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An Archaeology of Art and Writing

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ISBN: 9783946198390 9783946198369 9783946198376 9783941698383 Year: Pages: 362 DOI: 10.16994/bak Language: English
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: Anthropology --- Archaeology --- Social Sciences --- History of arts --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-18 12:10:57
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"An Archaeology of Art and Writing offers an in-depth treatment of the image as material culture. Centring on early Egyptian bone, ivory, and wooden labels—one of the earliest inscribed and decorated object groups from burials in the lower Nile Valley—the research is anchored in the image as the site of material action. A key aim of this book is to outline a contextual and reflexive approach to early art and writing as a complement to the traditional focus on iconographic and linguistic meanings. Archaeological and anthropological approaches are integrated with social theories of practice and agency to develop a more holistic perspective that situates early Egyptian imagery in relation to its manufacture, use and final deposition in the funerary context. The dialectical relationships between past embodied practitioners and materials, production techniques, and compositional principles are examined for the insight they provide into changes and continuities in early Egyptian graphical expression across time and space. The electronic version of this book is accompanied by an online database of the inscribed labels, enabling the reader to explore via hyperlinks the fascinating body of evidence that underpins this innovative study. Kathryn Piquette lectures on the archaeology of ancient Egypt and the Near East at the University of Reading. She also lectures in digital humanities at University College London, where she serves as a senior research consultant in advanced digital imaging techniques for cultural heritage. Recent publications include the co-edited Writing as Material Practice: Substance, surface and medium."

Architekturzeichnungen der deutschen Renaissance: Funktion und Bildlichkeit zeichnerischer Produktion 1500–1650

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ISBN: 9783946198048 9783946198079 9783946198055 9783946198062 Year: Pages: 410 DOI: 10.16994/bac Language: German
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: Architecture --- Arts in general --- History of arts
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-19 11:01:21
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ation such as the registry, the library, and the armoury, but also in the Cabinet of Curiosities, or in the architect’s personal archive. Even with only a small number of known approaches theorizing architectural drawings and design practices during the 16th century, it is possible to reveal a broad influence on drawing theories, especially by perspective treatises and the so-called »Visier- und Messkunst« (measuring). Reconstructing the various places of producing, collecting, displaying, and studying architectural drawings shows that architectural drawings were a crucial part in cultural processes of understanding, organizing, and dealing with the built environment.

Buddha in Beton

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ISBN: 9783946198208 9783946198239 9783946198215 9783946198222 Year: Pages: 522 DOI: 10.16994/bag Language: German
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: Religion --- Philosophy --- Architecture --- History of arts
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-09 11:01:56
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emple. And only because temple architecture – as well as paintings, statues, gardens etc. – shows the presence of the Buddha in this way does it become a religious place where the Buddha is actually present. The final discussion of this study puts these Buddhist teachings in a dialogue with modern aesthetic architectural concepts argued by temple architects. The contrasting points of view make it clear that the explicitly Buddhist idea of Buddhist temple architecture can not be grasped by aesthetics, because its purpose is to show the invisible presence of the Buddha and not to be a sensual (i.e. aesthetic) experience of the visible object itself in the first place. However, aesthetic concepts of art have become common in Japan since the late 19th century. They are the foundation of the described new ways in which temples were built and designed since then. One indication for the impact of aesthetics are Japanese words like shimboru シンボル/shōchō 象徴 (symbol) or fun’iki 雰囲気 (atmosphere) which are used by architects to describe their temple architecture and matters of design. These words were formed around the turn of the century to express European concepts of art and aesthetics, since before that these words and ideas simply did not exist in Japan. And it is only since then, that temples were perceived as aesthetic symbols with various meanings that can be defined by an architect, and that they have a certain atmosphere which should be designed for making visitors feeling comfortable. Now it is the architect himself who gives meaning to its work and who is responsible for a nice spatial experience. But none of these architects is talking about himself becoming Buddha by building a temple. So not only the architectural appearance and construction of Buddhist temples have changed enormously throughout the last 150 years, but also the task of building itself. There has always been change in appearance and construction throughout the history of Buddhism and in the different Buddhist cultures, but the redefinition of the temple as an architectural piece of art is a very recent development in Japan and the actual new idea causing these dramatic architectural changes. "

An den Wurzeln der Tugend: Rheinischer Adel und Freimaurerei 1765–1815

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ISBN: 9783958960008 9783958960015 9783958960022 9783958960039 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: 10.16994/baa Language: German
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-19 11:01:19
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This study focuses on the relationship between nobility and freemasonry from 1750 to 1850. It examines the specific role of an esoteric discourse surrounding the roots of the human race, centring on legendary constructions of noble genealogies in eighteenth century Europe. The aristocratic idea of blood as a type of »liquid memory of virtue« was also found in the freemason lodges frequented by the European nobility of the eighteenth century. Both groups therefore believed in educational systems that used rites, pictures and symbols to imprint the virtues in ones blood and heart respectively. The foundation of this belief – strongly combined with an interest in occult sciences and the existence of an afterlife – can be seen in the antique »art of memory«. The example of an aristocratic lodge in Düsseldorf shows how these ›research interests‹ overlapped within masonic and non-masonic networks of European noblemen and citizens. In the perspective of Rhenish noblemen in the mid of the eighteenth century freemasonry took the role of an educational system that improved the qualities of the noble blood to secure the leading position of nobility in the God-given »Ständegesellschaft«. The aristocratic lodge La Parfaite Amitié therefore was not only dominated by Rhenish noblemen but also by cousinship. As a consequence, it struggled to become a »provincial lodge«, which had a stronger jurisdictional position in comparison with the civil-lodge of Düsseldorf. The second example is the masonic network of Joseph zu Salm-Reifferscheidt-Dyck (1773– 1861), from the Napoleonic period. Born in the Ancient Regime to an aristocratic familiy of the lower Rhineland, Joseph zu Salm-Reifferscheidt-Dyck faced the extensive changes for the nobility of the Rhineland, caused by the French Revolution and the French occupation of the area. Together with his second wife, the Parisian Salonier Constance de Salm, he became a prominent person in the Napoleonic era. He not only acted as an influential scientist of systematic botany, as a politician and states-man but also as a high-ranking freemason in several rites, especially in the Rit écossais philosophique. This masonic system can be seen as a ›scientific‹ one built upon the traditions of alchemistical and hermetical circles of the Ancient Regime. The Napoleonic period saw the occult sciences increasingly outdated and replaced by modern natural sciences. The methods considered as »exact« in the nineteenth century subsequently formed the perspective of civil dominated societies and its lodges on masonic rites and grades. In the masonic network of Joseph zu Salm-Reifferscheidt-Dyck, the Rit écossais philosophique was crossed with his network as a natural scientist, resulting in masonry being seen not only as an educational system but also as an exact way to uncover the »hidden roots« of the human soul and to assess the respective qualities of it. These tendencies were strongly influenced by the natural sciences outside the masonic sphere, which in parallel tried to uncover the »hidden roots« of the nations with the pseudo-scientific concepts of »race«. The civil lodges of the Napoleonic era and afterwards, with their strong emphasis on the nation, could no longer be seen as a retreat for noble man and their exclusive ideology of noble blood. The majority of the Rhenish nobility therefore turned away from the lodges in order to maintain a conservative view of itself in exclusively noble circles which still believed in the quality of the noble blood and its inherited race.

Fortschritt und Verfall: Zur Diskussion von Religion und Moderne im Ausgang von Joachim Ritter

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ISBN: 9783946198123 9783946198154 9783946198130 9783946198147 Year: Pages: 468 DOI: 10.16994/bae Language: German
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: Religion --- Philosophy --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-29 13:22:54
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xamined in this study. Subsequently, section 4.2 analyzes Ritter’s involvement in debates concerning the concept of value as contested in particular by Carl Schmitt. Ritter supports the critique of the value concept philosophically but does not follow the political and politico-theological implications of Schmitt. Accordingly, authors like Lübbe and Böckenförde refer to the thought of Carl Schmitt in an explicitly liberalizing way. Aside from the discussion of the philosophy of value, this requires a closer look at the concept of Political Theology as it is subject of the debate of Schmitt and Hans Blumenberg. Section 4.3 eventually concentrates on the controversies concerning the concept of religion and its philosophical importance. Functionalism and substantialism are keywords in this discussion that within the group of Ritter’s former students is particularly associated with Robert Spaemann. His reasoning concerning Lübbe’s concept of religion indicates a farther-reaching critique of Ritter’s approach and modernity in general. All these aspects show that there are different ways of answering the tasks and questions Ritter formulated concerning philosophy, either positively in adoption of or negatively in distinction to his own approach. His theoretical ambivalences led the former students of his Collegium Philosophicum to develop various methods of differentiating his positions. Section 4.4 finally resumes aforementioned aspects in reference to post-war German debates on the question of religious presuppositions of liberal-democratic politics, particularly concerning Böckenförde’s notable insight that the liberal and secular state for its own sake relies on presuppositions it cannot guarantee. *** Mit dem gewachsenen Interesse für die Geistesgeschichte Nachkriegsdeutschlands und der Bundesrepublik hat auch der Name Joachim Ritter in den letzten Jahren verstärkt Beachtung gefunden. Zwischen 1946 und 1968 lehrte er Philosophie an der Universität Münster und beeinflusste als akademischer Lehrer durch sein Collegium Philosophicum eine ganze Reihe von namhaften Hochschullehrern und Intellektuellen. Diese Studie rekonstruiert zum einen die Entwicklung dieses Kreises. Insbesondere untersucht sie, wie Joachim Ritters Philosophie, sein Verständnis der modernen Welt und seine eigene intellektuelle Entwicklung in den Nachkriegsjahren bei seinen akademischen Schülern wirksam wurden, namentlich bei Hermann Lübbe und Odo Marquard, Robert Spaemann und Ernst-Wolfgang Böckenförde. Besonderes Augenmerk gilt zum anderen den religionstheoretischen und -politischen Überlegungen dieser Autoren, die sich, obwohl jeweils entscheidend von Ritter beeinflusst, doch deutlich voneinander abheben. Zur Erschließung dieser unterschiedlichen Perspektiven auf Moderne und Religion im Kontext der jungen Bundesrepublik – zwischen Fortschritt und Verfall – werden Bezüge zu Autoren wie Carl Schmitt und Hans Blumenberg aufgegriffen und nachgelassene Aufzeichnungen Joachim Ritters ausgewertet. Durch ihre offenen Anschlusspunkte ebenso wie durch ihre inhaltlichen Ambivalenzen, die zudem im zeitlichen Verlauf nicht unverändert blieben, erweist sich rückblickend die Fruchtbarkeit, mit der Ritters Philosophie die Auseinandersetzung mit der eigenen Gegenwart anzuregen vermochte, als sein maßgebliches Erbe. Martin Ingenfeld ist Politikwissenschaftler. Der Schwerpunkt seines Forschungsinteresses liegt im Bereich der politischen Theorie und Philosophie. Mit vorliegender Arbeit wurde er im Jahr 2015 an der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München promoviert."

Funktionen von Possessivsuffixen in den ugrischen Sprachen

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ISBN: 9783946198475 97839461998444 9783946198451 97839461984468 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.16994/bal Language: German
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: Linguistics --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-16 11:21:03
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The Ugric languages Mansi, Khanty and Hungarian form a branch of the Uralic language family which is mainly spread across North-Eastern Europe and Siberia. Other prominent languages of the Uralic family are e.g. Finnish, Saami and Estonian. The Ob-Ugric languages Mansi and Khanty are spoken in Western Siberia along the Ob’ river and its tributaries, thus they are referred to as Ob-Ugric. Their closest relative is Hungarian, spoken in Hungary and its neighboring countries. The status of the Khanty and Mansi languages is endangered: only 20% out of 8,000 ethnic Mansi and 30% out of 22,000 ethnic Khanty still speak their mother tongue, and there are nearly no monolingual speakers. In contrast, Hungarian is an official language of the European Union, spoken by about 15 million people. Hence, the status of literacy, language documentation and language education differs noticeably between Ob-Ugric and Hungarian. From a typological point of view, the Ugric languages are basically so-called SOV languages, their morphology is mainly agglutinative, i.e. grammatical information is rather encoded with suffixes which are attached to the stem instead of using prepositions, pronouns or articles. The most accessible referent in a discourse is not overtly realized on the surface of the sentence. Its position remains empty (zero-anaphora). This is also revealed in rich paradigms of personal suffixes which are used instead. One set of personal suffixes is attached to nominal stems and called possessive suffixes. They are involved in the structure of so-called attributive possessive constructions in most Uralic languages. As revealed in their denomination, research on possessive suffixes in Ugric languages, as in most Uralic languages, has primarily viewed them in the light of their function as markers of possessive relations, traditionally referred to as their prototypical use. The linguistic concept of possession seems to be universal. The notion of possession itself, though, is purely abstract and can only be understood as a »broader concept of association or relationship between two nouns«. While the definition is an abstract collective term, there is a broad consensus among linguists that certain prototypical meanings are covered by the concept of possession. These are: part-whole relations, kinship relations (both by blood and marriage), ownership relations as well as a fourth column covering all kinds of association in general (e.g. attribution, properties or orientation/location). The use of attributive possessive constructions is very frequent in most Uralic languages and, in a considerable amount of cases, a possessive reading of the relation is excluded, even in the most abstract interpretation of possession. Such cases, where the so-called prototypical use of possessive suffixes (i.e. denoting a possessive relation) fails to serve as an explanation, are frequently subsumed under the node of non-prototypical use and a secondary, non-possessive function is attributed to possessive suffixes. This secondary function is for instance likened to the properties of a definite article.

Hunger and Modern Writing: Melville, Kafka, Hamsun, and Wright

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ISBN: 9783946198161 9783946198192 9783946198178 9783946198185 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.16994/baf Language: English
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: Philosophy --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-29 13:23:08
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"Hunger is a contentious theme in modernist literature, and this study addresses its relevance in the works of four major American and European writers. Taking an in-depth look at works by Melville, Kafka,Hamsun, and Wright, it argues that hunger is deeply involved with concepts of modernity and modern literature. Exploring how it is bound up with the writer’s role in modern society this study draws on two conflicting and complex views of hunger: the first is material, relating to the body as a physical entity that has a material existence in reality. Hunger, in this sense, is a physiological process that affects the body as a result of the need for food, the lack of which can lead to discomfort, listlessness, and eventually death. The second view is that of hunger as an appetite of the mind, the kind of hunger for immaterial things that is associated with an individual’s desire for a new form of knowledge, sentiment, or a different way of perceiving the reality of the world. By discussing the selected authors’ conceptualization of hunger as both desire and absence of desire, or as both a creative and a destructive force, it examines how it has influenced literary representations of modern life. This study then offers a focused approach to a broad field of inquiry and presents analyses that address a variety of critical perspectives on hunger and modern literature. Daniel Rees completed his PhD in American and Comparative Literature at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. His research interests include Anglo-American and European literature of the modern period. He has worked as a freelance editor and translator since 2004 and contributed publications in the e-journal Current Objectives of Postgraduate American Studies and to Orchid Press."

Mehrsprachigkeit im Spiegel des Buchdrucks: Das spanische Italien im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert

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ISBN: 9783946198086 9783946198116 9783946198093 9783946198109 Year: Pages: 436 DOI: 10.16994/bad Language: German
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: History --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-19 11:01:06
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During the sixteenth and seventeenth century large parts of Italy were under Spanish dominion, the consequence of which was a linguistic contact that lasted over 200 years. However, due to the traditionally tight link between Italian language historiography and national historiography, the multilingual communicative space of Spanish Italy has only recently become an object of research. By focusing on four Spanish-dominated areas – the two metropolises of Naples (Regno di Napoli) and Milan (Milanesado), as well as the two islands of Sicily (Regno di Sicilia) and Sardinia (Regno di Sardegna) – the present work therefore presents a fundamental, extensive, and comparative case study of the history of plurilingualism and of letterpress printing in Italia spagnola. For the first time, even methodologically, letterpress printing will be considered as an indicator of plurilingualism, and not simply as a gauge for Tuscanisation, as scholars have previously concluded. The corpus, which has been elaborated on the basis of a specifically developed online title-database consisting of over 3.000 Spanish, bi- and multilingual printed works, is analyzed by combining quantification and qualification methods. The statistical evaluation of book production and distribution of languages and domains associated therewith have been integrated, or rather validated, by qualitative comments on exemplary single works. Herein, the following questions have been examined: How is multilingualism generally, and with regard to the Spanish language in particular, reflected in book production? How often and in which domains of discourse is Spanish used? Which profiles of competence of the producers (authors and printers) and the recipients can be qualitatively traced through single printed works? What evidence of the conventionalization of multilingualism in the form of linguistic teaching material can be provided? Which plurilinguistic practices can be reconstructed on the basis of the prints? Is bilingualism or multilingualism reflected on (and eventually how), and, if so, how is it discussed and assessed? How does the respective communicative space, characterized by the constant presence of the Spanish language, configure itself in the consciousness of the communicants within the field of perceptive linguistics? Thus, the aim was to investigate the degree of Hispanicization of Spanish Italy on the basis of the quantified printed language, and to discuss the practices of multilingualism, the attitudes towards the Spanish language, and how plurilingualism was reflected in selected printed works and their paratexts. The overall segment of the Spanish book production can be defined as a marginal phenomenon with a limited target group, and therefore multilingualism in Spanish Italy, when considered through letterpress printing, assumes an elitist status. However, the respective empirical results of the four partial corpora offer prominent regional differences, with each of the four communicative spaces presenting with their own, specific profile of multilingualism. The contrast of the single cases thus leads to a typology between Spanish Sardinia and the other three areas. The case reconstructions furnish the evidence that Spanish Sardinia, for reasons beyond existing language politics, represents the exception, or rather, the extreme case of problem-focused plurilingualism and Hispanicization. The remaining three areas (Naples, Milan and Sicily) bundle to form a second type – on account of their indifference towards language diversity as well as their pragmatic, mostly implicit, conventionalized handling of multilingualism, they can be classified as normal cases of language contact.

Muster und Bedeutung

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ISBN: 9783946198437 9783946198406 9783946198413 9783946198420 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.16994/bam Language: German
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: Computer Science --- Science (General) --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-16 11:21:02
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The subject of this thesis is a computational linguistic model of Meaning Constitution in linguistic units. Taking the phenomenon of variability of linguistic meaning as its starting point, Meaning Constitution is described as an information-processing step, which is then implemented and empirically tested in a series of linguistic experiments. In this thesis, Meaning Constitution is understood as a dynamic process in which the meaning of linguistic units only becomes concrete within local contexts in relation to their general meaning potential. This dynamic concept of meaning is based on a central assumption of Cognitive Semantics, according to which meanings do not exist independently of the context. The motivation for the implementation of a computational linguistic model of its own is the fact that the conception of meaning in Cognitive Semantics itself does not involve such an operationalisation – which, strictly speaking, means that it must be regarded as not falsifiable.

Rodin-Lekturen

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ISBN: 9783946198246 9783946198253 9783946198260 9783946198277 Year: Pages: 328 DOI: 10.16994/bah Language: German
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: Social Sciences --- History of arts --- Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-07 11:01:52
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the title Figurenkunst und Künstlerfigur turns to the art-critical writings on the Gates of Hell (1880). In this chapter, famous art critics and writers such as Edmond de Goncourt, Gustave Geffroy, Anatole France and Arthur Symons are at the centerof interest. For the generation of the symbolist art critics, for example, the Gates of Hell became an icon of their own melancholic art doctrine insofar as the art work seemed to stage a temporality of deferral and hesitation which could be understood as a counter-image to an all-too-optimistic belief in historical progress. At the same time, Rodin’s apparent inability to bring this work to an end seemed to betray a very similar understanding of time. Rilke’s and Simmel’s interpretations of Rodin’s work, which are at the core of the following chapter, are described as theoretically ambitious attempts of emulating the art-critical debate at the turn of the century by using innovative narrative strategies of coalescing biographical patterns and reflections on art (Rilke) or by declaring Rodin’s work to be the ideal object for an analysis of modernity in the context of contemporary sociology (Simmel). The sixth chapter, entitled Verlust und Wiederbelebung, turns to two interpretations by German-speaking authors in the years around 1950: the philosopher Günther Anders and the art historian Josef Schmoll. gen. Eisenwerth. Anders, who was also a student of Edmund Husserl, described Rodin’s sculptural images of the human body as artistic expressions of an historical experience of loss and isolation, as objects which could stimulate a deepened reflection about modernity as crises. Josef Schmoll gen. Eisenwerth’s investigations of the motif of the torso, which emerged in the 1950s, rather tried to describe the fragmented body as the »symbol« of an aesthetic experience of totality and holism. Obviously, the art historian’s strategy of emphatically denying the disturbing aesthetic effects of some of Rodin’s torsos can be – at least from today’s perspective – conceived as a way of dealing with the historical experience of the collapse of civilization. The last chapter of the study is entitled Auf dem Weg in die Postmoderne. It focuses on the writings of Leo Steinberg and Rosalind Krauss since the 1960s. While Steinberg was mostly interested in the diverse ways of how Rodin constructed and deconstructed the meanings of his sculptures with the help of the art forms of the »montage« and the »assemblage«, thereby ostentatiously demonstrating the sculptural »semiosis«, Krauss emphatically turned to the problem of ›reading‹ Rodin’s images of the human body. For her, Rodin’s sculptures became emblems of an ›opaque‹ subjectivity and therefore the first artistic realizations of a radically new paradigm of aesthetic reception: Instead of clinging to the traditional notions of psychological and hermeneutical depth in the beholding of sculptures, in her view Rodin’s sculptures emphasize the material surface as the original site of the production of meaning."

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