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Welfare of Cultured and Experimental Fishes

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ISBN: 9783039217106 / 9783039217113 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-711-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Abstract

Welfare is a multidimensional concept that can be described as the state of an animal as it copes with the environment. Captive environments can impact farmed animals at different levels, especially fishes, considering their highly complex sensory world. Understanding the ethology of a species is therefore essential to address fish welfare, and the interpretation of behavioral responses in specific rearing contexts (aquaculture or experimental contexts) demands knowledge of their underlying physiological, developmental, functional, and evolutionary mechanisms. In natural environments, the stress response has evolved to help animals survive challenging conditions. However, animals are adapted to deal with natural stressors, while anthropogenic stimuli may represent stressors that fishes are unable to cope with. Under such circumstances, stress responses may be maladaptive and cause severe damage to the animal. As welfare in captivity is affected in multiple dimensions, multiple possible indicators can be used to assess the welfare state of individuals. In the past, research on welfare has been largely focusing on health indicators and predominantly based on physiological stress. Ethological indicators, however, also integrate the mental perspective of the individual and have been gradually assuming an important role in welfare research: behavioral responses to stressors are an early response to adverse conditions, easily observable, and demonstrative of emotional states. Many behavioral indicators can be used as non-invasive measurements of welfare in practical contexts such as aquaculture and experimentation. Presently, research in fish welfare is growing in importance and interest because of the growing economic importance of fish farming, the comparative biology opportunities that experimental fishes provide, and the increasing public sensitivity to welfare issues.

Causes and Consequences of Species Diversity in Forest Ecosystems

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ISBN: 9783039213092 / 9783039213108 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-310-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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What are the causes and consequences of species diversity in forested ecosystems, and how is this species diversity being affected by rapid environmental and climatic change, movement of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores into new biogeographic regions, and expanding human populations and associated shifts in land-use patterns? In this book, we explore these questions for assemblages of forest trees, shrubs, and understory herbs at spatial scales ranging from small plots to large forest dynamics plots, at temporal scales ranging from seasons to centuries, in both temperate and tropical regions, and across rural-to-urban gradients in land use.

Keywords

Ericaceae --- variation partitioning --- climate --- species-area relationship --- mid-domain effect --- spatial patterns --- individual species-area relationship --- tropical evergreen mixed forest --- competition and facilitation --- Vietnam --- microarthropod --- diversity --- seasonal variations --- stand development --- biodiversity --- climate --- human footprint --- productivity --- topography --- USDA Forest Service --- herbaceous layer --- excess nitrogen --- canopy structure --- temperate forests --- Fagus sylvatica --- Pinus sylvestris --- Picea abies --- Pseudotsuga menziesii --- forest management --- tree species diversity --- forest conversion --- gamma diversity --- landscape scale --- Biodiversity Exploratories --- climate change --- temperature --- precipitation --- Hubbard Brook --- elevational shifts --- mountains --- species diversity --- structural complexity --- legacies --- wind damage --- uprooting --- trunk breakage --- understory plant communities --- natural disturbance-based silviculture --- forest management --- species conservation --- northern hardwood forests --- abundance --- Bray-Curtis --- codispersion analysis --- Smithsonian ForestGEO --- Shannon diversity --- Simpson diversity --- spatial analysis --- species richness --- windthrow --- tornado --- tree species --- disturbance severity --- tree regeneration --- salvaging --- salvage logging --- succession --- Climatic change --- species diversity --- potential habitats --- China --- Maxent --- Salicaceae --- herbaceous perennial species --- household respondents --- questionnaire survey --- species richness --- woody species --- temperate forests --- species richness --- assemblage lineage diversity --- phylogenetic diversity --- evolutionary diversity --- United States --- trees --- TILD

New Mineral Species and Their Crystal Structures

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ISBN: 9783038976882 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-689-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:07:22
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Abstract

One last comment concerns the fundamental contributions of Fourier analysis to quantum physics: Quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.

Keywords

ariegilatite --- nabimusaite group --- new mineral --- crystal structure --- intercalated hexagonal antiperovskite --- CO3-group --- Raman --- pyrometamorphic rocks --- Hatrurim Complex --- tiberiobardiite --- chalcophyllite group --- copper --- silicate --- sulfate --- Cretaio --- Tuscany --- Italy --- oyonite --- lillianite homologous series --- sulfosalt --- copper --- antimony --- arsenic --- Oyon district --- Lima department --- Peru --- fiemmeite --- new oxalate mineral --- Val di Fiemme --- Trentino --- Italy --- sharyginite --- new mineral --- crystal structure --- Raman spectroscopy --- Bellerberg volcano --- Germany --- kurchatovite --- clinokurchatovite --- crystal structure --- borate --- polymorphism --- polytypism --- structural complexity --- structural combinatorics --- configurational entropy --- least-action principle --- barioferrite --- crystal structure --- single-crystal investigation --- Raman --- Hatrurim Complex --- Rusinovite --- Raman spectroscopy --- pyrometamorphism --- stacking faults --- Shadil-Khokh volcano --- Bellerberg volcano --- aurihydrargyrumite --- Au6Hg5 phase --- gold --- placer --- self-electrorefining --- Ehime --- Japan --- cerromojonite --- selenium --- copper --- lead --- mercury --- bismuth --- sou?ekite --- bournonite group --- El Dragón --- Bolivia --- nöggerathite-(Ce) --- new mineral --- zirconolite --- laachite --- sanidinite --- crystal structure --- alkaline volcanic rock --- Laacher See --- Eifel --- parafiniukite --- apatite supergroup --- hedyphane group --- manganese --- calcium --- phosphorus --- Szklary pegmatite --- Lower Silesia --- Poland --- thermaerogenite --- cuprospinel --- gahnite --- magnesioferrite --- CuAl2O4 --- CuFe2O4 --- copper oxide --- new mineral --- spinel supergroup --- fumarole sublimate --- Tolbachik volcano --- Kamchatka --- verneite --- new mineral --- crystal structure --- Hekla --- Vesuvius --- Eldfell --- aluminofluoride

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2019 (3)