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In-Cell NMR Spectroscopy: Biomolecular Structure and Function

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ISBN: 9783039282548 / 9783039282555 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-255-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
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This Special Issue examines state-of-the-art in-cell NMR spectroscopy as it relates to biological systems of increasing complexity. The compendia of research and recent innovations from prominent laboratories in the field of solid state and solution in-cell NMR spectroscopy, metabolomics and technology development are presented. The work establishes in-cell NMR spectroscopy as the premier method for determining the structures and interaction capabilities of biological molecules at high resolution within the delicately intricate interior of living cells, and the means of utilizing cells as living laboratories to directly assess the effects of exogenous and endogenous stimuli on cell physiology.]

Pharmaceutical Crystals

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ISBN: 9783039287123 / 9783039287130 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-713-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
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The crystalline state is the most commonly used essential solid active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The characterization of pharmaceutical crystals encompasses many scientific disciplines, but the core is crystal structure analysis, which reveals the molecular structure of essential pharmaceutical compounds. Crystal structure analysis provides important structural information related to the API's wide range of physicochemical properties, such as solubility, stability, tablet performance, color, and hygroscopicity. This book entitled “Pharmaceutical Crystals"" focuses on the relationship between crystal structure and physicochemical properties. In particular, the new crystal structure of pharmaceutical compounds involving multi-component crystals, such as co-crystals, salts, and hydrates, and polymorph crystals are reported. Such crystal structures were investigated in the latest studies that combined morphology, spectroscopic, theoretical calculation, and thermal analysis with crystallographic study. This book highlights the importance of crystal structure information in many areas of pharmaceutical science and presents current trends in the structure–property study of pharmaceutical crystals. The Guest Editors of this book hope the readers enjoy a wide variety of recent studies on Pharmaceutical Crystals.

The Role of Halo Substructure in Gamma-Ray Dark Matter Searches

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ISBN: 9783039360444 / 9783039360451 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03936-045-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Astronomy (General)
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An important, open research topic today is to understand the relevance that dark matter halo substructure may have for dark matter searches. In the standard cosmological model, halo substructure or subhalos are predicted to be largely abundant inside larger halos, for example, galaxies such as ours, and are thought to form first and later merge to form larger structures. Dwarf satellite galaxies—the most massive exponents of halo substructure in our own galaxy—are already known to be excellent targets for dark matter searches, and indeed, they are constantly scrutinized by current gamma-ray experiments in the search for dark matter signals. Lighter subhalos not massive enough to have a visible counterpart of stars and gas may be good targets as well, given their typical abundances and distances. In addition, the clumpy distribution of subhalos residing in larger halos may boost the dark matter signals considerably. In an era in which gamma-ray experiments possess, for the first time, the exciting potential to put to test the preferred dark matter particle theories, a profound knowledge of dark matter astrophysical targets and scenarios is mandatory should we aim for accurate predictions of dark matter-induced fluxes for investing significant telescope observing time on selected targets and for deriving robust conclusions from our dark matter search efforts. In this regard, a precise characterization of the statistical and structural properties of subhalos becomes critical. In this Special Issue, we aim to summarize where we stand today on our knowledge of the different aspects of the dark matter halo substructure; to identify what are the remaining big questions, and how we could address these; and, by doing so, to find new avenues for research.

A Themed Issue of Functional Molecule-based Magnets: Dedicated to Professor Masahiro Yamashita on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday

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ISBN: 9783039289011 / 9783039289028 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-902-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
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Research on molecule-based magnetic materials was systematized in the 1980s and expanded rapidly. A Special Issue focusing on molecule-based magnetic substances was published in Magnetochemistry. However, the functionalities of the substances increase daily; therefore, the researchers’ quest is not yet in decline. Research on molecule-based magnetism developed across many fields, including chemistry, physics, material chemistry, and applied physics, and the use of the various functionalities of these molecule-based magnetic substances has greatly influenced research on spin-based devices. In honor of Professor Masahiro Yamashita, who contributed greatly to this field, I have put together a Special Issue that highlights ten groundbreaking articles. The issue is entitled, “A Themed Issue of Functional Molecule-Based Magnets: Dedicated to Professor Masahiro Yamashita on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday”. I wish to thank the authors for their dedicated work, and the referees and editorial staff for the time they invested commenting on the articles.

Cutting-Edge Technologies for Renewable Energy Production and Storage

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ISBN: 9783039360000 / 9783039360017 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03936-001-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
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Anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are dramatically influencing the environment, and research is strongly committed to proposing alternatives, mainly based on renewable energy sources. Low GHG electricity production from renewables is well established but issues of grid balancing are limiting their application. Energy storage is a key topic for the further deployment of renewable energy production. Besides batteries and other types of electrical storage, electrofuels and bioderived fuels may offer suitable alternatives in some specific scenarios. This Special Issue includes contributions on the energy conversion technologies and use, energy storage, technologies integration, e-fuels, and pilot and large-scale applications.

Advances in Hydrometallurgy

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ISBN: 9783039289394 / 9783039289400 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-940-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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The development of new technologies and the increasing demand for mineral resources from emerging countries are responsible for significant tensions in the pricing of non-ferrous metals. Some metals have become strategic and critical because they are used in many technological applications such as flat panel TVs (indium), solar panel cells (indium), lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles (lithium, cobalt), magnets (rare earth elements, such as neodymium and dysprosium), scintillators (rare earths), and aviation and medical applications (titanium); their availabilities remain limited. The secured supply of these metals is crucial to continue producing and exporting these technologies, and because the specific properties of these metals make them essential and difficult to substitute for a given industrial application. Hydrometallurgy have the advantages of being able to process low-grade ores, to allow better control of co-products, and have a lower environmental impact providing that the hydrometallurgical route is optimized and cheap. The need to develop sustainable, efficient, and cheap processes to extract metals from complex and poor polymetallic matrices is real. The aim of this book was to highlight recent advances related to hydrometallurgy to face new challenges in metal production.

Bio-Based Polymers for Engineered Green Materials

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ISBN: 9783039289257 / 9783039289264 Year: Pages: 568 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-926-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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With daily signals, Nature is communicating us that its unconscious wicked exploitation is no more sustainable. Our socio-economic system focuses on production increasing without considering the consequences. We are intoxicating ourselves on a daily bases just to allow the system to perpetuate itself. The time to switch into more natural solutions is come and the scientific community is ready to offer more natural product with comparable performance then the market products we are used to deal with. This book collects a broad set of scientific examples in which research groups from all over the world, aim to replace fossil fuel-based solutions with biomass derived materials. In here, some of the most innovative developments in the field of bio-materials are reported considering topics which goes from biomass valorization to the synthesis of high preforming bio-based materials.

Keywords

thermoplastic starch --- corn starch --- chitosan --- crosslinked microparticles --- lignin-containing cellulose nanofibrils --- poly(lactic acid) and composite films --- lignin content --- compatibility --- adsorption --- phenanthrene --- pyrene --- benzoyl cellulose --- stearoyl cellulose --- silkworm cocoons --- dense structure --- porosity --- robust fiber network --- mechanical properties --- photodegradation --- liquid natural rubber --- UV light --- TiO2 anatase --- latex state --- wood modification --- alkali lignin --- water resistance --- dimensional stability --- heat treatment --- polymeric composites --- antifouling --- metal binding --- iron chelation --- polydopamine coating --- free-radical polymerization --- galactoglucomannan --- lignin --- lignin-carbohydrate complex --- ultrafiltration --- precipitation --- hydrogel --- recycling --- thermal degradation --- mechanical degradation --- polylactic acid --- Bioflex --- Solanyl --- PHBV --- poly(lactic acid) --- pulp fibers --- biocomposite --- emulsion-solvent evaporation method --- films --- mechanical properties --- PHA --- mixed microbial cultures --- bioplastics --- feast-famine --- cost --- Peptone --- Microbial nutrient --- Anti-bacterial silver nanoparticle --- Escherichia coli --- Staphylococcus aureus --- tannin --- hemicellulose --- waste biomass --- HSQC-NMR --- pyrolysis mechanism --- hydrotropic treatment --- metal chloride --- delignification --- enzymatic saccharification --- lignocellulosic nanofibrils --- microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) --- polylactic acid (PLA) --- toughening --- endothermic effect --- kenaf fiber --- hybrid composites --- bio-based --- film --- mechanical properties --- polysaccharides --- resource recovery --- solution casting --- orange waste --- nanocelluloses --- cellulose nanofibers --- cellulose nanocrystals --- bacterial cellulose --- cement --- fiber-cement --- Hatscheck process --- bio-inspired interfaces --- mechanical properties --- thermal stability --- sensitivity --- electrospinning --- tissue engineering --- paper-based scaffolds --- osteoblast proliferation --- polycaprolactone --- biopolymers --- nanoclays --- nanobiocomposites --- extrusion-compounding --- polyhydroxyalkanoates --- thermal properties --- mechanical properties --- differential scanning calorimetry --- nuclear magnetic resonance --- X-ray diffraction --- transparent wood --- chemical composition --- H2O2 bleaching treatment --- physicochemical properties --- cellulose --- electrical resistance --- copper coating --- electroless deposition --- humidity sensor --- strain sensor --- lyocell fiber --- asphalt rubber --- bio-asphalt --- mixing sequence --- workability --- storage stability --- tung oil --- unsaturated polyester resins --- thermosetting polymers --- structure–property relationship --- structural plastics --- ONP fibers --- silanization --- composites --- mechanical properties --- Artemisia vulgaris --- microcellulose fiber --- nanocellulose fibers --- natural fibers --- Bio-based foams --- wastewater treatments --- cationic dyes --- anionic surfactants --- pollutant adsorbents --- tannin polymer --- tannin-furanic foam --- biopolymers --- nanoclays --- bio-nanocomposites --- extrusion-compounding --- polyhydroxyalkanoates --- thermal properties --- microstructure --- volatiles --- autoxidation --- thermal gravimetric analysis --- scanning electron microscope --- headspace solid phase microextraction --- alginate sponge --- two-step lyophilization --- methylene blue --- adsorption capacity --- biomass resources --- hybrid nonisocyanate polyurethane --- solvent- and catalyst-free --- dimer acid --- melt condensation --- bacterial cellulose --- surface modification --- TEMPO oxidation --- one-pot synthesis --- immobilized TEMPO --- physical property --- skincare --- cellulose --- graphene oxide --- ionic liquid --- membrane --- transport properties --- heavy metals --- porous structure --- SAXS --- WAXS --- cellulose --- wood --- lignocellulose --- ionic liquid --- imidazolium --- fractionation --- dissolution --- GC-MS --- kaempferol --- knotwood --- larixol --- taxifolin --- vibrational spectroscopy --- n/a

Advances in Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Theoretical Modelling, and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039285822 / 9783039285839 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-583-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:56
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This book focuses on recent advances in the synthesis of nanoparticles, their characterization, and their applications in different fields such as catalysis, photonics, magnetism, and nanomedicine. Nanoparticles receive a large share of the worldwide research activity in contemporary materials science. This is witnessed by the number of scientific papers with ""nanoparticle"" as a keyword, increasing linearly in the last 10 years from about 16,000 in 2009 to about 50,000 in 2019. This impressive widespread interest stems from the basic science of nanoparticles, which constitute a bridge between the molecular and the bulk worlds, as well as from their technological applications. The preparation of nanoparticles is a crossroad of materials science where chemists, physicists, engineers, and even biologists frequently meet, leading to a continuous improvement of existing techniques and to the invention of new methods. The reader interested in nanoparticles synthesis and properties will here find a valuable selection of scientific cases that cannot cover all methods and applications relevant to the field, but still provide an updated overview on the fervent research activity focused on nanoparticles.

Manufacturing and Application of Stainless Steels

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ISBN: 9783039286508 / 9783039286515 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-651-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Mining and Metallurgy
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Stainless steels represent a quite interesting material family, both from a scientific and commercial point of view, following to their excellent combination in terms of strength and ductility together with corrosion resistance. Thanks to such properties, stainless steels have been indispensable for the technological progress during the last century and their annual consumption increased faster than other materials. They find application in all these fields requiring good corrosion resistance together with ability to be worked into complex geometries. Despite to their diffusion as a consolidated materials, many research fields are active regarding the possibility to increase stainless steels mechanical properties and corrosion resistance by grain refinement or by alloying by interstitial elements. At the same time innovations are coming from the manufacturing process of such a family of materials, also including the possibility to manufacture them starting from metals powder for 3D printing. The Special Issue scope embraces interdisciplinary work covering physical metallurgy and processes, reporting about experimental and theoretical progress concerning microstructural evolution during processing, microstructure-properties relations, applications including automotive, energy and structural.

Advances in Wood Composites

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ISBN: 9783039285846 / 9783039285853 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-585-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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Wood composites have shown very good performance, and substantial service lives when correctly specified for the exposure risks present. Selection of an appropriate product for the job should be accompanied by decisions about the appropriate protection, whether this is by design, by preservative treatment or by wood modification techniques. This Special Issue, Advances in Wood Composites presents recent progress in enhancing and refining the performance and properties of wood composites by chemical and thermal modification and the application of smart nanomaterials, which have made them a particular area of interest for researchers. In addition, it reviews some important aspects in the field of wood composites, with particular focus on their materials, applications, and engineering and scientific advances, including solutions inspired biomimetrically by the structure of wood and wood composites. This Special Issue, with a collection of 13 original contributions, provides selected examples of recent Advances in Wood Composites

Keywords

wood --- thermal modification --- mechanical properties --- dimensional stability --- color --- chemical structure --- VOCs --- alder plywood --- high-density polyethylene film --- bending strength --- modulus of elasticity in bending --- shear strength --- thickness swelling --- water absorption --- activation volume --- creep behavior --- sol-gel process --- stepped isostress method --- wood-inorganic composites --- wood adhesive --- tunnel-structured --- sepiolite --- rapid formaldehyde release --- wood plastic composite --- graphene nano-platelets --- thermal property --- mechanical property --- water-based UV curing coating --- coating amount --- surface properties --- polyurethane-acrylate --- oak (Quercus alba L.) --- bamboo --- carbothermal reduction --- ceramic --- silicon carbide --- sol–gel process --- thermal modification --- nanocompounds --- mechanical and physical properties --- cellulose --- crystallinity --- biorefinery lignin --- wood panels --- sustainable adhesives --- adhesive penetration --- particleboard properties --- formaldehyde emissions --- bamboo --- chemical modification --- dimensional stability --- dynamic thermodynamic --- acetic anhydride --- methyl methacrylate --- polymer-triticale boards --- thermoplastic polymers --- straw --- hydrophobicity --- mechanical properties --- oriented strand lumber (OSL) --- nanowollastonite --- mechanical and physical properties --- UF resin --- buckling --- WPC --- HDPE --- Southwell’s method --- finite element analysis --- Abaqus --- aquacultural --- structural analysis --- wood --- plastic --- composite --- n/a

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MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (22)


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CC by-nc-nd (22)


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eng (22)


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2020 (22)