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Antimicrobial Peptides

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ISBN: 9783038420729 9783038420736 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-073-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 10:29:38
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are gene-encoded, ancient (and important) mediators of innate host defense that exert direct or indirect antimicrobial action as well as possessing other important biologic activities (e.g., neutralization of endotoxin and anti-biofilm action) that help to protect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants from invading pathogens. While the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant pathogens (and the desperate need to develop new anti-infectives) has been a recent force driving the field, interest in AMPs has an earlier origin in studies of how phagocytes kill bacteria by oxygen-independent processes. AMPs responsible for such killing of microbes by rabbit and human neutrophils were later purified by Ganz, Selsted and Lehrer, which they termed defensins; at the time of this writing, literally thousands of defensin-based publications can be found in the scientific literature! The initial reports on defensins and the earlier report by Boman’s group on the purification and action of an insect AMP represented a historical and defining point for the AMP field as they, in hindsight, demanded the recognition of AMP research as a unique discipline that has important linkages to other important fields of medicine, especially those of microbiology, infectious diseases and immunology. On a personal note, I remember conferences on phagocytes and host defense in the early 1980s where the topic of AMPs was relegated to one short session in a five day period! Now, we have hundreds of international “AMPologists” with expertise in chemistry, biochemistry, molecular and structural biology, cell biology, microbiology, pharmacology, or medicine who have built their research careers around AMPs and can now attend international conferences dedicated to advances in AMP research.

The causes and consequences of microbial community structure

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193615 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-361-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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The causes and consequences of differences in microbial community structure, defined here as the relative proportions of rare and abundant organisms within a community, are poorly understood. Articles in "The Causes and Consequences of Microbial Community Structure", use empirical or modeling approaches as well as literature reviews to enrich our mechanistic understanding of the controls over the relationship between community structure and ecosystem processes. Specifically, authors address the role of trait distributions and tradeoffs, species-species interactions, evolutionary dynamics, community assembly processes and physical controls in affecting ‘who’s there’ and ‘what they are doing’.

Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

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ISBN: 9783038973645 9783038973652 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-365-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-14 10:30:46
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The most efficient process to reduce NOx emissions from lean exhaust gases, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with ammonia, has undergone tremendous development over the past decades. Originally only applied in stationary power plants and industrial installations, SCR systems are now installed in millions of mobile diesel engines, ranging from off-road machineries, to heavy-duty and light-duty trucks and passenger cars, to locomotives and ships. All of these applications involve specific challenges due to tighter emission limits, new internal combustion engine technologies, or alternative fuels.Three review articles and 14 research articles in this book describe recent results and research trends of various aspects of the SCR process. Reaction engineering aspects, such as the proper dosage of ammonia or urea, respectively, are as important as further developments of the different SCR catalysts, by deepening the understanding of their functionality or by systematic improvements of their properties, such as low-temperature activity, selectivity, or poisoning-resistance. Another covered aspect is cost reduction through the use of cheaper base materials for the production is active and stable SCR catalysts. Finally, research efforts are reported to develop SCR processes with different reducing agents, which would open doors to new applications in the future. The range of topics addressed in this book will stimulate the reader’s interest as well as provide a valuable source of information for researchers in academia and industry.

Thermal and Electro-thermal System Simulation

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ISBN: 9783039217366 9783039217373 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-737-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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With increasing power levels and power densities in electronics systems, thermal issues are becoming more and more critical. The elevated temperatures result in changing electrical system parameters, changing the operation of devices, and sometimes even the destruction of devices. To prevent this, the thermal behavior has to be considered in the design phase. This can be done with thermal end electro-thermal design and simulation tools. This Special Issue of Energies, edited by two well-known experts of the field, Prof. Marta Rencz, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, and by Prof. Lorenzo Codecasa, Politecnico di Milano, collects twelve papers carefully selected for the representation of the latest results in thermal and electro-thermal system simulation. These contributions present a good survey of the latest results in one of the most topical areas in the field of electronics: The thermal and electro-thermal simulation of electronic components and systems. Several papers of this issue are extended versions of papers presented at the THERMINIC 2018 Workshop, held in Stockholm in the fall of 2018. The papers presented here deal with modeling and simulation of state-of-the-art applications that are highly critical from the thermal point of view, and around which there is great research activity in both industry and academia. Contributions covered the thermal simulation of electronic packages, electro-thermal advanced modeling in power electronics, multi-physics modeling and simulation of LEDs, and the characterization of interface materials, among other subjects.

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