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Water Intake, Body Water Regulation and Health

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ISBN: 9783039286560 / 9783039286577 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-657-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
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The purpose of this Special Issue, “Water Intake, Body Water Regulation, and Health”, is to present novel reviews and experimental data regarding hydration physiology and its implication in overall health. Water has previously been dubbed the forgotten nutrient due to humans’ and animals’ ability to subsist seemingly unchanged across a wide range of daily water intakes. However, with the introduction of stressors such as exercise, diseased states, and/or chronic high or low water intake, the homeostatic signals related to body water regulation can influence organ and whole-body health. This Special Issue will discuss water intake, the scientific rationale surrounding the U.S. and European water intake guidelines, homeostatic mechanisms, diseases related to dysfunction of water regulation, and differences in the volume and the vehicle in which the water is contained (i.e., plain water versus mixed beverages) on water intake during and following exercise. The aim is to continue discussion surrounding water, the previously forgotten nutrient, and highlight the importance of water in daily life.

Foods of Plant Origin

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ISBN: 9783039285662 / 9783039285679 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-567-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
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It is now well accepted that the consumption of plant-based foods is beneficial to human health. Fruits, vegetables, grains, and derived products can be excellent sources of minerals, vitamins, and fiber and usually have a favorable nutrient-to-energy ratio. Furthermore, plant foods are also a rich source of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, carotenoids, and betalains, with potential health benefits for humans. Many epidemiological studies have made a direct link between the consumption of plant foods and health. Human intervention studies have also shown that higher intake/consumption of plant foods can reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases, especially in at-risk populations such as obese people. In addition to its health benefits, plant foods are also used as functional ingredients in food applications such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, and natural colorants. The Special Issue “Foods of Plant Origin” covers biodiscovery, functionality, the effect of different cooking/preparation methods on bioactive (plant food) ingredients, and strategies to improve the nutritional quality of plant foods by adding other food components using novel/alternative food sources or applying non-conventional preparation techniques.

Keywords

functional properties --- orange fleshed sweet potato --- vitamin A --- porridge --- skimmed milk --- durian --- esters --- thioacetals --- thioesters --- volatile compounds --- polyphenols --- propionate --- ‘Ma’afala’ --- Artocarpus altilis --- gluten-free pasta --- underutilized crop --- value-added product --- indigenous crop cultivar --- Cassava --- gari --- retention --- beta-carotene --- vitamin A intake --- Brassica --- stir-frying --- steaming --- boiling --- HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS --- UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS --- sulforaphane --- iberin --- Kakadu plum --- Terminalia ferdinandiana --- antioxidants --- antimicrobial activity --- food preservation --- phytochemicals --- polyphenols --- Australian grown garlic --- Allium sativum L. --- polyphenols --- organosulfur compounds --- antioxidant capacity --- antimicrobial activity --- photo technology --- shelf life --- Capsicum annuum L. --- postharvest quality --- bioactive compounds --- antioxidant activity --- folate --- tropical fruits --- subtropical fruits --- vegetables --- indigenous food --- stable isotope dilution assay --- LC-MS/MS --- Acca sellowiana --- feijoa fruit --- proximate composition --- polyphenols --- vitamins --- minerals --- antimicrobial activity --- Chenopodium quinoa --- bakery products --- DRIs/DRVs (Dietary Reference Intakes/Dietary Reference Values) and AI (Adequate Intake) --- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) --- EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) --- protein quality --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- dietary fibre --- mineral availability --- glycaemic index estimation --- Solanum tuberosum L. --- starch --- digestibility --- freeze-drying --- microwave vacuum drying --- conductive hydro-drying --- instant controlled pressure drop --- processing --- Brassica vegetables --- bioactive compounds --- postharvest processing --- kaempferol --- sinigrin --- plant food --- composition --- nutrients --- vitamins --- phytochemicals --- fibre --- processing --- preservation --- functional properties --- health

Breastfeeding: Short and Long-Term Benefits to Baby and Mother

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039289219 / 9783039289226 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-922-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
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Breastfeeding is the preferred method of feeding in early life. It is also one of the most cost-effective childhood survival interventions. Breastfeeding practices are important for preventing child mortality and morbidity, as well as ensuring the optimal growth, health, and development of infants. The public health benefits of breastfeeding have been well documented in the medical literature, and include the following: associations with decreased risk for early-life diseases such as otitis media, respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea, and early childhood obesity (to name but a few). This Special Issue book includes a collection of studies on the use of novel methods to improve breastfeeding rates, and research exploring the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding for both the infant and mother, including technology-based approaches.

Keywords

breast milk metabolome --- glycome --- lipidome --- free amino acid --- preterm infant --- growth trajectory --- galactagogues --- low milk supply --- lactation --- breast milk --- breast feeding --- human milk carbohydrates --- lactose --- oligosaccharides --- infant --- body composition --- lactation --- daily intake --- breastfeeding frequency --- milk intake --- breastfeeding --- infections --- birth cohort --- hospitalizations --- antibiotic use --- exclusive breastfeeding --- Australia --- skin-to-skin --- culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) --- breastfeeding --- multiple pregnancy --- neonate --- premature birth --- milk bank --- pregnancy outcomes --- breastfeeding --- lactoferrin --- prolonged lactation --- child nutrition --- cortisol --- cortisone --- growth --- circadian rhythm --- human milk --- fenugreek --- milk flow --- milk composition --- litter size --- maternal protein restriction --- plasma metabolic parameters --- caesarean section --- initiation of breastfeeding --- maternal age --- gestational age --- United Arab Emirates --- breastfeeding --- infants --- ECOWAS --- antenatal care --- pregnancy --- infant mortality --- breastfeeding --- EWAS --- DNA methylation --- twins --- EPIC --- NTR --- ALSPAC --- breastfeeding --- caries --- childhood --- Aboriginal --- breastfeeding --- infant --- parity --- maternal behavior --- educational status --- self-efficacy --- risk factors --- prognosis --- sensitivity and specificity --- practice --- breastfeeding --- breast milk --- temperament --- fatty acids --- LC-PUFA --- omega-3 --- omega-6 --- DHA --- AA --- children --- early life nutrition --- perinatal --- maternal stress --- maternal anxiety --- infant crying --- breastfeeding --- breastfeeding --- Africa --- antenatal care --- infants --- ECOWAS --- mortality --- vitamin A --- retinoic acid --- vitamin A deficiency --- lactating mammary gland --- weaning --- involution

Wood Properties and Processing

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ISBN: 9783039288212 / 9783039288229 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-822-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
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Wood-based materials are CO2-neutral, renewable, and considered to be environmentally friendly. The huge variety of wood species and wood-based composites allows a wide scope of creative and esthetic alternatives to materials with higher environmental impacts during production, use and disposal. Quality of wood is influenced by the genetic and environmental factors. One of the emerging uses of wood are building and construction applications. Modern building and construction practices would not be possible without use of wood or wood-based composites. The use of composites enables using wood of lower quality for the production of materials with engineered properties for specific target applications. Even more, the utilization of such reinforcing particles as carbon nanotubes and nanocellulose enables development of a new generation of composites with even better properties. The positive aspect of decomposability of waste wood can turn into the opposite when wood or wood-based materials are exposed to weathering, moisture oscillations, different discolorations, and degrading organisms. Protective measures are therefore unavoidable for many outdoor applications. Resistance of wood against different aging factors is always a combined effect of toxic or inhibiting ingredients on the one hand, and of structural, anatomical, or chemical ways of excluding moisture on the other.

Keywords

artificial weathering --- blue staining fungi --- colour change --- natural weathering --- wood --- marketing --- material preference --- urban housing --- immigrants --- building culture background --- building material --- chemical changes --- colour changes --- infrared spectroscopy --- hardwoods --- roughness --- Douglas-fir --- lumber --- non-destructive testing --- modulus of elasticity (MOE) --- stiffness --- thinning --- silviculture --- wood based composites --- hybrid beams --- bending stiffness --- flexural rigidity --- aluminium reinforcements --- wooden windows --- end-product-based fiber attribute determinates --- longitudinal stress wave velocity --- mixed-effects hierarchical linear models --- predictive performance --- bamboo grid packing --- cooling packing --- cooling tower --- mechanical properties --- fungi --- bamboo --- heat treatment --- wood --- structural changes --- nondestructive testing --- ultrasound --- Euler-Bernoulli --- modulus of elasticity --- neural network --- high frequency drying --- moisture content --- wood --- brittleness --- density --- dynamic strength --- High-Energy Multiple Impact (HEMI)–test --- Resistance to Impact Milling (RIM) --- bamboo grid packing --- cooling packing --- cooling tower --- chemical composition --- elemental composition --- FTIR --- color --- tropical woods --- brown rot --- Coniophora puteana --- colour --- CIEL*a*b* system --- technological and product innovations --- cyclic loading --- laminated wood --- deflection at the limit of proportionality --- deflection at the modulus of rupture --- wood-processing industry performance --- orthotropic --- elastic constants --- green larch --- compression --- three-point bending --- coefficient of wood bendability --- laminated wood --- technological and product innovations --- minimal curve radius --- orthotropic --- tensile modulus --- tensile strength --- moisture content --- relative humidity --- glued lamella --- flexible chair --- weight of a user --- ultimate state --- volume yield --- European hardwoods --- low quality round wood --- strength grading --- glulam --- ultrasonic wave velocity measurement --- nondestructive assessment --- wood mechanical properties --- intra-ring variation --- dynamic modulus of elasticity --- Pinus massoniana Lamb. --- phenol formaldehyde resin --- wood impregnation --- wood properties --- cell-wall mechanics --- ultrasonic speed --- poplar seedlings --- acoustic resonance --- density --- microfibril angle --- root-collar diameter --- machinability --- Eucalyptus --- plantation timber --- fiber-managed hardwoods

Optoelectronic Nanodevices

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ISBN: 9783039286966 / 9783039286973 Year: Pages: 338 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-697-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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During the last decade, novel graphene related materials (GRMs), perovskites, as well as metal oxides and other metal nanostructures have received the interest of the scientific community. Due to their extraordinary physical, optical, thermal, and electrical properties, which are correlated with their 2D ultrathin atomic layer structure, large interlayer distance, ease of functionalization, and bandgap tunability, these nanomaterials have been applied in the development or the improvement of innovative optoelectronic applications, as well as the expansion of theoretical studies and simulations in the fast-growing fields of energy (photovoltaics, energy storage, fuel cells, hydrogen storage, catalysis, etc.), electronics, photonics, spintronics, and sensing devices. The continuous nanostructure-based applications development has provided the ability to significantly improve existing products and to explore the design of materials and devices with novel functionalities. This book demonstrates some of the most recent trends and advances in the interdisciplinary field of optoelectronics. Most articles focus on light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells (SCs), including organic, inorganic, and hybrid configurations, whereas the rest address photodetectors, transistors, and other well-known dynamic optoelectronic devices. In this context, this exceptional collection of articles is directed at a broad scientific audience of chemists, materials scientists, physicists, and engineers, with the goals of highlighting the potential of innovative optoelectronic applications incorporating nanostructures and inspiring their realization.

Keywords

localized surface plasmon --- green LED --- cathodoluminescence --- FDTD --- NiCo2S4 nanotubes --- Ti porous film --- quantum dot --- solar cells --- counter electrode --- metasurfaces --- orthogonal polarization --- high-efficiency --- polarization analyzer --- green LEDs --- InGaN/GaN superlattice --- V-pits --- external quantum efficiency --- PeLEDs --- OAB --- perovskite --- quantum confinement effect --- transparent electrode --- Ag film --- nucleation layer --- organic solar cell --- graphene oxide --- oxidation --- photodetector --- light-emitting diodes --- quantum dots --- stability --- color-conversion efficiency --- photoluminescence --- p-type InGaN --- graded indium composition --- hole injection --- quantum efficiency --- green LED --- 2D perovskite --- controllable synthesis --- flexible substrate --- photodetector --- photoelectric performance --- photodetector --- organic --- photomultiplication --- tunneling --- external quantum efficiency --- liquid crystals --- metasurfaces --- plasmonics --- actively tunable nanodevices --- solvent --- compact --- smooth --- perovskite solar cells --- indium nanoparticles (In NPs) --- textured silicon solar cells --- antireflective coating (ARC) --- plasmonic forward scattering --- InN/p-GaN heterojunction --- interface --- photovoltaics --- GaN --- LED --- nano-grating --- metamaterials --- mid infrared --- graphene split-ring --- gold split-ring --- electromagnetically induced transparency effect --- transparent conductive electrode --- Ga2O3 --- AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode --- transmittance --- sheet resistance --- electrowetting --- tunable absorbers --- subwavelength metal grating --- plasmon resonance --- field emission --- graphene --- reduced graphene oxide --- polymer composites --- graphene ink --- cold cathode --- Fowler–Nordheim --- CdTe microdots --- Schottky barrier --- photodetector --- piezo-phototronic effect --- UV LEDs --- double-layer ITO --- pinhole pattern --- current spreading --- light output power --- flip-chip mini-LED --- prism-structured sidewall --- waveguide photons --- light extraction --- erbium --- silicon transistor --- photocurrent --- colorimetry --- excitation wavelength --- light-emitting diode --- quantum dots --- ternary organic solar cells --- graphene ink --- functionalization --- air-processed --- cascade effect --- charge transfer --- n/a

Mineralogy of Noble Metals and “Invisible” Speciations of These Elements in Natural Systems

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ISBN: 9783039286348 / 9783039286355 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-635-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
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This Special Issue covers a broad range of topics related to the mineralogy of noble metals (Au, Ag, Pt, Pd, Rh, and Ru) and the occurrence, formation, and distribution of these elements in natural ore-forming systems. This collection of eleven research articles discusses various problems related to these topics. I hope this Special Issue will contribute to a better understanding of the genesis of gold, silver, and other noble metal deposits as well as the behavior of these elements in endogenic and supergene environments, and suggest ways forward to solving the problem of their full extraction from ores.

Keywords

gold selenide --- gold sulfoselenide --- colloids --- nanoparticles --- nucleation --- liquid intermediates --- deposition --- XPS --- sulfide minerals --- platinum --- deposition --- valleriite --- chloride complexes --- zircon U–Pb age --- in situ sulfur isotopes --- gold source --- ore genesis --- Chaoyangzhai gold deposit --- Southeast Guizhou --- mineralization age --- Nibao gold deposit --- ore-forming fluid --- Rb–Sr isotopic composition --- Yunnan–Guizhou–Guangxi “Golden Triangle” region --- Gaching ore deposit --- mustard gold --- calaverite --- maletoyvayamite --- Fe-Sb(Te,As,Se,S)-oxides --- Au-Sb(Te,Se,S,As)-oxides --- Cu-Fe-Ni-S system --- platinum-group elements --- Au --- Ag --- metalloid elements --- fractional crystallization --- drop-shaped inclusions --- noble metals --- invisible species --- distribution --- pyrite --- arsenopyrite --- structural and surficial modes --- arsenopyrite --- crystal lattice --- ligand surroundings --- non-equal positions --- Mössbauer Effect --- gold --- “invisible” gold --- gold ore deposits --- Kagan ultramafic massif --- Southern Urals --- antigorite serpentinites --- magnetite veins --- gold mineralization --- native gold --- thermodynamic modeling --- fluid regime --- Fennoscandian Shield --- Kolmozero–Voronya belt --- Oleninskoe deposit --- mustard gold --- dyscrasite --- chlorargyrite --- gold ore field --- karst cavities --- monolithic and porous gold --- Tl oxides (avicennite) --- Tl carbonates --- Tl tellurates and antimonates --- n/a

Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality

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ISBN: 9783039289479 / 9783039289486 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-948-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
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During the last few years, industrial fermentation technologies have advanced in order to improve the quality of the final product. Some examples of those modern technologies are the biotechnology developments of microbial materials, such as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts or lactic bacteria from different genera. Other technologies are related to the use of additives and adjuvants, such as nutrients, enzymes, fining agents, or preservatives and their management, which directly influence the quality and reduce the risks in final fermentation products. Other technologies are based on the management of thermal treatments, filtrations, pressure applications, ultrasounds, UV, and so on, which have also led to improvements in fermentation quality in recent years. The aim of the issue is to study new technologies able to improve the quality parameters of fermentation products, such as aroma, color, turbidity, acidity, or any other parameters related to improving sensory perception by the consumers. Food safety parameters are also included.

Keywords

itaconic acid --- A. terreus --- pH control --- glucose --- kinetic analysis --- Gompertz-model --- biogenic amines --- ethyl carbamate --- ochratoxin A --- sulfur dioxide --- phthalates --- HACCP --- Yeasts --- alcoholic beverages --- resveratrol --- glutathione --- trehalose --- tryptophan --- melatonin --- serotonin --- tyrosol --- tryptophol --- hydroxytyrosol --- IAA --- probiotics --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- Lachancea thermotolerans --- Metschnikowia pulcherrima --- Schizosaccharomyces pombe --- Pichia kluyveri --- non-Saccharomyces --- biocontrol application --- non-Saccharomyces screening --- SO2 reduction --- lactic acid bacteria --- yeasts --- chemical analyses --- volatile compounds --- sensory evaluation --- shiraz --- low-ethanol wines --- sequential culture --- Hanseniaspora uvarum yeast --- aromatic/sensorial profiles --- narince --- autochthonous --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- aroma --- white wine --- cashew apple juice --- non-conventional yeasts --- alcoholic beverages --- aroma profile --- Hanseniaspora guilliermondii --- Torulaspora microellipsoides --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- meta-taxonomic analysis --- vineyard soil --- wine-related bacteria --- wine-related fungi --- sequential inoculation --- Saccharomyces --- non-Saccharomyces --- Riesling --- aroma compound --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- Pichia kluyveri --- Lachancea thermotolerans --- Tannat --- must replacement --- hot pre-fermentative maceration --- wine color --- wine composition --- climate change --- food quality --- viticulture --- wine --- fermentation --- yeast --- Saccharomyces --- non-Saccharomyces --- alcoholic fermentation --- lactic acid bacteria --- malolactic fermentation --- native yeast --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- aroma --- Malvar (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) --- white wine --- yeasts --- Bombino bianco --- technological characterization --- enzymatic patterns --- amino acid decarboxylation --- Lachancea thermotolerans --- non-Saccharomyces --- Saccharomyces --- acidity --- food safety --- HACCP --- wine quality --- color --- human health-promoting compounds --- biocontrol --- wine flavor --- low ethanol wine --- Vineyard Microbiota --- wine color --- wine aroma --- climate change

Advances in Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production, Volume 2

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ISBN: 9783039286409 / 9783039286416 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-641-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
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Nowadays, we are witnessing highly dynamic research activities related to the intriguing field of biodegradable materials with plastic-like properties. These activities are stimulated by the strengthened public awareness of prevailing ecological issues connected to growing piles of plastic waste and increasing greenhouse gas emissions; this goes hand-in-hand with the ongoing depletion of fossil feedstocks, which are traditionally used to produce full carbon backbone polymers. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolyesters, a family of plastic-like materials with versatile material properties, are increasing considered to be a future-oriented solution for diminishing these concerns. PHA production is based on renewable resources and occurs in a bio-mediated fashion through the action of living organisms. If accomplished in an optimized way, PHA production and the entire PHA lifecycle are embedded into nature´s closed cycles of carbon. Sustainable and efficient PHA production requires understanding and improvement of all the individual process steps. Holistic improvement of PHA production, applicable on an industrially relevant scale, calls for, inter alia, consolidated knowledge about the enzymatic and genetic particularities of PHA-accumulating organisms, an in-depth understanding of the kinetics of the bioprocess, the selection of appropriate inexpensive fermentation feedstocks, tailoring of PHA composition at the level of its monomeric constituents, optimized biotechnological engineering, and novel strategies for PHA recovery from biomass characterized by low energy and chemical requirements. This Special Issue represents a comprehensive compilation of articles in which these individual aspects have been addressed by globally recognized experts.

Keywords

polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), bioprocess design --- carbon dioxide --- cyanobacteria --- upstream processing --- Archaea --- bioeconomy --- biopolyester --- downstream processing --- extremophiles --- haloarchaea --- Haloferax --- halophiles --- polyhydroxyalkanoates --- salinity --- polyhydroxyalkanoates --- terpolymer --- P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB) --- Cupriavidus malaysiensis --- polyhydroxyalkanoates --- biomedicine --- biomaterials --- Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) --- tissue engineering --- wound healing --- delivery system --- poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHVB) --- poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) --- bubble column bioreactor --- COMSOL --- microorganism --- PHB --- simulation --- polyhydroxyalkanoate --- PHA --- process analytical technologies --- PAT --- plant oil --- high-cell-density fed-batch --- photon density wave spectroscopy --- PDW --- Ralstonia eutropha --- Cupriavidus necator --- on-line --- in-line --- polyhydroxyalkanoates --- fed-batch --- productivity --- Pseudomonas --- bioreactor --- microaerophilic --- PHA --- viscosity --- non-Newtonian fluid --- fed-batch fermentation --- oxygen transfer --- Pseudomonas putida --- medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) --- alginate --- biosurfactants --- biopolymer --- Pseudomonas --- blends --- film --- polyhydroxyalkanoates processing --- electrospinning --- additive manufacturing --- selective laser sintering --- fused deposition modeling --- computer-aided wet-spinning --- polyhydroxybutyrate --- tequila bagasse --- hydrolysate detoxification --- activated charcoal --- phenolic compounds --- biomedical application --- cyanobacteria --- feedstocks --- gaseous substrates --- haloarchaea --- high cell density cultivation --- in-line monitoring --- PHA composition --- PHA processing --- polyhydroxyalkanoate --- process engineering --- process simulation --- Pseudomonas sp. --- rheology --- terpolyester --- waste streams

Molecular Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology of Crop Plants Breeding

Author:
ISBN: 9783039288779 / 9783039288786 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-878-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Plant Sciences
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This Special Issue on molecular genetics, genomics, and biotechnology in crop plant breeding seeks to encourage the use of the tools currently available. It features nine research papers that address quality traits, grain yield, and mutations by exploring cytoplasmic male sterility, the delicate control of flowering in rice, the removal of anti-nutritional factors, the use and development of new technologies for non-model species marker technology, site-directed mutagenesis and GMO regulation, genomics selection and genome-wide association studies, how to cope with abiotic stress, and an exploration of fruit trees adapted to harsh environments for breeding purposes. A further four papers review the genetics of pre-harvest spouting, readiness for climate-smart crop development, genomic selection in the breeding of cereal crops, and the large numbers of mutants in straw lignin biosynthesis and deposition.

Keywords

phloem metabolites --- electrospray ionisation --- mass spectrometry --- cultivar --- quality groups --- nitrogen --- faba bean --- zt-1 --- linkage map --- SSR --- ISSR --- Brassica napus --- GmDof4 --- GmDof11 --- oleic acid --- fatty acid composition --- differentially expressed genes --- drought --- RNA-seq --- RNA editing --- wheat --- climate change --- mapping populations --- genetic resources --- mutation breeding --- genome editing --- new plant breeding techniques --- “omics” data --- bioinformatics --- rice --- CRISPR/Cas9 --- Wx --- TGW6 --- mutations --- maintainer --- cytoplasmic male sterile --- amylose content --- anther --- protein --- cytoplasmic male sterility --- fertility restoration --- sunflower --- Rf1 gene --- GWAS --- Pentatricopeptide Repeats --- PPR genes --- association mapping --- candidate genes --- gene mapping --- lodicule --- non-open hull 1(noh1) --- rice --- crops --- quantitative genetics --- estimated breeding value --- genomic prediction --- plant breeding --- breeding scheme --- pedigree --- genetic value --- wheat --- pre-harvest sprouting --- seed dormancy --- abscisic acid --- gibberellin --- QTL/genes --- brown midrib --- cell wall --- gold hull and internode --- grass family --- lignin --- monolignol pathway --- mutational breeding --- orange lemma --- transgenic cereals --- SNP --- SSR --- next generation sequencing --- genotyping by sequencing --- Japanese plum --- SSR --- diversity --- genetic structure --- candidate genes --- genomic selection --- mutants --- ddRAD sequencing --- genotyping-by-sequencing --- CRISPR/Cas9 site directed mutagenesis --- genome-wide association scan --- genetic modification --- F1 hybrids --- QTL

Human Milk and Lactation

Author:
ISBN: 9783039289233 / 9783039289240 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-924-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
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Human milk is uniquely tailored to meet infants’ specific nutritional requirements. However, it is more than just “milk”. This dynamic and bioactive fluid allows mother–infant signalling over lactation, guiding the infant in the developmental and physiological processes. It exerts protection and life-long biological effects, playing a crucial role in promoting healthy growth and optimal cognitive development. The latest scientific advances have provided insight into different components of human milk and their dynamic changes over time. However, the complexity of human milk composition and the synergistic mechanisms responsible for its beneficial health effects have not yet been unravelled. Filling this knowledge gap will shed light on the biology of the developing infant and will contribute to the optimization of infant feeding, particularly that of the most vulnerable infants. Greater understanding of human milk will also help in elucidating the best strategies for its storage and handling. The increasing knowledge on human milk’s bioactive compounds together with the rapidly-advancing technological achievements will greatly enhance their use as prophylactic or therapeutic agents. The current Special Issue aims to welcome original works and literature reviews further exploring the complexity of human milk composition, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects associated with breastfeeding, and the factors and determinants involved in lactation, including its promotion and support.

Keywords

human milk --- preterm --- term --- infants --- lipids --- fatty acids --- human milk fortification --- docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) --- mothers’ own milk --- donor human milk --- arachidonic acid (ARA) --- eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) --- bioactive factors --- carotenoids --- dietary intake --- high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) --- human milk --- lactation --- maternal diet --- prospective study --- Human Milk --- Preterm infant --- Phospholipids --- Lipidomics --- Milk Fat Globule Membrane --- breastfeeding --- late preterm --- protective factors --- promotion of breastfeeding --- breastfeeding support --- mammary gland --- immune-active proteins --- proteases --- protease inhibitors --- digestive tract --- antenatal --- expressing --- pregnancy --- video instruction --- colostrum --- breastfeeding --- online --- clinical trial --- lactation --- infants --- breastfeeding --- lactating women --- human milk benefits --- colostrum --- milk therapy --- bioactive factors --- 2?-fucosyllactose (2?FL) --- 3?-sialyllactose (3?SL) --- disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT) --- human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) --- milk group --- secretor --- Lewis --- lactation --- preterm --- adipokines --- antioxidants --- breastfeeding --- cytokines --- growth factors --- human milk --- preterm --- term --- neonate --- infant --- macronutrients --- protein --- fat --- lactose --- nutrition --- passive immunization --- maternal immunoglobulins --- lactation --- prematurity --- flu vaccine --- human milk --- human milk --- omega-3 fatty acids --- docosahexaenoic acid --- eicosapentaenoic acid --- ?-linolenic acid --- dietary intake --- food frequency questionnaire --- vitamin D deficiency --- supplementation --- breastfeeding --- mothers --- infants --- human milk --- targeted metabolomics --- amino acids --- lipid metabolites --- LC-MS --- flow injection analysis --- human milk --- protein --- glycoprotein --- endogenous peptide --- breastfeeding --- hormones --- adipokines --- breast milk --- growth --- body composition --- term infant --- human milk --- term --- preterm --- calcium --- phosphorus --- magnesium --- zinc --- iron --- copper --- iodine --- selenium --- potassium --- sodium --- n-9 fatty acid --- nervonic acid --- human milk fat --- infant formula --- lactational stage --- donor human milk --- high pressure processing --- carotenoids --- antioxidant capacity --- lipids --- bile salt stimulated lipase --- preterm --- retinol --- ?-tocopherol --- inadequate intake --- nutritional status --- breast milk --- undernourishment --- dietary assessment --- multiple source method --- human milk --- celiac disease --- hormones --- fatty acids --- duration of lactation --- country --- carbohydrate --- fat --- breastfeeding difficulties --- early breastfeeding cessation --- term infants --- breastfeeding support --- human milk --- donor milk --- choline --- phosphocholine --- storage --- pasteurization --- milk banking --- pumping --- breastfeeding --- lactation --- n/a

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MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (13)


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eng (13)


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2020 (13)