s Rousseau and the Problem of Human Relations, not only did Rousseau never solve this problem, he believed it was fundamentally unsolvable: social relationships could never restore wholeness to a self-interested human being. Warner traces his argument through the contours of Rousseau’s thought on three distinct types of relationships—sexual love, friendship, and civil or political association. Warner concludes that none of these, whether examined individually or together, provides a satisfactory resolution to the problem of human dividedness located at the center of Rousseau’s thinking. In fact, concludes Warner, Rousseau’s failure to obtain anything hopeful from human associations is deliberate, self-conscious, and revelatory of a tragic conception of human relations. Thus Rousseau raises our hopes only to dash them. This title was made Open Access by libraries from around the world through Knowledge Unlatched.

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