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Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches

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ISBN: 9783039287482 / 9783039287499 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-749-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Multiple factors can directly influence the chemical composition of foods and, consequently, their organoleptic, nutritional, and bioactive properties, including their geographical origin, the variety or breed, as well as the conditions of cultivation, breeding, and/or feeding, among others. Therefore, there is a great interest in the development of accurate, robust, and high-throughput analytical methods to guarantee the authenticity and traceability of foods. For these purposes, a large number of sensorial, physical, and chemical approaches can be used, which must be normally combined with advanced statistical tools. In this vein, the aim of the Special Issue “Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends, and Emerging Approaches” is to gather original research papers and review articles focused on the development and application of analytical techniques and emerging approaches in food authentication. This Special Issue comprises 12 valuable scientific contributions, including one review article and 11 original research works, dealing with the authentication of foods with great commercial value, such as olive oil, Iberian ham, and fruits, among others.

Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039289653 / 9783039289660 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-966-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Bone tissue engineering aims to develop artificial bone substitutes that partially or totally restore the natural regeneration capability of bone tissue lost under circumstances of injury, significant defects, or diseases such as osteoporosis. In this context, biomaterials are the keystone of the methodology. Biomaterials for bone tissue engineering have evolved from biocompatible materials that mimic the physical and chemical environment of bone tissue to a new generation of materials that actively interacts with the physiological environment, accelerating bone tissue growth. Mathematical modelling and simulation are important tools in the overall methodology. This book presents an overview of the current investigations and recent contributions in the field of bone tissue engineering. It includes several successful examples of multidisciplinary collaboration in this transversal area of research. The book is intended for students, researchers, and professionals of a number of disciplines, such as engineering, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biomedicine, biology, and veterinary. The book is composed of an editorial section and 16 original research papers authored by leading researchers of this discipline from different laboratories across the world

Keywords

Pelvis --- Bone tumor --- 3D-printed implant --- Fixation design --- von Mises stress --- dental implants --- osseointegration --- resonance frequency analysis --- biomaterials --- titanium --- powder metallurgy --- loose sintering --- finite element method --- mechanical behaviour --- bone tissue regeneration --- computed tomography --- Xenografts --- stem cell --- cartilage --- finite element --- finite-element simulation --- electric stimulation --- bone regeneration --- computational modelling --- electrically active implants --- bioelectromagnetism --- critical size defect --- maxillofacial --- minipig --- oxygen delivery --- optimization --- mass transfer --- transport --- bone tissue engineering --- computational fluid dynamics --- Lattice Boltzmann method --- scaffold design --- culturing protocol --- Lagrangian scalar tracking --- cortical bone --- damage --- finite elements --- numerical results --- adipogenesis --- bone marrow --- MSCs --- prediction marker --- bone tissue --- elastoplasticity --- finite element method --- fracture risk --- osteoporosis --- trabeculae --- trabecular bone score --- vertebra --- biomechanics --- finite element modelling --- pelvis --- bone adaptation --- musculoskeletal modelling --- bone tissue engineering --- biomaterials --- computational mechanobiology --- numerical methods in bioengineering --- Ti6Al4V scaffolds --- triply periodic minimal surfaces --- selective laser melting --- additive manufacturing --- biomaterial applications --- finite element analysis --- spark plasma sintering --- wollastonite --- human dental pulp stem cells --- substrate-mediated electrical stimulation --- direct current electric field --- osteo-differentiation --- bone morphogenesis proteins --- cortical bone --- digital image correlation --- multiscale analysis --- micromechanics --- computational mechanics --- cone beam computed tomography --- automatic segmentation --- sliding window --- 3D virtual surgical plan --- Otsu’s method --- n/a

Kidney Inflammation, Injury and Regeneration

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ISBN: 9783039285389 / 9783039285396 Year: Pages: 496 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-539-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is still associated with high morbidity and mortality incidence rates, and also bears an elevated risk of subsequent chronic kidney disease. Although the kidney has a remarkable capacity for regeneration after injury and may recover completely depending on the type of renal lesions, the options for clinical intervention are restricted to fluid management and extracorporeal kidney support. The development of novel therapies to prevent AKI, to improve renal regeneration capacity after AKI, and to preserve renal function is urgently needed. The Special Issue covers research articles that investigated the molecular mechanisms of inflammation and injury during different renal pathologies, renal regeneration, diagnostics using new biomarkers, and the effects of different stimuli like medication or bacterial components on isolated renal cells or in vivo models. The Special Issue contains important reviews that consider the current knowledge of cell death and regeneration, inflammation, and the molecular mechanisms of kidney diseases. In addition, the potential of cell-based therapy approaches that use mesenchymal stromal/stem cells or their derivates is summarized. This edition is complemented by reviews that deal with the current data situation on other specific topics like diabetes and diabetic nephropathy or new therapeutic targets.

Keywords

kidney injury --- alport syndrome --- modifier gene --- nephrin --- podocin --- glomerular basement membrane --- slit diaphragm --- focal segmental glomerulosclerosis --- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) --- DSS-colitis --- glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) --- type IV collagen --- type I collagen --- type V collagen --- genotype --- IL-18 --- polymorphism --- renal cell carcinoma --- Taiwan --- mesenchymal stem cells --- acute and chronic kidney disease --- exosome --- natural products --- non-coding RNAs --- microRNAs --- long non-coding RNAs --- renal fibrosis --- biomarkers --- therapeutics targets --- rhabdomyolysis --- pigment nephropathy --- haem --- NLRP3 inflammasome --- acute kidney injury --- hypertension --- kidney --- molecular signaling --- hematuria --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- tubular injury --- AKI --- chronic kidney disease (CKD) --- mesenchymal stromal cells --- extracellular vesicles --- acute kidney injury --- modified-MSCs --- microRNA --- mesenchymal stem cell --- mesodermal stem cell --- renal ischemia-reperfusion --- inflammation --- kidney transplantation --- microRNA --- extracellular vesicles --- exosomes --- B-cell attracting chemokine --- CXCL13 --- kidney transplantation --- allograft rejection --- T cell-mediated rejection --- diabetic nephropathy --- lysophosphatidic acid --- lysophosphatidic acid receptor --- chronic kidney injury --- kidney proximal tubule --- acute kidney failure --- signal transduction --- transcription --- CREB Regulated Transcriptional Coactivators (CRTC) --- cAMP Regulatory Element Binding Protein (CREB) --- Salt Inducible Kinase (SIK) --- Class IIa Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) --- lncRNA --- long non-coding RNA --- miRNA --- kidney --- glomerulus --- podocyte --- acute kidney injury --- AKI --- diabetic nephropathy --- diabetic kidney disease --- diabetic nephropathy --- inflammation --- signaling cascade --- ischemia-reperfusion --- acute kidney injury --- stem cell --- conditioned medium --- inflammation --- apoptosis --- necrosis --- regulated necrosis --- kidney injury --- tubular injury --- glomerular injury --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- omega-3 fatty acid --- inflammatory maker --- C-reactive protein --- interleukin-6 --- LPS-binding protein --- fibrosis --- pericyte --- myofibroblast --- endotoxemia-induced oliguric kidney injury --- arachidonic acid --- cyclooxygenase --- lipoxygenase --- cytochrome P450 --- kidney inflammation --- therapeutic target --- obese kidney fibrosis --- endotoxemia --- ROS --- cPLA2 and COX-2 --- IgA nephropathy --- KIT assay --- KIT-IgA score --- noninvasive --- diagnostics --- prediction --- diabetic kidney diseases --- xanthine oxidase --- glomerular damage --- acute kidney injury --- chronic kidney disease --- renal progenitors --- polyploidization --- diabetic nephropathy --- diabetes mellitus --- GLP-1 receptor agonists --- SGLT2 inhibitors --- molecular mechanisms --- chemerin --- CmklR1 --- 2-kidney-1-clip --- 2k1c --- Thy1.1 nephritis --- renovascular hypertension --- renal inflammation --- renal injury --- renal fibrosis --- inflammation --- ischemia/reperfusion injury --- Farnesiferol B --- Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) --- G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5) --- renal stem cells --- differentiation --- scattered tubular cells --- papilla --- niches --- renal tubular cells --- epithelial cells --- proximal tubule --- cytotoxicity --- injury --- inflammation --- empagliflozin --- dapagliflozin --- kidney --- n/a

Development of Unconventional Reservoirs

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ISBN: 9783039285808 / 9783039285815 Year: Pages: 522 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-581-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The need for energy is increasing and but the production from conventional reservoirs is declining quickly. This requires an economically and technically feasible source of energy for the coming years. Among some alternative future energy solutions, the most reasonable source is from unconventional reservoirs. As the name “unconventional” implies, different and challenging approaches are required to characterize and develop these resources. This Special Issue covers some of the technical challenges for developing unconventional energy sources from shale gas/oil, tight gas sand, and coalbed methane.

Keywords

CO2 huff-n-puff --- condensate recovery --- shale gas condensate reservoir --- fractured tight reservoir --- stress-dependent permeability --- fracture penetration extent --- theoretical model --- shale gas --- multi-stage fracturing horizontal wells --- well interference --- transient pressure --- numerical analysis --- shale gas --- methane adsorption capacity --- Langmuir volume --- Langmuir pressure --- total organic carbon --- clay content --- coal rank --- petrophysical properties --- coalbed methane --- adsorption capacity --- Niutitang formation --- TOC recovery --- organic pores --- porosity --- pore structure --- unconventional reservoirs --- gravel pack --- sand control --- gradation optimization --- visual experiment --- coal measure gases (coalbed gas --- shale gas --- and tight sand gas) --- co-exploitation --- wellbore stability --- wettability --- zeta potential --- drilling fluid --- adsorption and desorption isotherms --- sorption hysteresis --- medium volatile bituminous coal --- equation of state --- NIST-Refprop --- gas compressibility factors --- original gas in-place --- gas shale --- NMR --- helium porosimetry --- clay bound water --- porosity --- pore size distribution --- low-pressure gas adsorption --- MICP --- tight gas reservoirs --- Klinkenberg slippage theory --- high pressure and low flowrate --- gas permeability measurement --- adsorption --- unconventional reservoirs --- pulse decay test --- unsteady state non-equilibrium sorption --- pseudo-steady-state non-equilibrium sorption --- equilibrium sorption --- capillary number --- initial water saturation --- capillary trapping --- residual gas distribution --- nuclear magnetic resonance --- ultra-deep well --- shock loads --- perforated string --- safety analysis --- optimization measures --- convolutional neural network --- well testing --- tight reservoirs --- pressure derivative --- automatic classification --- air flooding --- catalyst-activated low temperature oxidation --- oxidation reaction pathway --- catalytic oxidation characteristics --- Changqing tight oil --- organic-rich shale --- gas adsorption and desorption --- sorption hysteresis --- Langmuir model --- compositional 3D --- dual-porosity system --- total organic carbon (TOC) --- Computer Modelling Group (CMG) --- GEM® --- coalbed methane --- gas content --- diffusion coefficient --- reservoir simulation --- deepwater well --- perforation safety --- peak pressure --- numerical model --- orthogonal test --- limestone and calcareous mudstone interbedding --- gas content --- source-mixed gas --- fractures --- northern Guizhou --- water imbibition --- oil migration --- tight oil reservoirs --- nuclear magnetic resonance --- semi-analytical model --- reorientation fractures --- horizontal well --- tight reservoir --- flow behavior --- tight gas sand --- unconventional --- porosity–permeability --- hydraulic flow units --- electrical resistivity --- NMR --- micro-CT image --- petrophysics --- petrography --- carbon dioxide sequestration --- caprock integrity --- shale alteration --- rock-water-CO2 interaction --- lab tests under reservoir condition --- fractured-vuggy reservoirs --- physical model --- water flooding effect --- injection and production pattern --- gravity differentiation --- flow channel

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2020 (4)