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As the ultimate information processing device, the brain naturally lends itself to being studied with information theory. The application of information theory to neuroscience has spurred the development of principled theories of brain function, and has led to advances in the study of consciousness, as well as to the development of analytical techniques to crack the neural code—that is, to unveil the language used by neurons to encode and process information. In particular, advances in experimental techniques enabling the precise recording and manipulation of neural activity on a large scale now enable for the first time the precise formulation and the quantitative testing of hypotheses about how the brain encodes and transmits the information used for specific functions across areas. This Special Issue presents twelve original contributions on novel approaches in neuroscience using information theory, and on the development of new information theoretic results inspired by problems in neuroscience.
neural network  Potts model  latching  recursion  functional connectome  graph theoretical analysis  eigenvector centrality  orderness  network eigenentropy  information entropy production  discrete Markov chains  spike train statistics  Gibbs measures  maximum entropy principle  pulsegating  channel capacity  neural coding  feedforward networks  neural information propagation  information theory  mutual information decomposition  synergy  redundancy  integrated information theory  integrated information  minimum information partition  submodularity  Queyranne’s algorithm  consciousness  maximum entropy  higherorder correlations  neural population coding  Ising model  brain network  complex networks  connectome  information theory  graph theory  freeenergy principle  internal model hypothesis  unconscious inference  infomax principle  independent component analysis  principal component analysis  goodness  categorical perception  perceptual magnet  information theory  perceived similarity  mutual information  synergy  redundancy  neural code  hippocampus  entorhinal cortex  navigation  neural code  representation  decoding  spiketime precision  discrimination  noise correlations  information theory  mismatched decoding  information theory  neuroscience
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This Special Issue of the journal Entropy, titled “Information Geometry I”, contains a collection of 17 papers concerning the foundations and applications of information geometry. Based on a geometrical interpretation of probability, information geometry has become a rich mathematical field employing the methods of differential geometry. It has numerous applications to data science, physics, and neuroscience. Presenting original research, yet written in an accessible, tutorial style, this collection of papers will be useful for scientists who are new to the field, while providing an excellent reference for the more experienced researcher. Several papers are written by authorities in the field, and topics cover the foundations of information geometry, as well as applications to statistics, Bayesian inference, machine learning, complex systems, physics, and neuroscience.
Markov random fields  information theory  Fisher information  entropy  maximum pseudolikelihood estimation  Bezout matrix  Sylvester matrix  tensor Sylvester matrix  Stein equation  Vandermonde matrix  stationary process  matrix resultant  Fisher information matrix  information geometry  dually flat structure  decomposable divergence  (?,?)
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Emergent quantum mechanics explores the possibility of an ontology for quantum mechanics. The resurgence of interest in ""deeperlevel"" theories for quantum phenomena challenges the standard, textbook interpretation. The book presents expert views that critically evaluate the significance—for 21st century physics—of ontological quantum mechanics, an approach that David Bohm helped pioneer. The possibility of a deterministic quantum theory was first introduced with the original de BroglieBohm theory, which has also been developed as Bohmian mechanics. The wide range of perspectives that were contributed to this book on the occasion of David Bohm’s centennial celebration provide ample evidence for the physical consistency of ontological quantum mechanics. The book addresses deeperlevel questions such as the following: Is reality intrinsically random or fundamentally interconnected? Is the universe local or nonlocal? Might a radically new conception of reality include a form of quantum causality or quantum ontology? What is the role of the experimenter agent? As the book demonstrates, the advancement of ‘quantum ontology’—as a scientific concept—marks a clear break with classical reality. The search for quantum reality entails unconventional causal structures and nonclassical ontology, which can be fully consistent with the known record of quantum observations in the laboratory.
quantum foundations  nonlocality  retrocausality  Bell’s theorem  Bohmian mechanics  quantum theory  surrealistic trajectories  Bell inequality  quantum mechanics  generalized Lagrangian paths  covariant quantum gravity  emergent spacetime  Gaussianlike solutions  entropy and time evolution  resonances in quantum systems  the Friedrichs model  complex entropy.  Bell’s theorem  the causal arrow of time  retrocausality  superdeterminism  toymodels  quantum ontology  subquantum dynamics  microconstituents  emergent spacetime  emergent quantum gravity  entropic gravity  black hole thermodynamics  SternGerlach  trajectories  spin  Bell theorem  fractal geometry  padic metric  singular limit  gravity  conspiracy  free will  number theory  quantum potential  Feynman paths  weak values  Bohm theory  nohiddenvariables theorems  observables  measurement problem  Bohmian mechanics  primitive ontology  Retrocausation  weak values  Stochastic Electrodynamics  quantum mechanics  decoherence  interpretations  pilotwave theory  Bohmian mechanics  Born rule statistics  measurement problem  quantum thermodynamics  strong coupling  operator thermodynamic functions  quantum theory  de Broglie–Bohm theory  contextuality  atomsurface scattering  bohmian mechanics  matterwave optics  diffraction  vortical dynamics  Schrödinger equation  de Broglie–Bohm theory  nonequilibrium thermodynamics  zeropoint field  de Broglie–Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics  pilot wave  interiorboundary condition  ultraviolet divergence  quantum field theory  Aharonov–Bohm effect  physical ontology  nomology  interpretation  gauge freedom  Canonical Presentation  relational space  relational interpretation of quantum mechanics  measurement problem  nonlocality  discrete calculus  iterant  commutator  diffusion constant  LeviCivita connection  curvature tensor  constraints  Kilmister equation  Bianchi identity  stochastic differential equations  Monte Carlo simulations  Burgers equation  Langevin equation  fractional velocity  interpretations of quantum mechanics  David Bohm  mind–body problem  quantum holism  fundamental irreversibility  spacetime fluctuations  spontaneous state reduction  Poincaré recurrence  symplectic camel  quantum mechanics  Hamiltonian  molecule interference  matterwaves  metrology  magnetic deflectometry  photochemistry  past of the photon  Mach–Zehnder interferometer  Dove prism  photon trajectory  weak measurement  transition probability amplitude  atomic metastable states  Bell’s theorem  Bohmian mechanics  nonlocality  many interacting worlds  wavefunction nodes  bouncing oil droplets  stochastic quantum dynamics  de Broglie–Bohm theory  quantum nonequilibrium  Htheorem  ergodicity  ontological quantum mechanics  objective nonsignaling constraint  quantum inaccessibility  epistemic agent  emergent quantum state  selfreferential dynamics  dynamical chaos  computational irreducibility  undecidable dynamics  Turing incomputability  quantum ontology  nonlocality  timesymmetry  retrocausality  quantum causality  conscious agent  emergent quantum mechanics  Bohmian mechanics  de BroglieBohm theory
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Modern developments of Fourier analysis during the 20th century have explored generalizations of Fourier and Fourier–Plancherel formula for noncommutative harmonic analysis, applied to locallycompact, nonAbelian groups. In parallel, the theory of coherent states and wavelets has been generalized over Lie groups. One should add the developments, over the last 30 years, of the applications of harmonic analysis to the description of the fascinating world of aperiodic structures in condensed matter physics. The notions of model sets, introduced by Y. Meyer, and of almost periodic functions, have revealed themselves to be extremely fruitful in this domain of natural sciences.
Cyprus  Bronze Age  site location  resource procurement  metals trade  political economy  connectivity  central places  central flow theory  nodal points  central place  social networks  landscape archaeology  settlement location  interaction  hunting  eschatia  bird hunting  landscape archaeology  Populonia  settlement organization  supply basin  central place  hilltop fortresses  liminal landscape  connectivity  viewshed analysis  sacred areas  SouthEastern Provence  Marseille  Arles  centrality  gateways  ancient port cities  trading mechanisms  political economy  Cyprus  Bronze Age  water  materiality  new materialisms  entanglements  assemblages  networks  central place theory  Byzantine bathhouses  medieval Crete  Byzantine settlements of eastern Crete  urban culture of Byzantium  church architecture  Secular Byzantine architecture  Byzantine Mochlos  Timacum Minus  Moesia Superior  central place theory  centrality  Roman urbanism  settlement status  Roman mining  Cypriot archaeology  Mediterranean archaeology  landscape archaeology  central places  sacred space  political power  economy  religion  ideology  ancient sanctuaries  byzantine and medieval Peloponnese  byzantine and medieval port towns  central place theory  networks  economy  trade links  Cyprus  Roman archaeology  Roman imperialism  island and coastal archaeology  identity  urbanism  central place theory  connectivity  maritime cultural landscapes  Cyprus  landscape archaeology  surface survey  river valley  settlement organisation  aridity  marginality  landscape archaeology  Marmarica (NWEgypt)  Hauran (Syria/Jordan)  GraecoRoman period  spatial scales in networks  network relationship qualities  interaction  resource management
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The last few years have been characterized by a tremendous development of quantum information and probability and their applications, including quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and quantum random generators. In spite of the successful development of quantum technology, its foundational basis is still not concrete and contains a few sandy and shaky slices. Quantum random generators are one of the most promising outputs of the recent quantum information revolution. Therefore, it is very important to reconsider the foundational basis of this project, starting with the notion of irreducible quantum randomness. Quantum probabilities present a powerful tool to model uncertainty. Interpretations of quantum probability and foundational meaning of its basic tools, starting with the Born rule, are among the topics which will be covered by this issue. Recently, quantum probability has started to play an important role in a few areas of research outside quantum physics—in particular, quantum probabilistic treatment of problems of theory of decision making under uncertainty. Such studies are also among the topics of this issue.
quantum logic  groups  partially defined algebras  quasigroups  viable cultures  quantum information theory  bit commitment  protocol  entropy  entanglement  orthogonality  quantum computation  Gram–Schmidt process  quantum probability  potentiality  complementarity  uncertainty relations  Copenhagen interpretation  indefiniteness  indeterminism  causation  randomness  quantum information  quantum dynamics  entanglement  algebra  causality  geometry  probability  quantum information theory  realism  reality  entropy  correlations  qubits  probability representation  Bayes’ formula  quantum entanglement  threequbit random states  entanglement classes  entanglement polytope  anisotropic invariants  quantum random number  vacuum state  maximization of quantum conditional minentropy  quantum logics  quantum probability  holistic semantics  epistemic operations  Bell inequalities  algorithmic complexity  Borel normality  Bayesian inference  model selection  random numbers  quantumlike models  operational approach  information interpretation of quantum theory  social laser  social energy  quantum information field  social atom  Bose–Einstein statistics  bandwagon effect  social thermodynamics  resonator of social laser  master equation for socioinformation excitations  quantum contextuality  Kochen–Specker sets  MMP hypergraphs  Greechie diagrams  quantum foundations  probability  irreducible randomness  random number generators  quantum technology  entanglement  quantumlike models for social stochasticity  contextuality
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There is overwhelming evidence, from laboratory experiments, observations, and computational studies, that coherent structures can cause intermittent transport, dramatically enhancing transport. A proper description of this intermittent phenomenon, however, is extremely difficult, requiring a new nonperturbative theory, such as statistical description. Furthermore, multiscale interactions are responsible for inevitably complex dynamics in strongly nonequilibrium systems, a proper understanding of which remains a main challenge in classical physics. As a remarkable consequence of multiscale interaction, a quasiequilibrium state (the socalled selforganisation) can however be maintained. This special issue aims to present different theories of statistical mechanics to understand this challenging multiscale problem in turbulence. The 14 contributions to this Special issue focus on the various aspects of intermittency, coherent structures, selforganisation, bifurcation and nonlocality. Given the ubiquity of turbulence, the contributions cover a broad range of systems covering laboratory fluids (channel flow, the Von Kármán flow), plasmas (magnetic fusion), laser cavity, wind turbine, air flow around a highspeed train, solar wind and industrial application.
pipe flow boundary layer  turbulent transition  large eddy simulation  channel flow  kinetic theory  fluid dynamics  turbulence  selforganisation  shear flows  coherent structures  turbulence  stochastic processes  Langevin equation  FokkerPlanck equation  information length  trailingedge flap  control strategy  floating wind turbine  turbulence  free vortex wake  nonlocal theory  Lévy noise  Tsallis entropy  fractional Fokker–Plank equation  anomalous diffusion  hybrid (U)RANSLES  IDDES methodology  attached and separated flows  complex dynamics  microcavity laser  spatiotemporal chaos  turbulent boundary layer  low speed streaks  magnetic confinement fusion  turbulence  heat transport  Tjunction  denoise  coherent structure  continuous wavelet transform  solar wind  scaling properties  fractals  chaos  turbulence  intermittency  multifractal  thermodynamics  drop breakage  drop coalescence  local intermittency  turbulent flow  population balance equation  high efficiency impeller  Rushton turbine  energy cascade  bifurcations  Lyapunov theory  turbulence  statistical mechanics  intermittency  coherent structure  multiscale problem  selforganisation  bifurcation  nonlocality  scaling  multifractal
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Modern information communication technology eradicates barriers of geographic distances, making the world globally interdependent, but this spatial globalization has not eliminated cultural fragmentation. The Two Cultures of C.P. Snow (that of science–technology and that of humanities) are drifting apart even faster than before, and they themselves crumble into increasingly specialized domains. Disintegrated knowledge has become subservient to the competition in technological and economic race leading in the direction chosen not by the reason, intellect, and shared valuebased judgement, but rather by the whims of autocratic leaders or fashion controlled by marketers for the purposes of political or economic dominance. If we want to restore the authority of our best available knowledge and democratic values in guiding humanity, first we have to reintegrate scattered domains of human knowledge and values and offer an evolving and diverse vision of common reality unified by sound methodology. This collection of articles responds to the call from the journal Philosophies to build a new, networked world of knowledge with domain specialists from different disciplines interacting and connecting with other knowledgeandvaluesproducing and knowledgeandvaluesconsuming communities in an inclusive, extended, contemporary natural–philosophic manner. In this process of synthesis, scientific and philosophical investigations enrich each other—with sciences informing philosophies about the best current knowledge of the world, both natural and humanmade—while philosophies scrutinize the ontological, epistemological, and methodological foundations of sciences, providing scientists with questions and conceptual analyses. This is all directed at extending and deepening our existing comprehension of the world, including ourselves, both as humans and as societies, and humankind.
n/a  compositional hierarchy  development  dissipative structures  final cause  internalism  Second Law of thermodynamics  subsumptive hierarchy  agonism  apophasis  autocatalysis  centripetality  contingency  endogenous selection  heterogeneity  indeterminacy  process  mathematics  physics  philosophical foundations  natural philosophy  the logic of nature  ontology  epistemology  in the name of nature  philosophy of information  natural philosophy  metaphysics  physics  problem of induction  physicalism  theoretical unity  philosophy of science  scientific method  scientific progress  pessimistic induction  awareness  cognition  computation  cybernetics  differentiation  fitness  holographic encoding  memory  perception  quantum information  signal transduction  spatial representation  thermodynamics  unitarity  Leibniz  monad  internal quantum state  relational biology  reflexive psychology  self  induction  naturalism  evidence and justification  epistemic norms  induction and concept formation  induction and discovery of laws  natural philosophy  R.M. Unger  L. Smolin  Aristotle  F.W.J. Schelling  Naturphilosophie  A.N. Whitehead  Ivor Leclerc  dialectics  discourse  discursive space  information  knowledge  humanistic management  language  natural philosophy  subjective experience  process  dual aspects  consciousness  informationtheory  theoretical biology  1stperson and 3rdperson perspectives  hylomorphism  mind  form  matter  neurodynamics  natural philosophy  philosophy of science  Jungian psychology  depth psychology  analytical psychology  phenomenological psychology  evolutionary psychology  active imagination  Aristotle’s four causes  aesthetics in science  philosophy as a way of life  common good  contradiction  ethics  information  logic  naturalization  realism  science  synthesis  natural philosophy  philosophy of nature  naturalism  unity of knowledge  qualitative ontology  intentionality  dispositions  qualia  abduction  agentbased reasoning  creativity  ecocognitive model  ecocognitive openness  fallacies  errors of reasoning  thirdway reasoning  naturalization of logic  causality  embodiment  measurement  regulation  retrocausality  secondperson description  symmetry breaking  temporality  natural philosophy  cosmology  emptiness  vacuum  void  dark energy  space flight  exoplanet  big freeze  big crunch  everyday lifeworld  digitization  computability  complexity  reverse mathematics  quantum computing  real computing  theory of everything  acategoriality  statespace approach  mental representation  dualaspect monism  exceptional experiences  intentionality  mindmatter relations  category theory  memory evolutive system  emergence  emergentist reductionism  anticipation  creativity  infocomputational model
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The amide bond represents a privileged motif in chemistry. The recent years have witnessed an explosion of interest in the development of new chemical transformations of amides. These developments cover an impressive range of catalytic N–C bond activation in electrophilic, Lewis acid, radical, and nucleophilic reaction pathways, among other transformations. Equally relevant are structural and theoretical studies that provide the basis for chemoselective manipulation of amidic resonance. This monograph on amide bonds offers a broad survey of recent advances in activation of amides and addresses various approaches in the field.
fumardiamide  primaquine  succindiamide  Michael acceptor  biofilm eradication  antibacterial screening  antiviral activity  cytostatic activity  N,Ndimethylformamide  DMF  N,Ndimethylacetamide  DMAc  amination  amidation  thioamidation  formylation  carbonylation  cyanation  insertion  cyclization  amide  arynes  insertion  activation  heterocycles  organic synthesis  multicomponent coupling reaction  aryl thioamides  thiourea  CH/CN activation  CS formation  transitionmetalfree  rotational barrier energy  amide bond  nuclear magnetic resonance  kinetic  density functional theory  non planar amide  basecatalyed hydrolysis  water solvation  entropy  transamidation  amide  amine  catalyst  catalysis  acylative crosscoupling  trialkylborane  amide activation  palladium  Nheterocyclic carbene  ruthenium (Ru)  Nheterocyclic carbenes (NHCs)  homogeneous catalysis  in situ  amide bonds  synthesis  density functional theory  cis/trans isomerization  secondary amides  dipeptides  steric effects  tertbutyl  additivity principle  amino acid transporters  amide bond  gemcitabine prodrug  metabolic stability  pancreatic cancer cells  pharmacokinetics  peptide bond cleavage  amide bond resonance  twisted amides  enzymes  metal complexes  catalysts  amide C–N bond activation  nickel catalysis  amidation  DFT study  reaction thermodynamics  amide resonance  anomeric effect  HERON reaction  pyramidal amides  physical organic chemistry  reaction mechanism  amide  activation  amidicity  carbonylicity  transamidation  acyl transfer  excited state  SuzukiMiyaura  crosscoupling  aryl esters  C–O activation  Pdcatalysis  amides  carbanions  C–H acidity  nitroaci tautomerism  molecular dynamics  densityfunctional theory  alkynes  C–H bond cleavage  C–N bond cleavage  cyclopentadienyl complexes  N(1naphthyl)acetamide  rhodium  [2+2+2] annulation  amide bond  sulfonamide bond  alkynes  addition reaction  aminoacylation  aminosulfonylation  precatalysts  palladium catalysis  amide bond activation  ester bond activation  crosscoupling  amide bond  bridged lactams  twisted amides  amides  WinklerDunitz parameters  N–C activation  hypersensitivity  nitrogen heterocycles  distortion  bridged sultams  amides  CN ? bond cleavage  sodium  crown ether  amide hydrolysis  model compound  intramolecular catalysis  twisted amide  protease  intein  CH functionalization  directing groups  amides  transition metals  catalysis
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The Special Issue on Advances in Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) explores four important topics of research in the framework of WDNs, namely simulation and optimization modelling, topology and partitioning, water quality, and service effectiveness. With regard to the first topic, the following aspects are addressed: pressuredriven formulations, algorithms for the optimal location of control valves to minimize leakage, the benefits of water discharge prediction for the remote real time control of valves, and transients generated by pumps operating as turbines. In the context of the second topic, a topological taxonomy of WDNs is presented, and partitioning methods for the creation of district metered areas are compared. In relation to the third topic, the vulnerability to trihalomethane is assessed, and a statistical optimization model to minimize heavy metal releases is presented. Finally, the fourth topic focusses on the estimation of nonrevenue water, including leakage and unauthorized consumption, and on the assessment of service under intermittent supply conditions.
valve  pump  real time control  pressure  water distribution modelling  leakage  nonrevenue water  multiple regression analysis  artificial neural network  water distribution network  water distribution network  graph partitioning  modularity  district metered areas  water distribution network management  complex network theory  topological analysis  mathematical model  valve  pressure  leakage  optimization  water distribution network  snapshot simulation  pressuredriven  energy recovery systems  runaway conditions  unsteady flow  water hammer  water distribution system  water quality  disinfection byproducts  vulnerability  water quality (WQ)  blending  release of heavy metals (HMR)  dual response surface optimization (DRSO)  multiple source waters blending optimization (MSWBO)  intermittent water supply  water service quality  24
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Entropy theory has wide applications to a range of problems in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including river hydraulic geometry, fluvial hydraulics, water monitoring network design, river flow forecasting, floods and droughts, river network analysis, infiltration, soil moisture, sediment transport, surface water and groundwater quality modeling, ecosystems modeling, water distribution networks, environmental and water resources management, and parameter estimation. Such applications have used several different entropy formulations, such as Shannon, Tsallis, Reacutenyi Burg, Kolmogorov, Kapur, configurational, and relative entropies, which can be derived in time, space, or frequency domains. More recently, entropybased concepts have been coupled with other theories, including copula and wavelets, to study various issues associated with environmental and water resources systems. Recent studies indicate the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including establishing and explaining physical connections between theory and reality. The objective of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for compiling important recent and current research on the applications of entropy theory in environmental and water engineering. The contributions to this Special Issue have addressed many aspects associated with entropy theory applications and have shown the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering.
complexity  streamflow  water level  composite multiscale sample entropy  trend  Poyang Lake basin  fourparameter exponential gamma distribution  principle of maximum entropy  precipitation frequency analysis  methods of moments  maximum likelihood estimation  flood frequency analysis  generalized gamma (GG) distribution  principle of maximum entropy (POME)  entropy theory  principle of maximum entropy (POME)  GB2 distribution  flood frequency analysis  nonpoint source pollution  ANN  entropy weighting method  datascarce  multievents  spatiotemporal variability  soil water content  entropy  arid region  joint entropy  NDVI  temperature  precipitation  groundwater depth  Hei River basin  turbulent flow  canopy flow  randomness  coherent structures  Shannon entropy  Kolmogorov complexity  entropy  information transfer  optimization  radar  rainfall network  water resource carrying capacity  forewarning model  entropy of information  fuzzy analytic hierarchy process  projection pursuit  accelerating genetic algorithm  entropy production  conditional entropy production  stochastic processes  scaling  climacogram  turbulence  water resources vulnerability  connection entropy  changing environment  set pair analysis  Anhui Province  crossentropy minimization  land suitability evaluation  spatial optimization  monthly streamflow forecasting  Burg entropy  configurational entropy  entropy spectral analysis time series analysis  entropy  water monitoring  network design  hydrometric network  information theory  entropy applications  hydrological risk analysis  maximum entropycopula method  uncertainty  Loess Plateau  entropy  water engineering  Tsallis entropy  principle of maximum entropy  Lagrangian function  probability distribution function  flux concentration relation  uncertainty  information  informational entropy  variation of information  continuous probability distribution functions  confidence intervals  precipitation  variability  marginal entropy  crop yield  Hexi corridor  flow duration curve  Shannon entropy  entropy parameter  modeling  spatial and dynamics characteristic  hydrology  tropical rainfall  statistical scaling  Tsallis entropy  multiplicative cascades  BetaLognormal model  rainfall forecast  cross entropy  ant colony fuzzy clustering  combined forecast  information entropy  mutual information  kernel density estimation  ENSO  nonlinear relation  scaling laws  power laws  water distribution networks  robustness  flow entropy  entropy theory  frequency analysis  hydrometeorological extremes  Bayesian technique  rainfall  entropy ensemble filter  ensemble model simulation criterion  EEF method  bootstrap aggregating  bagging  bootstrap neural networks  El Niño  ENSO  neural network forecast  sea surface temperature  tropical Pacific  entropy  cross elasticity  mean annual runoff  water resources  resilience  quaternary catchment  complement  substitute  entropy theory  complex systems  hydraulics  hydrology  water engineering  environmental engineering
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