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The biology of the first 1000 days

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Oxidative stress and disease ISBN: 9781498756792 Year: Pages: 518 Language: English
Publisher: CRC Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:45:55
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The first 1,000 days, from conception to 2 years of age, is a critical window of growth and development. Exposures to dietary, environmental, hormonal, and other stressors during this period have been associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Researchers using cell culture, animal models, and humans have identified this time as a period of rapid physiological change and plasticity with significant potential for lasting effects. As such, interventions during the first 1,000 days will have the greatest impact on outcomes, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where the need is greatest. To date, there is no single resource that compiles our knowledge of the biology of the first 1,000 days. Our knowledge and understanding of the biology behind the first 1,000 days is still limited. This greater understanding is helping us inform effective nutrition policy and programming. The strength of this book lies in its cross- disciplinary nature that encompasses the full range of human biology, providing a more holistic perspective during this critical time frame. Moreover, we have broadened the scope and included important periods before and after the 1,000 days. We have designed this book as a comprehensive resource for those involved in global health and nutrition policy, strategy, programming, or research. This book will also be a resource for students learning about nutrition and health across the 1,000 days. The book includes an exceptional group of contributors who are experts in their given fields. As biology underlies the core of each discussion, it allows the readers to answer the what and why, and, we hope, the how for new discovery research and more effective interventions. Each chapter in this volume provides insight into a specific life stage, disease state, nutrient, and stressor in the first 1,000 days. As such, each chapter can be read independently, providing a comprehensive overview of that subject. However, there is continuity between chapters allowing this collection of chapters to be read cover to cover. The first chapters set the stage, providing a succinct resource to understand the well-established biological mechanisms that underlie growth regulation and nutrient recommendations throughout the first 1,000 days. The next chapters move on to the evidence behind nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions to combat adverse outcomes and disease states in the first 1,000 days. This book also features emerging research areas, such as the gut microbiome, environmental enteric dysfunction, and the role of epigenetics in health and development. The final chapter pushes the boundaries of discovery research, exploring novel areas such as proteomics and metabolomics, and how insults such as environmental enteric dysfunction affect metabolism in the first 1,000 days. We approached this book with the ambition to shed more light on the biology during 1,000 days, but there was also a need to put the biology into a broader context of nutrition and health. There are still many gaps in our understanding of the biology of the first 1,000 days. It is only by bridging this knowledge gap through research that we can inform effective interventions to improve outcomes during the first 1,000 days.

Chapter 7 Cellular Control of Time, Size, and Shape in Development and Evolution (Book chapter)

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Book Series: Evolutionary Cell Biology ISBN: 9781315155968 9781498787864 Year: Pages: 48 Language: English
Publisher: CRC Press
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:44:13
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The rules by which anatomical size and shape are generated have intrigued scientists for centuries. In 1638, Galileo suggested a mathematical relationship between proportional changes in the shape of bones as animals increase in size, which he argued was a functional necessity for weight bearing (1914). The formalism of Galileo, whereby, physical forces and mathematical laws became integrated with studies of size and shape in biology, was most conspicuously encapsulated over a hundred years ago in the 1917 monumental tome by D’Arcy Thompson entitled, On Growth and Form (Thompson 1917). In a breathtakingly comprehensive manner, Thompson synthesized the observations of numerous predecessors and contemporaries, and through countless examples built a theoretical and experimental framework for describing changes in morphology that persists to this day (Stern and Emlen 1999; Arthur 2006).

Chapter 9 Mitochondria Structure and Position in the Local Control of Calcium Signals in Smooth Muscle Cells (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Methods in Signal Transduction Series ISBN: 9781498774222 9781315154589 Year: Pages: 20 Language: English
Publisher: CRC Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 11:21:03
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Features of Ca2+ signals including the amplitude, duration, frequency and location are encoded by various physiological stimuli. These features of the signals are decoded by cells to selectively activate smooth muscle functions that include contraction and proliferation [1–3]. Central, therefore, to an appreciation of how smooth muscle is controlled is an understanding of the regulation of Ca2+.

Cities’ Identity Through Architecture and Arts

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781138054097 9781315166551 Year: Pages: 584 Language: English
Publisher: CRC Press
Subject: Architecture --- Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:45:23
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This book is a combination of innovative research submitted to a conference on Cities’ Identity Through Architecture and Arts (CITAA) whereas scholars from all over the world gather in one venue to discuss cultural, historical, and economic issues of the city. Thus, the book offers a collective and global solution that is applicable on a universal level. The research presented in this book was conducted by authors, or rather participants of the conference from, three different continents of the world and organized by IEREK. It was a distinct opportunity for them to share their thoughts with leading scholars and professionals in the field of Architecture, Arts, and Planning. The research and materials in this book are directed at those who are actively engaged in the decision-making processes and to a heterogeneous audience who has an interest to critically examine all the new literature available in the field. A special word of thanks should be made to the editors of this book and to all the authors and co-authors of the chapters who collectively provided the academic community with unique and increasingly valuable literature.

Keywords

architecture --- city --- citaa --- arts --- identity

Compact Models for Integrated Circuit Design

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ISBN: 9781482240665 Year: Language: English
Publisher: CRC Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102706
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-02 11:21:02
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This modern treatise on compact models for circuit computer-aided design (CAD) presents industry standard models for bipolar-junction transistors (BJTs), metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) field-effect-transistors (FETs), FinFETs, and tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), along with statistical MOS models. Featuring exercise problems at the end of each chapter and extensive references at the end of the book, the text supplies fundamental and practical knowledge necessary for efficient integrated circuit (IC) design using nanoscale devices. It ensures even those unfamiliar with semiconductor physics gain a solid grasp of compact modeling concepts.

Compassion in primary and community healthcare (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781498769679 9781315155487 Year: Pages: 8 Language: English
Publisher: CRC Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 105605
Subject: Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:46:29
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Compassion is an attribute of a person’s affective understanding, which aims to enable, so far as possible, shared experiences of the world’s ills and some alleviation of those ills’ effects. Such an attribute is thus of great value within healthcare institutions such as general practices and other primary and community healthcare settings. It may characterise the people who participate in those institutions; or, it may not so characterise them. The appearance of compassion, under certain conditions and even in fragile and incomplete forms, is a kind of human excellence, a way of being for the good in community.* Compassion is not, therefore, a commodity, to be bought, sold and traded. Although time can be costed, there is no line for compassion in any budget. Were compassion to be thought a commodity, one could imagine trading it off against some more measurable factor (efficiency, cost-effectiveness, etc.). However, our human capacity for compassion, though fragile, tends to resist such marginalisation and reductionism.

Foundations of Fuzzy Logic and Semantic Web Languages

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ISBN: 9781439853474 Year: Language: English
Publisher: CRC Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102703
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-16 11:21:11
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This book is the first to combine coverage of fuzzy logic and Semantic Web languages. It provides in-depth insight into fuzzy Semantic Web languages for non-fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic experts. It also helps researchers of non-Semantic Web languages get a better understanding of the theoretical fundamentals of Semantic Web languages. The first part of the book covers all the theoretical and logical aspects of classical (two-valued) Semantic Web languages. The second part explains how to generalize these languages to cope with fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic.

Keywords

Computer Science

GIS in Sustainable Urban Planning and Management

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781138505551 9781315146638 Year: Pages: 364 Language: English
Publisher: CRC Press
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:43:23
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GIS is used today to better understand and solve urban problems. This book explores and illustrates the use of geo-information in the planning and management of urban regions. The first part of the book addresses the concept of sustainable urban development, its different frameworks, the many ways of measuring sustainability, and its value in the urban policy arena. The second part discusses how urban planning can shape our cities, examines various spatial configurations of cities, the spread of activities, and the demands placed on different functions to achieve strategic objective. It further focuses on the recognition that urban dwellers are increasingly under threat from natural hazards and climate change.

H2 Established and Emerging Techniques for Characterising the Formation, Structure and Performance of Calcified Structures under Ocean Acidification (Book chapter)

Book title: Oceanography and Marine Biology

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Ocean Engineering & Oceanography ISBN: 9780367134150 9780429026379 Year: Pages: 40 Language: English
Publisher: CRC Press
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-11 11:21:03
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Ocean acidification (OA) is the decline in seawater pH and saturation levels of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals that has led to concerns for calcifying organisms such as corals, oysters and mussels because of the adverse effects of OA on their biomineralisation, shells and skeletons. A range of cellular biology, geochemistry and materials science approaches have been used to explore biomineralisation. These techniques have revealed that responses to seawater acidification can be highly variable among species, yet the underlying mechanisms remain largely unresolved. To assess the impacts of global OA, researchers will need to apply a range of tools developed across disciplines, many of which are emerging and have not yet been used in this context. This review outlines techniques that could be applied to study OA-induced alterations in the mechanisms of biomineralisation and their ultimate effects on shells and skeletons. We illustrate how to characterise, quantify and monitor the process of biomineralisation in the context of global climate change and OA. We highlight the basic principles, as well as the advantages and disadvantages, of established, emerging and future techniques for OA researchers. A combination of these techniques will enable a holistic approach and better understanding of the potential impact of OA on biomineralisation and its consequences for marine calcifiers and associated ecosystems.

H4 Design Options, Implementation Issues and Evaluating Success of Ecologically Engineered Shorelines (Book chapter)

Book title: Oceanography and Marine Biology

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Oceanography and Marine Biology : An Annual Review ISBN: 9780367134150 9780429026379 Year: Pages: 62 Language: English
Publisher: CRC Press
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-14 11:21:15
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Human population growth and accelerating coastal development have been the drivers for unprecedented construction of artificial structures along shorelines globally. Construction has been recently amplified by societal responses to reduce flood and erosion risks from rising sea levels and more extreme storms resulting from climate change. Such structures, leading to highly modified shorelines, deliver societal benefits, but they also create significant socioeconomic and environmental challenges. The planning, design and deployment of these coastal structures should aim to provide multiple goals through the application of ecoengineering to shoreline development. Such developments should be designed and built with the overarching objective of reducing negative impacts on nature, using hard, soft and hybrid ecological engineering approaches. The design of ecologically sensitive shorelines should be context-dependent and combine engineering, environmental and socioeconomic considerations. The costs and benefits of ecoengineered shoreline design options should be considered across all three of these disciplinary domains when setting objectives, informing plans for their subsequent maintenance and management and ultimately monitoring and evaluating their success. To date, successful ecoengineered shoreline projects have engaged with multiple stakeholders (e.g. architects, engineers, ecologists, coastal/port managers and the general public) during their conception and construction, but few have evaluated engineering, ecological and socioeconomic outcomes in a comprehensive manner. Increasing global awareness of climate change impacts (increased frequency or magnitude of extreme weather events and sea level rise), coupled with future predictions for coastal development (due to population growth leading to urban development and renewal, land reclamation and establishment of renewable energy infrastructure in the sea) will increase the demand for adaptive techniques to protect coastlines. In this review, we present an overview of current ecoengineered shoreline design options, the drivers and constraints that influence implementation and factors to consider when evaluating the success of such ecologically engineered shorelines.

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