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Novel Photoactive Materials

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ISBN: 9783038976509 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-651-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 14:29:32
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Photoactivity represents the ability of a material, generally speaking a semiconductor, to become active when interacting with light. It can be declined in many ways, and several functionalities arising from this behavior of materials can be exploited, all leading to positive repercussions on our environment. There are several classes of effects of photoactivity, all of which have been deeply investigated in the last few decades, allowing to develop more and more efficient materials and devices. All of them share a common point, that is, the interaction of a material with light, although many different materials are taken into account depending on the effect desired—from elemental semiconductors like silicon, to more complex compounds like CdTe or GaAs, to metal oxides like TiO2 and ZnO. Given the broadness of the field, a huge number of works fall within this topic, and new areas of discovery are constantly explored. The special issue “Novel Photoactive Materials” has been proposed as a means to present recent developments in the field, and for this reason the articles included touch different aspects of photoactivity, from photocatalysis to photovoltaics to light emitting materials.

Solid Catalysts for the Upgrading of Renewable Sources

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ISBN: 9783038975724 Year: Pages: 226 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-573-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:07:22
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The use of solid catalysts for the upgrade of renewable sources gives the opportunity to combine the two main cores of green chemistry, that is, on the one hand, the set-up of sustainable processes and, on the other, the use of biomass-derived materials. Solid catalysts have taken on a leading role in traditional petrochemical processes and could represent a key tool in new biorefinery-driven technologies.

Modern Grinding Technology and Systems

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ISBN: 9783038429388 / 9783038429371 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-937-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This specialist edition features key innovations in the science and engineering of new grinding processes, abrasives, tools, machines, and systems for a range of important industrial applications. Topics written by invited, internationally recognized authors review the advances and present results of research over a range of well-known grinding processes. A significant introductory review chapter explores innovations to achieve high productivity and very high precision in grinding. The reviewed applications range from grinding systems for very large lenses and reflectors, through to medium size grinding machine processes, and down to grinding very small components used in MEMS . Early research chapters explore the influence of grinding wheel topography on surface integrity and wheel wear. A novel chapter on abrasive processes also addresses the finishing of parts produced by additive manufacturing through mass finishing. Materials to be ground range from conventional engineering steels to aerospace materials, ceramics, and composites. The research findings highlight important new results for avoiding material sub-surface damage. The papers compiled in this book include references to many source publications which will be found invaluable for further research, such as new features introduced into control systems to improve process efficiency. The papers also reflect significant improvements and research findings relating to many aspects of grinding processes, including machines, materials, abrasives, wheel preparation, coolants, lubricants, and fluid delivery. Finally, a definitive chapter summarizes the optimal settings for high precision and the achievement of centerless grinding stability.

Glassy Materials Based Microdevices

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ISBN: 9783038976189 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-619-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Microtechnology has changed our world since the last century, when silicon microelectronics revolutionized sensor, control and communication areas, with applications extending from domotics to automotive, and from security to biomedicine. The present century, however, is also seeing an accelerating pace of innovation in glassy materials; as an example, glass-ceramics, which successfully combine the properties of an amorphous matrix with those of micro- or nano-crystals, offer a very high flexibility of design to chemists, physicists and engineers, who can conceive and implement advanced microdevices. In a very similar way, the synthesis of glassy polymers in a very wide range of chemical structures offers unprecedented potential of applications. The contemporary availability of microfabrication technologies, such as direct laser writing or 3D printing, which add to the most common processes (deposition, lithography and etching), facilitates the development of novel or advanced microdevices based on glassy materials. Biochemical and biomedical sensors, especially with the lab-on-a-chip target, are one of the most evident proofs of the success of this material platform. Other applications have also emerged in environment, food, and chemical industries. The present Special Issue of Micromachines aims at reviewing the current state-of-the-art and presenting perspectives of further development. Contributions related to the technologies, glassy materials, design and fabrication processes, characterization, and, eventually, applications are welcome.

Keywords

micro-crack propagation --- severing force --- quartz glass --- micro-grinding --- microfluidics --- single-cell analysis --- polymeric microfluidic flow cytometry --- single-cell protein quantification --- glass molding process --- groove --- roughness --- filling ratio --- label-free sensor --- optofluidic microbubble resonator --- detection of small molecules --- chalcogenide glass --- infrared optics --- precision glass molding --- aspherical lens --- freeform optics --- micro/nano patterning --- 2D colloidal crystal --- soft colloidal lithography --- strain microsensor --- vectorial strain gauge --- compound glass --- microsphere --- resonator --- lasing --- sensing --- microresonator --- whispering gallery mode --- long period grating --- fiber coupling --- distributed sensing --- chemical/biological sensing --- direct metal forming --- glassy carbon micromold --- enhanced boiling heat transfer --- metallic microstructure --- microspheres --- microdevices --- glass --- polymers --- solar energy --- nuclear fusion --- thermal insulation --- sol-gel --- Ag nanoaggregates --- Yb3+ ions --- down-shifting --- photonic microdevices --- alkali cells --- MEMS vapor cells --- optical cells --- atomic spectroscopy --- microtechnology --- microfabrication --- MEMS --- microfluidic devices --- laser materials processing --- ultrafast laser micromachining --- ultrafast laser welding --- enclosed microstructures --- glass --- porous media --- fluid displacement --- spray pyrolysis technique --- dielectric materials --- luminescent materials --- photovoltaics --- frequency conversion --- device simulations --- europium --- luminescence --- hybrid materials --- microdevices --- light --- photon --- communications --- waveguides --- fibers --- biosensors --- microstructured optical fibers --- whispering gallery modes --- light localization --- optofluidics --- lab-on-a-chip --- femtosecond laser --- laser micromachining --- diffusion

Plasma Catalysis

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ISBN: 9783038977506 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-751-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Plasma catalysis is gaining increasing interest for various gas conversion applications, such as CO2 conversion into value-added chemicals and fuels, N2 fixation for the synthesis of NH3 or NOx, methane conversion into higher hydrocarbons or oxygenates. It is also widely used for air pollution control (e.g., VOC

Humidity Sensors. Advances in Reliability, Calibration and Application

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211227 / 9783039211234 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-123-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Humidity detection has deep significance for the scientific research surrounding medical care and human performance, and the industrial development of agriculture, geography and automated instruments. This special issue aims to showcase some of the advancements in humidity sensor design and calibration, and its applications. The selected papers cover a variety of humidity sensor-related topics including material science, chemistry and industrial engineering. Through dedicated contributions from peer reviewers and the editorial team, this book aims to offers reader some insight into the field of humidity sensor development and use.

Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

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ISBN: 9783039212293 / 9783039212309 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-230-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Since their discovery, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have received tremendous attention due to their unique electrical, optical, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Remarkable advances have been made in the synthesis, purification, structural characterization, functionalization, and application of MWCNTs. Their particular characteristics make them well suited for a plethora of applications in a number of fields, namely nanoelectronics, nanofluids, energy management, (electro)catalysis, materials science, construction of (bio)sensors based on different detection schemes, multifunctional nanoprobes for biomedical imaging, and sorbents for sample preparation or removal of contaminants from wastewater. They are also useful as anti-bacterial agents, drug delivery nanocarriers, etc. The current relevant application areas are countless. This Special Issue presents original research and review articles that address advances, trends, challenges, and future perspectives regarding synthetic routes, structural features, properties, behaviors, and industrial or scientific applications of MWCNTs in established and emerging areas.

Keywords

water based nanofluid --- carbon-nanotubes --- boundary layer --- heat generation --- thermal radiation --- curved stretching sheet --- numerical solution --- Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) --- Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) --- MHD --- Casson model --- stretching sheet --- non-linear thermal radiation --- HAM --- zeolitic imidazolate framework --- multi-walled carbon nanotubes --- magnetic solid phase extraction --- organochlorine pesticides --- agricultural irrigation water --- Pd-CNT nanohybrids --- functionalized CNTs --- polarity --- semi-homogeneous catalysis --- heck reaction --- nanomaterials --- multi-walled carbon nanotubes --- synthesis methods --- electrochemical properties --- electrochemical sensors --- electroanalysis --- sensing applications --- multiwalled carbon nanotubes --- gold(I) --- gold(III) --- adsorption --- elution --- gold nanoparticles --- adsorption --- multi-walled carbon nanotubes --- nonylphenol --- kinetics --- multi-walled carbon nanotubes --- graphene oxide --- cerium oxide --- lubricating oil additives --- multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) --- azide-alkyne click chemistry --- RAFT polymerization --- PMMA --- carbon nanotubes --- composites --- radar absorbing materials --- complex permittivity --- chloride diffusion --- cement mortars --- carbon nanotubes --- mechanical properties --- electrical properties --- hydrophobic drugs --- drug delivery --- functionalized carbon nanotubes --- dissolution rate --- nanomedicine --- polymeric composites --- silicone rubber --- Ionic liquid --- carbon materials --- structural --- EMI shielding --- n/a

Mineral Fibres

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211449 / 9783039211456 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-145-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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In the last decades, there has been increasing interest in Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) and asbestos containing materials (ACMs) as a source of possible environmental risk. A crucial theme of interest related to environmental pollution is the enhanced mobilization of asbestos minerals affecting soils and rocks due to human activities (e.g., road construction, mining activity) in comparison with natural weathering processes. The volume has aimed to gather contributions and to compare results derived from various experiences of research groups regarding NOA minerals as a source of possible environmental risks for population. Case studies from various geological contexts are presented. Moreover, contributions presenting novel and classical approaches for ACM inertization and recycling, together with possible solutions for reducing asbestos exposure, has been also presented.

Crystal Growth of Multifunctional Borates and Related Materials

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ISBN: 9783038978381 9783038978398 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-839-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Borate crystals are attractive for different technological applications because of their favorable physical and chemical properties like stability and high transparency, both high thermal and non-linear optical coefficients, making them ideal active media for highly efficient solid state lasers. In this Special Issue, different aspects of multifunctional borate crystals are discussed, including ortho- and oxyorthoborates and compounds with condensed anions, as well as their nonlinear optical and laser properties and piezoelectric characteristics. For this reason, complex investigations of the phase relationships in multi-component borate melts, the study of crystal growth conditions of novel high-temperature borates, and the development of the &ldquo;crystallization conditions, composition, structure, and properties&rdquo; concept will provide a scientific basis for growth technologies of high performance electronic and optical devices and components with a variety of industrial, medical and many other applications. In the meantime, these relationships can help to estimate the affinity of synthetic borate materials with their natural prototypes and structural analogues.

Recent Advances in Novel Materials for Future Spintronics

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ISBN: 9783038979760 / 9783038979777 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-977-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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As we all know, electrons carry both charge and spin. The processing of information in conventional electronic devices is based only on the charge of electrons. Spin electronics, or spintronics, uses the spin of electrons, as well as their charge, to process information. Metals, semiconductors, and insulators are the basic materials that constitute the components of electronic devices, and these types of materials have been transforming all aspects of society for over a century. In contrast, magnetic metals, half-metals (including zero-gap half-metals), magnetic semiconductors (including spin-gapless semiconductors), dilute magnetic semiconductors, and magnetic insulators are the materials that will form the basis for spintronic devices. This book aims to collect a range of papers on novel materials that have intriguing physical properties and numerous potential practical applications in spintronics.

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