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Protein Phosphorylation in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199006 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-900-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abstract

Protein phosphorylation is one of the most abundant reversible post-translational modifications in eukaryotes. It is involved in virtually all cellular processes by regulating protein function, localization and stability and by mediating protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, aberrant protein phosphorylation is implicated in the onset and progression of human diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years, tens of thousands of in vivo phosphorylation events have been identified by large-scale quantitative phospho-proteomics experiment suggesting that a large fraction of the proteome might be regulated by phosphorylation. This data explosion is increasingly enabling the development of computational approaches, often combined with experimental validation, aiming at prioritizing phosphosites and assessing their functional relevance. Some computational approaches also address the inference of specificity determinants of protein kinases/phosphatases and the identification of phosphoresidue recognition domains. In this context, several challenging issues are still open regarding phosphorylation, including a better understanding of the interplay between phosphorylation and allosteric regulation, agents and mechanisms disrupting or promoting abnormal phosphorylation in diseases, the identification and modulation of novel phosphorylation inhibitors, and so forth. Furthermore, the determinants of kinase and phosphatase recognition and binding specificity are still unknown in several cases, as well as the impact of disease mutations on phosphorylation-mediated signaling. The articles included in this Research Topic illustrate the very diverse aspects of phosphorylation, ranging from structural changes induced by phosphorylation to the peculiarities of phosphosite evolution. Some also provide a glimpse into the huge complexity of phosphorylation networks and pathways in health and disease, and underscore that a deeper knowledge of such processes is essential to identify disease biomarkers, on one hand, and design more effective therapeutic strategies, on the other.

Signal Transduction in Stomatal Guard Cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451678 Year: Pages: 105 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-167-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Stomata, the tiny pores on leaf surface, are the gateways for CO2 uptake during photosynthesis as well as water loss in transpiration. Further, plants use stomatal closure as a defensive response, often triggered by elicitors, to prevent the entry of pathogens. The guard cells are popular model systems to study the signalling mechanism in plant cells. The messengers that mediate closure upon perception of elicitors or microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are quite similar to those during ABA effects. These components include reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), cytosolic pH and intracellular Ca2+. The main components are ROS, NO and cytosolic free Ca2+. The list extends to others, such as G-proteins, protein phosphatases, protein kinases, phospholipids and ion channels. The sequence of these signalling components and their interaction during stomatal signalling are complex and quite interesting. The present e-Book provides a set of authoritative articles from ‘Special Research Topic’ on selected areas of stomatal guard cells. In the first set of two articles, an overview of ABA and MAMPs as signals is presented. The next set of 4 articles, emphasize the role of ROS, NO, Ca2+ as well as pH, as secondary messengers. The next group of 3 articles highlight the recent advances on post-translational modification of guard cell proteins, with emphasis on 14-3-3 proteins and MAPK cascades. The last article described the method to isolate epidermis of grass species and monitor stomatal responses to different signals. Our e-Book is a valuable and excellent source of information for all those interested in guard cell function as well as signal transduction in plant cells.

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