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Smart Nanovesicles for Drug Targeting and Delivery

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ISBN: 9783038978947 / 9783038978954 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-895-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Nanovesicles are highly-promising systems for the delivery and/or targeting of drugs, biomolecules and contrast agents. Despite the fact that initial studies in this area were performed on phospholipid vesicles, there is an ever-increasing interest in the use of other molecules to obtain smart vesicular carriers focusing on strategies for targeted delivery. These systems can be obtained using newly synthesized smart molecules, or by intelligent design of opportune carriers to achieve specific delivery to the site of action.

Micro/Nano Materials for Clean Energy and Environment

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ISBN: 9783039211289 / 9783039211296 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-129-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:41:30
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The Tsinghua University–University of Waterloo Joint Research Center for Micro/Nano Energy & Environment Technology (JCMEET) is a platform. It was established on Nov.11, 2017. The Chairperson of University Council of Tsinghua University, Dr. Xu Chen, and the President of the University of Waterloo, Dr. Feridun Hamdullahpur, attended the opening ceremony and unveiled the nameplate for the joint research center on 29th of March, 2018. The research center serves as a platform for researchers at both universities to conduct joint research in the targeted areas, and to meet regularly for information exchange, talent exchange, and knowledge mobilization, especially in the fields of micro/nano, energy, and environmental technologies. The center focuses on three main interests: micro/nano energy technology, micro/nano pollution control technology, and relevant fundamental research. In order to celebrate the first anniversary of the Joint Research Center, we were invited to serve as the Guest Editors of this Special Issue of Materials focusing on the topic of micro/nano-materials for clean energy and environment. It collects research papers from a broad range of topics related to micro/nanostructured materials aimed at future energy resources, low emission energy conversion, energy storage, energy efficiency improvement, air emission control, air monitoring, air cleaning, and many other related applications. This Special Issue provides an opportunity and example for the international community to discuss how to actively address the energy and environment issues that we are facing.

Thin Film Transistor

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ISBN: 9783039215263 / 9783039215270 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-527-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Recently, new wide-band energy gap semiconductors can be grown by ALD, PLD, sputtering, or MOCVD. They have great potential for the fabrication and application to TFTs. Inorganic semiconductors have good stability against environmental degradation over their organic counterparts, whereas organic materials are usually flexible, transparent, and when solution-processed at low temperatures, are prone to degradation when exposed to heat, moisture, and oxygen. For this Special Issue, we invited researchers to submit papers discussing the development of new functional and smart materials, and inorganic as well as organic semiconductor materials, such as ZnO, InZnO, GaO, AlGaO, AnGaO, AlN/GaN, conducting polymers, molecular semiconductors, perovskite-based materials, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanotubes/polymer composites, and 2D materials (e.g., graphene, MoS2) and their potential applications in display drivers, radio frequency identification tags, e-paper, gas, chemical and biosensors, to name but a few.

Nanoparticle-Reinforced Polymers

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ISBN: 9783039212835 / 9783039212842 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-284-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book, a collection of 12 original contributions and 4 reviews, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the preparation, characterization, and applications of polymeric nanocomposites comprising nanoparticles. The concept of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers came about three decades ago, following the outstanding discovery of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. One of the main ideas behind this approach is to improve the matrix mechanical performance. The nanoparticles exhibit higher specific surface area, surface energy, and density compared to microparticles and, hence, lower nanofiller concentrations are needed to attain properties comparable to, or even better than, those obtained by conventional microfiller loadings, which facilitates processing and minimizes the increase in composite weight. The addition of nanoparticles into different polymer matrices opens up an important research area in the field of composite materials. Moreover, many different types of inorganic nanoparticles, such as quantum dots, metal oxides, and ceramic and metallic nanoparticles, have been incorporated into polymers for their application in a wide range of fields, ranging from medicine to photovoltaics, packaging, and structural applications.

Keywords

chemical and physical interface --- surface modification of silica --- latex compounding method --- silica/NR composite --- thermoresponsive hyperbranched polymer --- gold nanoparticles --- in-situ synthesis --- colorimetric sensor --- silver ions --- Ag nanoparticles --- catalysis --- composite membrane --- separation --- SiO2 microspheres --- inorganic nanotubes --- PHBV --- nanomaterials --- morphology --- crystallization kinetics --- nanocomposite --- conductive polymer --- solar cell --- graphene --- graphene oxide --- power-conversion efficiency --- electrode --- active layer --- interfacial layer --- layered structures --- polymer-matrix composites --- mechanical properties --- gas barrier properties --- N-isopropylacrylamide --- N-isopropylmethacrylamide --- ratiometric temperature sensing --- FRET --- chain topology --- selective adsorption --- polymer-NP interface --- organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) --- PFO/MEH-PPV hybrids --- SiO2/TiO2 nanocomposite --- optoelectronic properties --- fluorescent assay --- fluorescence resonance energy transfer --- conjugated polymer nanoparticles --- gold nanoparticles --- melamine --- polymers --- composites --- carbon nanoparticles --- nano-hybrids --- nanocomposites --- sol–gel --- in situ synthesis --- metal oxides --- reduced graphene oxide --- graphene-like WS2 --- bismaleimide --- mechanical properties --- carrier transport --- polypropylene nanocomposite --- molecular chain motion --- electrical breakdown --- electric energy storage --- thermoplastic nanocomposite --- polyethylene --- power cable insulation --- electrical property --- structure-property relationship --- hybrid hydrogels --- nanoparticles --- nanosheets --- clays --- polymers --- adhesion --- n/a

Advances in Chitin/Chitosan Characterization and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038978022 9783038978039 Year: Pages: 414 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-803-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Functional advanced biopolymers have received far less attention than renewable biomass (cellulose, rubber, etc.) used for energy production. Among the most advanced biopolymers known is chitosan. The term chitosan refers to a family of polysaccharides obtained by partial de-N-acetylation from chitin, one of the most abundant renewable resources in the biosphere. Chitosan has been firmly established as having unique material properties as well as biological activities. Either in its native form or as a chemical derivative, chitosan is amenable to being processed—typically under mild conditions—into soft materials such as hydrogels, colloidal nanoparticles, or nanofibers. Given its multiple biological properties, including biodegradability, antimicrobial effects, gene transfectability, and metal adsorption—to name but a few—chitosan is regarded as a widely versatile building block in various sectors (e.g., agriculture, food, cosmetics, pharmacy) and for various applications (medical devices, metal adsorption, catalysis, etc.). This Special Issue presents an updated account addressing some of the major applications, including also chemical and enzymatic modifications of oligos and polymers. A better understanding of the properties that underpin the use of chitin and chitosan in different fields is key for boosting their more extensive industrial utilization, as well as to aid regulatory agencies in establishing specifications, guidelines, and standards for the different types of products and applications.

Keywords

aerogels --- chitosan --- ionic liquids --- ionogels --- zinc–chitosan complexes --- characterization --- bio-sorbent --- phosphate --- adsorption --- mechanism --- thermodynamic --- chitosan --- hydrogel --- phase transition --- gelation mechanism --- chitosan --- defense responses --- fruits --- nanoparticles --- plant growth --- pesticides --- Boron --- chitosan --- iron(III) hydroxide --- neodymium --- sorption --- chitin --- chitosan --- chitosan derivative --- chitin derivative --- oral care --- skin care --- hear care --- marine resources --- over-the counter-drug --- polymer carrier --- chitin --- chitosan --- nanostructured biomaterial --- polymer --- self-masking nanosphere lithography --- cicada --- chitosan --- self-assembled --- polyelectrolyte complex --- nanoparticle --- drug delivery --- Citrobacter --- biosynthesis --- bioflocculant --- chitosan --- metabolic pathway --- PEO/chitosan blend --- swelling --- mechanical properties --- wet and dried states --- chitosan --- biological activity --- medical applications --- chitosan --- PCL --- strontium --- scaffolds --- craniofacial engineering --- chitin --- chitosan --- derivatization --- controlled functionalization --- click chemistry --- graft copolymer --- cyclodextrin --- dendrimer --- ionic liquids --- chitin deacetylases --- chitosan --- chitooligosaccharides --- carbohydrate esterases --- structure --- substrate specificity --- deacetylation pattern --- binary --- chitosan --- desorption --- iron --- lead --- mercury --- salt effects --- single --- sorption competition --- chitosan supported copper --- heterogeneous catalyst --- organosilicon compound --- easily recyclable --- chitosan --- papermaking --- wet-end --- coating --- wastewater --- ionic cross-linking --- eco-friendly formulations --- thermal transition sol-gel --- drug delivery systems --- MTDSC --- DSC --- gene delivery --- non-viral vectors --- chitosan structure --- pDNA --- siRNA --- TEOS --- methylene blue --- chitosan --- modelling --- cross-linking --- interpenetrating --- XRD --- FTIR

Responsive Architecture

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ISBN: 9783039216987 / 9783039216994 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-699-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Arts in general --- Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This book is a collection of articles that have been published in the Special Issue “Responsive Architecture” of the MDPI journal Buildings. The eleven articles within cover various areas of sensitive architecture, including the design of packaging structures reacting to supporting components; structural efficiency of bent columns in indigenous houses; roof forms responsive to buildings depending on their resiliently transformed steel shell parts; creative design of building free shapes covered with transformed shells; artistic structural concepts of the architect and civil engineer; digitally designed airport terminal using wind analysis; rationalized shaping of sensitive curvilinear steel construction; interactive stories of responsive architecture; transformed shell roof constructions as the main determinant in the creative shaping of buildings without shapes that are sensitive to man-made and natural environments; thermally sensitive performances of a special shielding envelope on balconies; quantification of generality and adaptability of building layout using the SAGA method; and influence of initial conditions on the simulation of the transient temperature field inside a wall.

Keywords

bent piles --- structural systems --- vernacular houses --- Ammatoan houses --- building structure --- effectivity --- strength --- corrugated shell roof --- free-form building --- architectural form --- folded sheet --- thin-walled profile --- shape transformation --- steel construction --- building free-form structure --- corrugated shell roof --- architectural form --- thin-walled open profile --- shape transformation --- folded sheet --- steel construction --- performance-oriented design --- parametric architecture --- form-finding --- CFD --- wind analysis --- digital tools --- steel bar structures --- structural analysis --- parametric design --- algorithmic-aided shaping --- responsive architecture --- shadows --- Grasshopper --- Karamba 3D --- interactive architecture --- interaction narrative --- user experience --- situatedness --- agent-based theory --- building free form structure --- corrugated shell roof --- integrated architectural form --- thin-walled open profile --- shape transformation --- folded sheet --- adaptive envelope --- thermal performances --- spanish balcony --- simulation and computational design studies --- responsive architecture --- kinetic envelope --- adaptive design --- interactive architecture --- moveable facade components --- carrier component structures --- sensor interaction --- digital fabrication --- adaptability --- generality --- flexibility --- evaluation tool --- network analysis --- Space Syntax --- justified plan graphs --- spatial analysis --- architectural morphology --- space plan --- boundary conditions for simulation --- initial conditions --- thermal conditions --- heat flow --- numerical analysis --- experimental measurement --- outdoor test cells

AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signalling

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ISBN: 9783038976622 Year: Pages: 452 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-663-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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Starting from a kinase of interest, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has gone far beyond an average biomolecule. Being expressed in all mammalian cell types and probably having a counterpart in every eukaryotic cell, AMPK has attracted interest in virtually all areas of biological research. Structural and biophysical insights have greatly contributed to a molecular understanding of this kinase. From good old protein biochemistry to modern approaches, such as systems biology and advanced microscopy, all disciplines have provided important information. Thus, multiple links to cellular events and subcellular localizations have been established. Moreover, the crucial involvement of AMPK in human health and disease has been evidenced. AMPK accordingly has moved from an interesting enzyme to a pharmacological target. However, despite our extensive current knowledge about AMPK, the growing community is busier than ever. This book provides a snapshot of recent and current AMPK research with an emphasis on work providing molecular insight, including but not limited to novel physiological and pathological functions, or regulatory mechanisms. Up-to-date reviews and research articles are included.

Keywords

exercise --- glucose uptake --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- TBC1D4 --- AS160 --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) --- hypertension --- kidney disease --- nutrient-sensing signals --- oxidative stress --- renin-angiotensin system --- AMPK --- autophagy --- co-expression --- microarrays --- 3T3-L1 --- adipocyte --- differentiation --- AMPK --- tight junctions --- epithelial cells --- ZO-1 --- par complex --- MDCK --- nectin-afadin --- adherent junctions --- TAK1 --- AMPK --- phosphorylation --- AMPK kinase --- endothelial nitric-oxide synthase --- vasodilation --- phenylephrine --- vasoconstriction --- endothelial cells --- ionomycin --- AMPK --- liver --- lipid metabolism --- fatty acid oxidation --- indirect calorimetry --- atrophy --- regrowth --- sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) --- peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-? (PGC1?) --- heat shock protein --- fiber-type --- AMPK --- monocytes --- macrophages --- differentiation --- autophagy --- AML --- MDS --- CML --- CMML --- pregnancy --- catechol-O-methyltransferase --- 2-methoxyestradiol --- preeclampsia --- gestational diabetes mellitus --- AMPK --- IL-1? --- NLRP3 --- nutrition --- dietary fatty acids --- metabolic-inflammation --- nutrigenomics --- AMPK --- LKB1 --- autophagy --- proteasome --- hypertrophy --- atrophy --- skeletal muscle --- AICAR --- mTOR --- protein synthesis --- AMPK --- epigenetics --- chromatin remodeling --- histone modification --- DNA methylation --- medulloblastoma --- sonic hedgehog --- AMPK --- AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) --- spermatozoa --- motility --- mitochondria --- membranes --- signaling --- stress --- assisted reproduction techniques --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- epigenetics --- protein acetylation --- KATs --- HDACs --- acetyl-CoA --- NAD+ --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- glycogen --- exercise --- metabolism --- cellular energy sensing --- energy utilization --- liver --- skeletal muscle --- metabolic disease --- glycogen storage disease --- resveratrol --- AMPK --- hepatocyte --- liver --- steatosis --- transporter --- carrier --- pump --- membrane --- energy deficiency --- AMPK --- infection --- mycobacteria --- host defense --- energy metabolism --- AMPK --- activation loop --- AID --- ?-linker --- ?-linker --- CBS --- LKB1 --- CaMKK2 --- ?RIM --- hypothalamus --- adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase --- adipose tissue --- food intake --- adaptive thermogenesis --- beiging --- AMPK --- HDAC4/5 --- p70S6K --- MyHC I(?), motor endplate remodeling --- soleus muscle --- mechanical unloading --- hindlimb suspension --- AMPK --- synaptic activation --- PKA --- CREB --- soluble Adenylyl cyclase --- Immediate early genes --- transcription --- AMPK --- autophagy --- metabolism --- mTOR --- ULK --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- protein kinase B --- Akt --- insulin signalling --- A769662 --- endothelial function --- n/a

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MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (7)


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CC by-nc-nd (7)


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eng (7)


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2019 (7)