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Diseases of the Abdomen and Pelvis 2018-2021: Diagnostic Imaging - IDKD Book

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Book Series: IDKD Springer Series ISSN: 2523-7829 ISBN: 9783319750187 9783319750194 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75019-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Foundation for the Advancement of Education in Medical Radiology
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 17:34:01
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This open access book deals with imaging of the abdomen and pelvis, an area that has seen considerable advances over the past several years, driven by clinical as well as technological developments. The respective chapters, written by internationally respected experts in their fields, focus on imaging diagnosis and interventional therapies in abdominal and pelvic disease; they cover all relevant imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography. As such, the book offers a comprehensive review of the state of the art in imaging of the abdomen and pelvis. It will be of interest to general radiologists, radiology residents, interventional radiologists, and clinicians from other specialties who want to update their knowledge in this area.

Keywords

Gastrointestinal disease --- PET/CT --- Radiology --- X-ray --- IDKD --- Davos

Branching and Rooting Out with a CT Scanner: The Why, the How, and the Outcomes, Present and Possibly Future

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197910 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-791-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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Until recently, a majority of the applications of X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning in plant sciences remained descriptive; some included a quantification of the plant materials when the root-soil isolation or branch-leaf separation was satisfactory; and a few involved the modeling of plant biology processes or the assessment of treatment or disease effects on plant biomass and structures during growth. In the last decade, repeated CT scanning of the same plants was reported in an increasing number of studies in which moderate doses of X-rays had been used. Besides the general objectives of Frontiers in Plant Science research topics, “Branching and Rooting Out with a CT Scanner” was proposed to meet specific objectives: (i) providing a non-technical update on knowledge about the application of CT scanning technology to plants, starting with the type of CT scanning data collected (CT images vs. CT numbers) and their processing in the graphical and numerical approaches; (ii) drawing the limits of the CT scanning approach, which because it is based on material density can distinguish materials with contrasting or moderately overlapping densities (e.g., branches vs. leaves, roots vs. non-organic soils) but not the others (e.g., roots vs. organic soils); (iii) explaining with a sufficient level of detail the main procedures used for graphical, quantitative and statistical analyses of plant CT scanning data, including fractal complexity measures and statistics appropriate for repeated plant CT scanning, in experiments where the research hypotheses are about biological processes such as light interception by canopies, root disease development and plant growth under stress conditions; (iv) comparing plant CT scanning with an alternative technology that applies to plants, such as the phenomics platforms which target leaf canopies; and (v) providing current and potential users of plant CT scanning with up-to-date information and exhaustive documentation, including clear perspectives and well-defined goals for the future, for them to be even more efficient or most efficient from start in their research work.

In Vivo Imaging in Pharmacological Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452378 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-237-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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The discovery and development of a biological active molecule with therapeutic properties is an ever increasing complex task, highly unpredictable at the early stages and marked, in the end, by high rates of failure. As a consequence, the overall process leading to the production of a successful drug is very costly. The improvement of the net outcome in drug discovery and development would require, amongst other important factors, a good understanding of the molecular events that characterize the disease or pathology in order to better identify likely targets of interest, to optimize the interaction of an active agent (small molecule or macromolecule of natural or synthetic origin) with those targets, and to facilitate the study of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity of an active agent in suitable models and in human subjects. The objective of this Research Topic is to highlight new developments and applications of imaging techniques with the objective of performing pharmacological studies in vivo, in animal models and in humans. In the domain of drug discovery, the pharmacological and biomedical questions constitute the center of attention. In this sense, it is fundamental to keep in mind the strengths and limitations of each analytical or imaging technique. At the end, the judicious application of the technique with the aim of supporting the search for answers to manifold questions arising during a long and painstaking path provides a continuous role for imaging within the complex area of drug discovery and development.

Atherosclerosis and Vascular Imaging

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ISBN: 9783038424352 9783038424345 Year: Pages: VIII, 164 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-435-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-27 09:23:42
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Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in the West, and vascular disease is the most common cardiovascular clinical problem. The disease results in serious morbidity and mortality, and carries economic cost implications. While conventional risk factors are well established, and their biomarkers regularly monitored, patients may continue to suffer subclinical active disease, even in the absence of risk factors, until they present with sudden cardiac death or stroke. Early disease detection using direct imaging has shown to be more accurate in identifying vulnerable patients and unstable plaques than conventional risk factors. This IJMS issue deals with the current opinion concerning the state-of-the-art imaging technologies available for clinical applications and their unique value over the sole use of conventional risk factor analysis, in identifying vulnerable patients, recommending aggressive treatments, prognosticating, and in assessing related nutritional and environmental issues.

Atherosclerosis and Vascular Imaging 2016

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ISBN: 9783038424321 9783038424338 Year: Pages: VIII, 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-433-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-27 09:38:14
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Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in the West, and vascular disease is the most common cardiovascular clinical problem. The disease results in serious morbidity and mortality, and carries economic cost implications. While conventional risk factors are well established, and their biomarkers regularly monitored, patients may continue to suffer subclinical active disease, even in the absence of risk factors, until they present with sudden cardiac death or stroke. Early disease detection using direct imaging has shown to be more accurate in identifying vulnerable patients and unstable plaques than conventional risk factors. This IJMS Special Issue deals with the current opinion concerning the state-of-the-art imaging technologies available for clinical applications, and their unique value over the sole use of conventional risk factor analysis, in identifying vulnerable patients, recommending aggressive treatments, prognosticating, and in assessing related nutritional and environmental issues. This Special Issue is the continuation of our 2015 Special Issue “Atherosclerosis and Vascular Imaging”

Anticancer Drugs

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ISBN: 9783039215867 9783039215874 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-587-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The past decades have seen major developments in the understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of cancer. Significant progress has been achieved regarding long-term survival for the patients of many cancers with the use of tamoxifen for treatment of breast cancer, treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia with imatinib, and the success of biological drugs. The transition from cytotoxic chemotherapy to targeted cancer drug discovery and development has resulted in an increasing selection of tools available to oncologists. In this Special Issue of Pharmaceuticals, we highlight the opportunities and challenges in the discovery and design of innovative cancer therapies, novel small-molecule cancer drugs and antibody–drug conjugates, with articles covering a variety of anticancer therapies and potential relevant disease states and applications. Significant efforts are being made to develop and improve cancer treatments and to translate basic research findings into clinical use, resulting in improvements in survival rates and quality of life for cancer patients. We demonstrate the possibilities and scope for future research in these areas and also highlight the challenges faced by scientists in the area of anticancer drug development leading to improved targeted treatments and better survival rates for cancer patients.

Emerging Advances in Petrophysics. Porous Media Characterization and Modeling of Multiphase Flow

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977940 9783038977957 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-795-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Geophysics and Geomagnetism
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Due to the influence of pore-throat size distribution, pore connectivity, and microscale fractures, the transport, distribution, and residual saturation of fluids in porous media are difficult to characterize. Petrophysical methods in natural porous media have attracted great attention in a variety of fields, especially in the oil and gas industry. A wide range of research studies have been conducted on the characterization of porous media covers and multiphase flow therein. Reliable approaches for characterizing microstructure and multiphase flow in porous media are crucial in many fields, including the characterization of residual water or oil in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the long-term storage of supercritical CO2 in geological formations. This book gathers together 15 recent works to emphasize fundamental innovations in the field and novel applications of petrophysics in unconventional reservoirs, including experimental studies, numerical modeling (fractal approach), and multiphase flow modeling/simulations. The relevant stakeholders of this book are authorities and service companies working in the petroleum, subsurface water resources, air and water pollution, environmental, and biomaterial sectors.

Keywords

Wilkins equation --- non-laminar flow --- turbulence modelling --- porous media --- oil tanker --- temperature drop --- oscillating motion --- numerical simulation --- soil-water characteristic curve --- initial void ratio --- air-entry value --- fractal dimension --- fractal model --- oil properties --- diffusion coefficient --- supercritical CO2 --- Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR EOS) --- CT --- digital rock --- microfractures --- Lattice Boltzmann method --- pore-scale simulations --- tight sandstone --- pore structure --- multifractal --- classification --- Ordos Basin --- loose media --- coal --- porosity --- true density --- bulk density --- overburden pressure --- particle size --- tight conglomerate --- fracture characterization and prediction --- fractal method --- salt rock --- creep --- damage --- fractional derivative --- acoustic emission --- marine gas hydrate --- submarine landslide --- greenhouse gas emission --- lifecycle management --- hazard prevention --- multilayer reservoir --- interlayer interference --- producing degree --- seepage resistance --- wellbore multiphase flow --- inclined angle --- liquid rate --- gas rate --- pressure drawdown model with new coefficients --- base-level cycle --- pore structure --- mouth bar sand body --- Huanghua Depression --- isotopic composition --- methane --- gas hydrate --- South China Sea --- Bakken Formation --- pore structure --- controlling factors --- low-temperature nitrogen adsorption --- petrophysics --- fractal porous media --- unconventional reservoirs --- multiphase flow

Siloxane-Based Polymers

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ISBN: 9783038971252 9783038971269 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-126-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book, a collection of 12 original contributions and 4 reviews, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the preparation, characterization, and applications of polymeric nanocomposites comprising nanoparticles. The concept of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers came about three decades ago, following the outstanding discovery of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. One of the main ideas behind this approach is to improve the matrix mechanical performance. The nanoparticles exhibit higher specific surface area, surface energy, and density compared to microparticles and, hence, lower nanofiller concentrations are needed to attain properties comparable to, or even better than, those obtained by conventional microfiller loadings, which facilitates processing and minimizes the increase in composite weight. The addition of nanoparticles into different polymer matrices opens up an important research area in the field of composite materials. Moreover, many different types of inorganic nanoparticles, such as quantum dots, metal oxides, and ceramic and metallic nanoparticles, have been incorporated into polymers for their application in a wide range of fields, ranging from medicine to photovoltaics, packaging, and structural applications.

Keywords

fabrication --- multielectrode array (MEA) --- PDMS --- PDMS etching --- plateau-shaped electrode --- recessed electrode --- spinal cord signal recording --- underexposure --- organosilane --- quartz microcrystal --- encapsulant --- refractive index --- thermal conductivity --- poly(dimethylsiloxanes) --- surface modification --- nanosilica --- diethyl carbonate --- carbon content --- morphology --- coatings --- fillers --- hybrid hydrogel --- MAPOSS --- mechanical properties --- swelling --- drug release --- dental resin --- methacryl POSS --- shrinkage --- hardness --- scratch resistance --- ceramizable silicone rubber --- borate --- halloysite --- composite --- ceramizable mechanism --- polysiloxanes --- mortar --- basalt fibre --- roughness --- surface free energy --- poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) --- hydrophilic --- non-releasable --- polydimethylsiloxane --- coatings --- cross-linking --- surface --- amphiphilic --- anti-bioadhesion --- hyperbranched poly(methylhydrosiloxanes) --- hydrolytic polycondensation --- 29Si-NMR --- topology of polysiloxane chains --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes --- high molecular weight --- nanoparticles --- PDMS --- sugar templating process --- 3D porous network --- thermal stability --- TG-FTIR --- X-ray (Micro-CT) microtomography --- sol-gel --- hybrids --- chlorogenic acid --- bioactivity --- FTIR --- TG --- polysiloxanes --- theranostics --- drug delivery --- nanomedicine --- PDMS --- silicon --- ultraviolet (UV) curable coatings --- low surface energy materials --- fluorinated siloxane resin

Carbon Fibers and Their Composite Materials

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ISBN: 9783039211029 9783039211036 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-103-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Carbon fiber is an oft-referenced material that serves as a means to remove mass from large transport infrastructure. Carbon fiber composites, typically plastics reinforced with the carbon fibers, are key materials in the 21st century and have already had a significant impact on reducing CO2 emissions. Though, as with any composite material, the interface where each component meets, in this case the fiber and plastic, is critical to the overall performance.

Targets, Tracers and Translation – Novel Radiopharmaceuticals Boost Nuclear Medicine

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ISBN: 9783039213139 9783039213146 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-314-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This is the fourth Special Issue in Pharmaceuticals within the last six years dealing with aspects of radiopharmaceutical sciences. It demonstrates the significant interest and increasing relevance to ameliorate nuclear medicine imaging with PET or SPECT, and also radiotherapeutical procedures.Numerous targets and mechanisms have been identified and have been under investigation over the previous years, covering many fields of medical and clinical research. This development is well illustrated by the articles in the present issue, including 13 original research papers and one review, covering a broad range of actual research topics in the field of radiopharmaceutical sciences.

Keywords

breast cancer --- 68Ga --- GRPR --- NPY(Y1)R --- peptide heterodimers --- PET/CT imaging --- sentinel lymph node --- dextran --- mannose --- 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals --- glutamate --- metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 --- [18F]PSS232 --- ketamine --- ceftriaxone --- positron emission tomography --- allosteric modulator --- MMPEP --- ABP688 --- pretargeting --- Fusarinine C --- rituximab --- click chemistry --- multimerization --- PET --- gallium-68 --- carbonic anhydrase IX --- girentuximab --- renal cell carcinomas --- 177Lu-radiopharmaceuticals --- radioimmunotherapy --- neuroinflammation --- microglia --- carbon-11 --- radiochemistry --- positron emission tomography --- hypoxia --- radiosensitizer --- benzotriazine-1,4-dioxide (BTDO), benzotriazine-1-monoxide (BTMO), tirapazamine (TPZ), SR 4317 --- radioiodination --- tropomyosin receptor kinase --- positron emission tomography --- neurodegeneration --- oncogenic fusions --- [11C]meta-hydroxyephedrine --- radiosynthesis --- separation --- apparent molar activity --- cholecystokinin-2 receptor --- minigastrin --- molecular imaging --- radiometals --- technetium-99m --- hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC) --- PSMA-617 --- salivary gland uptake --- prostate cancer --- endoradiotherapy --- Chloramine T --- electrophilic radioiodination --- iodine-131 --- Iodo-Gen® --- oxidizing agent --- ?-CIT. --- tumor hypoxia --- PET --- small animal imaging --- azomycin nucleosides --- [18F]FMISO --- bombesin --- gastrin-releasing peptide --- gastrin-releasing peptide receptor --- tumor targeting --- 99mTc-radioligand --- metabolic stability --- neprilysin-inhibition --- phosphoramidon --- n/a --- n/a

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