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Roles and mechanisms of parasitism in aquatic microbial communities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195886 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-588-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Next Generation Sequencing technologies are increasingly revealing that microbial taxa likely to be parasites or symbionts are probably much more prevalent and diverse than previously thought. Every well studied free-living species has parasites; parasites themselves can be parasitized. As a rule of thumb, there is an estimated 4 parasitic species for any given host, and the better a host is studied the more parasites are known to infect it. Therefore, parasites and other symbionts should represent a very large number of species and may far outnumber those with 'free-living' lifestyles. Paradoxically, free-living hosts, which form the bulk of our knowledge of biology, may be a minority! Microbial parasites typically are characterized by their small size, short generation time, and high rates of reproduction, with simple life cycle occurring generally within a single host. They are diverse and ubiquitous in the environment, comprising viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This Frontiers Research Topic sought to provide a broad overview but concise, comprehensive, well referenced and up-to-date state of the art for everyone involved with microbial parasites in aquatic microbial ecology.

Recent Progress in Bunyavirus Research

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ISBN: 9783038423935 9783038423928 Year: Pages: VIII, 224 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-14 11:52:43
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The Bunyaviridae is the largest family of RNA viruses, with over 350 isolates worldwide distributed into five genera (i.e., Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus). Many of these viruses are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The increasing number of reports on new emerging bunyaviruses and infection episodes makes it essential that we obtain a comprehensive understanding of bunyaviruses and their infection mechanisms. Although all bunyaviruses possesses a tripartite, negative-sense (or ambi-sense) RNA genome, they exhibit substantial differences in their structure, genome organization and replication strategies, which make functional interpolation across genus boundaries difficult.Fortunately, the bunyavirus field has witnessed many exciting new findings and breakthroughs in recent years. These discoveries span a wide spectrum of research areas, including structural characterization of viruses and viral proteins, the identification of new viruses, investigations into host switch and vectors of transmission, genome-based analysis of virus evolution and phylogenetic lineages, the development of new research tools, such as replicons and reverse genetics, molecular characterization of the virus life cycle at the cell level (i.e., cell entry, replication, transcription, translation, genome packaging, reassortment, and virus assembly, etc.), studies of virus–host interactions and host antiviral defense, the development of vaccines/drugs and the use of bunyaviruses for novel applications.This book includes both research and review papers that together provide a glimpse into the latest research on bunyaviruses and, at the same time, highlight some of the important research achievements made in recent years. Study topics of both a fundamental and applied nature are collated. An informed perspective for future research directions is provided and can stimulate research in some of the understudied areas.

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