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Civil and Military Airworthiness: Recent Developments and Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039289158 / 9783039289165 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-916-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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Airworthiness, as a field, encompasses the technical and non-technical activities required to design, certify, produce, maintain, and safely operate an aircraft throughout its lifespan. The evolving technology, science, and engineering methods and, most importantly, aviation regulation, offer new opportunities and create, new challenges for the aviation industry. This book assembles review and research articles across a variety of topics in the field of airworthiness: aircraft maintenance, safety management, human factors, cost analysis, structures, risk assessment, unmanned aerial vehicles and regulations. This selection of papers informs the industry practitioners and researchers on important issues.

New Developments in Christianity in China

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ISBN: 9783039287246 / 9783039287253 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-725-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Religion
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The phenomenal expansion of Christianity in China in recent years has attracted much scholarly and public attention. As the country continues to deepen its linkages with the rest of the world, Chinese Christian networks are spreading both within and outside the country. These networks link and crisscross at multiple scales and localities in China while strengthening interactions with overseas Chinese Christians and global Christianity. Many Christian groups throughout the country are harnessing the tremendous potential of new media, such as the internet and mobile apps, to share religious messages, participate in rituals, access information, create online communities, and to evangelize. Chinese Christians have also begun exerting their influence outside China through activities such proselytism, charity work, and development projects. This volume presents cutting edge research by scholars working in the field of Christianity in China, providing valuable insights into how Chinese Christianity is evolving and how it is shaping the country and beyond.

Positive Aspects of Animal Welfare

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ISBN: 9783039285327 / 9783039285334 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-533-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Animal Sciences
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Comfort during resting, half-closed eyes when feeding on highly palatable feed, or vigorous tail wagging when being brushed are some of the positive indicators that can be used to evaluate the quality of the environment in which domestic animals live. This has been a radical shift from the past as, until now, the welfare assessment on farms has meant assessing negative indicators, namely the number of lame animals, presence of lesions, or frequency of agonistic behaviours. However, the latest research confirms that the absence of a problem or of suffering does not necessarily imply that the animals are experiencing a good life and that their level of welfare is high. To guarantee high welfare standards, animals should experience positive conditions that allow them to live a “life worth living”, and positive indicators are needed to identify these conditions. This Special Issue focuses on the development and validation of indicators of positive welfare or on the refinement of the existing ones, as well as on the identification of suitable living conditions for providing positive welfare to farmed and companion animals.

Distributed Energy Storage Devices in Smart Grids

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ISBN: 9783039284344 / 9783039284351 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-435-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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Energy storage systems have been recognized as viable solutions for implementing the smart grid paradigm, but have created challenges in terms of load levelling, integrating renewable and intermittent sources, voltage and frequency regulation, grid resiliency, improving power quality and reliability, reducing energy import during peak demand periods, and so on. In particular, distributed energy storage addresses a wide range of the above potential issues, and it is gaining attention from customers, utilities, and regulators. Distributed energy storage has considerable potential for reducing costs and improving the quality of electric services. However, installation costs and lifespan are the main drawbacks to the wide diffusion of this technology. In this context, a serious challenge is the adoption of new techniques and strategies for the optimal planning, control, and management of grids that include distributed energy storage devices. Regulatory guidance and proactive policies are urgently needed to ensure a smooth rollout of this technology. This book collects recent contributions of methodologies applied to the integration of distributed energy storage devices in smart power systems. Several areas of research (optimal siting and sizing of energy storage systems, adaption of energy storage systems to load leveling and harmonic compensation, integration for electric vehicles, and optimal control systems) are investigated in the contributions collected in this book.

Hydrothermal Technology in Biomass Utilization & Conversion

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ISBN: 9783039286768 / 9783039286775 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-677-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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This book addresses a key innovative technology for decarbonization of the energy system: hydrothermal processing. It basically consists of treating biomass and wastes in a wet form, under pressure and temperature condition. This approach is becoming more and more attractive, as new feedstock and applications are appearing on the scene of bioeconomy and bioenergy. The hydrothermal processing of various type of biomass, waste, and residues, thus, raised the interest of many researchers and companies around the world, together with downstream upgrading processes and technologies: solid products as biochar, for instance, or liquid ones as crude bioliquids, are finding new market opportunities in circular economy schemes. The Special Issue collects recent innovative research works in the field, from basic to applied research, as well as pilot industrial applications/demo. It is a valuable set of references for those investing time and effort in research in the field.

Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging

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ISBN: 9783039287147 / 9783039287154 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-715-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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Electrochemical energy storage is a key element of systems in a wide range of sectors, such as electro-mobility, portable devices, and renewable energy. The energy storage systems (ESSs) considered here are batteries, supercapacitors, and hybrid components such as lithium-ion capacitors. The durability of ESSs determines the total cost of ownership, the global impacts (lifecycle) on a large portion of these applications and, thus, their viability. Understanding ESS aging is a key to optimizing their design and usability in terms of their intended applications. Knowledge of ESS aging is also essential to improve their dependability (reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety). This Special Issue includes 12 research papers and 1 review article focusing on battery, supercapacitor, and hybrid capacitor aging.

Keywords

battery --- operative dependability --- selection algorithm --- capacitance --- state-of-charge monitoring --- self-discharge --- supercapacitor --- aging --- lithium-ion capacitor --- aging model --- langmuir isotherm --- lifetime prediction --- aging mechanisms --- calendar aging --- floating aging --- autonomous devices --- lead-acid batteries --- Petri nets --- second life battery --- lithium-ion --- electrical characterization --- state-of-health (SOH) --- partial coulometric counter --- lithium-ion --- NMC --- aging --- ampere-hour throughput --- incremental capacity analysis --- accelerated ageing --- battery management system --- battery management system (BMS) --- calendar ageing --- cycling ageing --- electric vehicle --- embedded algorithm --- incremental capacity analysis --- incremental capacity analysis (ICA) --- lithium-ion battery --- lithium iron phosphate --- LFP --- LiFePO4 --- remaining capacity --- state of health (SoH) --- incremental capacity analysis --- lithium-ion --- electric vehicles --- driving cycles --- cell degradation --- lithium-ion --- batteries --- ageing --- post-mortem analysis --- lithium-ion battery --- lamination --- electrochemical impedance spectroscopy --- fast-charging capability --- lifetime --- abuse test --- lithium-ion capacitor --- safety --- temperature --- thermal runaway --- battery life testing --- capacitance --- state-of-charge determination --- state-of-health --- aging --- impedance spectroscopy --- pseudo-charge --- Li-Ion battery --- Ni-rich cathode --- degradation --- cathode-electrolyte interphase --- electro mobility --- n/a

Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Both New and Rehabilitated

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ISBN: 9783039287024 / 9783039287031 Year: Pages: 412 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-703-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Arts in general --- Architecture
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Buildings are one of the main causes of the emission of greenhouse gases in the world. Europe alone is responsible for more than 30% of emissions, or about 900 million tons of CO2 per year. Heating and air conditioning are the main cause of greenhouse gas emissions in buildings. Most buildings currently in use were built with poor energy efficiency criteria or, depending on the country and the date of construction, none at all. Therefore, regardless of whether construction regulations are becoming stricter, the real challenge nowadays is the energy rehabilitation of existing buildings. It is currently a priority to reduce (or, ideally, eliminate) the waste of energy in buildings and, at the same time, supply the necessary energy through renewable sources. The first can be achieved by improving the architectural design, construction methods, and materials used, as well as the efficiency of the facilities and systems; the second can be achieved through the integration of renewable energy (wind, solar, geothermal, etc.) in buildings. In any case, regardless of whether the energy used is renewable or not, the efficiency must always be taken into account. The most profitable and clean energy is that which is not consumed.

Keywords

greenhouse --- floor envelope design --- ground heat transfer --- thermal insulation --- energy modeling --- life cycle cost analysis --- nearly zero energy building --- artificial neural network --- performance parameter design --- energy saving ratio --- dynamic simulation --- urban modelling --- co-simulation --- simulation engines --- building stock energy demand --- building --- energy --- heat load --- sensitivity --- glazing --- surface cooling --- three-phase unbalance minimization --- model predictive control --- home energy management system --- perturbation and observation --- adjustable step size --- low power loss --- maximum power point tracking --- HVAC demand --- prediction --- energy efficiency --- residential buildings --- Ipomoea batatas --- lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA), thermal performance --- extensive green roof --- subtropical climate --- artificial neural network --- big data --- energy-performance gap --- building energy prediction --- building user activity --- single-person household --- Korean household energy consumption --- analytical hierarchy process --- energy efficiency promotion --- influencing factors --- residential buildings --- policy design --- building energy --- passive architecture --- test method --- energy performance standard --- zero energy building --- technology package --- renovation --- energy renovation --- demolition --- new construction --- energy use --- energy performance --- life cycle cost --- optimization --- OPERA-MILP --- multi-family buildings --- Arab region --- building sector --- energy efficiency --- energy productivity --- GCC --- Maghreb --- Mashreq --- space heating --- domestic hot water (DHW) --- air, ground and water source heat pump (ASHP, GSHP and WSHP) --- coefficient of performance (COP) --- seasonal performance factor (SPF) --- energy pile --- energy tunnel --- Level(s) --- green building rating systems --- Building Research Establishment Assessment Method (BREEAM) --- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen (DGNB) --- Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQE) --- Leadership in Energy &amp --- Environmental Design (LEED) --- energy efficiency --- subtropical climate building --- Minimum-Energy Building (MEB) --- building refurbishment --- building rehabilitation --- building renovation --- envelope airtightness --- envelope thermography --- envelope transmittance

Geography Education Promoting Sustainability

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ISBN: 9783039285006 / 9783039285013 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-501-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Education
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Through out the current period of educational change, Geography education has also changed. The

Marketing for Sustainable Tourism

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ISBN: 9783039288731 / 9783039288748 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-874-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
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The aim of the Special Issue is to discuss the main current topics concerning marketing for sustainable tourism with reference to territories (i.e., tourism destinations, protected areas, parks and/or natural sites, UNESCO World Heritage Sites, rural regions/areas, etc.) and tourism enterprises and/or organisations (i.e., destination management organisations, hospitality enterprises, restaurant enterprises, cableway companies, travel agencies, etc.). In destinations where natural resources are pull factors for tourism development, the relationships among local actors (public, private, and local community), as well as marketing choices, are essential to develop sustainable tourism products. To this end, the Special Issue encourages papers that analyse marketing strategies adopted by tourism destinations and/or tourism enterprises to avoid overtourism, to manage mass sustainable tourism (as defined by Weaver, 2000), and to encourage and promote sustainable tourism in marginal areas or in territories suffering lack of integration in the tourism offer. Special attention will be given to contributions on the best practices to manage territories and/or enterprises adopting sustainable marketing strategies.

Keywords

tourism development --- economic growth --- panel threshold regression model --- disaster-stricken counties --- Wenchuan earthquake --- Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle --- customer satisfaction --- experiential marketing --- tourism factory --- tourism marketing --- service innovation --- post-industrial tourism --- The Industrial Monuments Route --- business models --- multi-attraction travel --- social network analysis --- degree centrality --- density --- tourist behaviors --- tourism destination image --- behavioral intention --- Chinese tourist --- hot spring --- customer satisfaction --- interpretive structural modeling --- decisive factors --- grounded theory --- country brand --- gastronomy --- tourism --- Spain --- ski-resort management --- ski-resort marketing --- ski resorts --- audit --- mountain tourism --- tourism development --- Lanzarote --- sustainability --- alternative product development --- strategy --- biospheric values --- environmental self-identity --- environmental self-efficacy --- personal norm --- tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior --- China --- Seasonality --- tourism demand --- expenditure --- seemingly unrelated regression --- destination marketing --- tourism advertisement --- sustainability --- responsible tourism --- transit port --- port of call --- Mediterranean cruise destinations --- experience economy --- pleasure --- satisfaction --- airport image --- sustainable development of airport --- destination offering --- destination attribute --- visitor experience --- online review --- micro-scale destination --- local attraction --- UCG --- economic sustainability --- sustainable tourism --- positioning --- destination marketing --- tourist intelligence --- n/a

Fracture, Fatigue and Structural Integrity of Metallic Materials

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ISBN: 9783039288595 / 9783039288601 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-860-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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Fracture, fatigue, and other subcritical processes, such as creep crack growth or stress corrosion cracking, present numerous open issues from both scientific and industrial points of view. These phenomena are of special interest in industrial and civil metallic structures, such as pipes, vessels, machinery, aircrafts, ship hulls, and bridges, given that their failure may imply catastrophic consequences for human life, the natural environment, and/or the economy. Moreover, an adequate management of their operational life, defining suitable inspection periods, repairs, or replacements, requires their safety or unsafety conditions to be defined. The analysis of these technological challenges requires accurate comprehensive assessment tools based on solid theoretical foundations as well as structural integrity assessment standards or procedures incorporating such tools into industrial practice.

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MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (17)


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CC by-nc-nd (17)


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eng (17)


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2020 (17)