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Advances in Plant-Hemipteran Interactions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453214 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-321-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Hemipterans encompass a large group of insect pests of plants that utilize mouthparts which are modified for piercing and consuming fluids from plants. In addition, hemipterans vector viral and bacterial diseases of plants. This book brings together a set of reviews and research papers that showcase the the range of activities being undertaken to advance our understanding of the multi-organismal interaction between plant, hemipterans and microbes.

Replication-Competent Reporter-Expressing Viruses

ISBN: 9783038422587 9783038422594 Year: Pages: XVI, 322 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-31 16:58:45
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Recombinant viruses expressing reporter fluorescent or bioluminescent proteins are an excellent option to evaluate the dynamics of viral infection progression in both cultured cells and/or validated animal models of viral infection. Reporter proteins are valid surrogates for direct detection of infected cells in vitro and in vivo, without the use of secondary methodologies to identify infected cells. By eliminating the need of secondary labeling, tractable replicating-competent, reporter-expressing viruses provide an ideal approach to monitor viral infections in real time, representing a significant advance in the study of the biology of viruses, to evaluate vaccination approaches, and to identify new therapeutics against viral infections using high-throughput screening settings. In this Special Issue “Replication-Competent Reporter-Expressing Viruses” we review replication-competent, reporter-expressing viruses belonging to different families, methods of characterization, and applications to facilitate the study of in vitro and in vivo viral infections. We also seek to discuss disadvantages and limitations associated with these reporter-expressing viruses. Finally, we provide rational future perspectives and additional avenues for the development, characterization, and applications of recombinant, reporter-expressing, competent viruses.

Emerging Approaches for Typing, Detection, Characterization, and Traceback of Escherichia coli

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451357 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-135-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains cause a large number of diseases in humans, including diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, urinary tract infections, and neonatal meningitis, while in animals they cause diseases such as calf scours and mastitis in cattle, post-weaning diarrhea and edema disease in pigs, and peritonitis and airsacculitis in chickens. The different E. coli pathotypes are characterized by the presence of specific sets of virulence-related genes. Therefore, it is not surprising that pathogenic E. coli constitutes a genetically heterogeneous family of bacteria, and they are continuing to evolve. Rapid and accurate molecular methods are critically needed to detect and trace pathogenic E. coli in food and animals. They are also needed for epidemiological investigations to enhance food safety, as well as animal and human health and to minimize the size and geographical extent of outbreaks. The serotype of E. coli strains has traditionally been determined using antisera raised against the >180 different O- (somatic) and 53 H- (flagellar) antigens. However, there are many problems associated with serotyping, including: it is labor-intensive and time consuming; cross reactivity of the antisera with different serogroups occurs; antisera are available only in specialized laboratories; and many strains are non-typeable. Molecular serotyping targeting O-group-specific genes within the E. coli O-antigen gene clusters and genes that are involved in encoding for the different flagellar types offers an improved approach for determining the E. coli O- and H-groups. Furthermore, molecular serotyping can be coupled with determination of specific sets of virulence genes carried by the strain offering the possibility to determine O-group, pathotype, and the pathogenic potential simultaneously. Sequencing of the O-antigen gene clusters of all of the known O-groups of E. coli is now complete, and the sequences have been deposited in the GenBank database. The sequence information has revealed that some E. coli serogroups have identical sequences while others have point mutations or insertion sequences and type as different serogroups in serological reactions. There are also a number of other ambiguities in serotyping that need to be resolved. Furthermore, new E. coli O-groups are being identified. Therefore, there is an essential need to resolve these issues and to revise the E. coli serotype nomenclature based on these findings. There are emerging technologies that can potentially be applied for molecular serotyping and detection and characterization of E. coli. On a related topic, the genome sequence of thousands of E. coli strains have been deposited in GenBank, and this information is revealing unique markers such as CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and virulence gene markers that could be used to identify E. coli pathotypes. Whole genome sequencing now provides the opportunity to study the role of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution and emergence of pathogenic E. coli strains. Whole genome sequencing approaches are being investigated for genotyping and outbreak investigation for regulatory and public health needs; however, there is a need for establishing bioinformatics pipelines able to handle large amounts of data as we move toward the use of genetic approaches for non-culture-based detection and characterization of E. coli and for outbreak investigations.

Emerging Approaches for Typing, Detection, Characterization, and Traceback of Escherichia coli, 2nd Edition

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454334 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-433-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains cause a large number of diseases in humans, including diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, urinary tract infections, and neonatal meningitis, while in animals they cause diseases such as calf scours and mastitis in cattle, post-weaning diarrhea and edema disease in pigs, and peritonitis and airsacculitis in chickens. The different E. coli pathotypes are characterized by the presence of specific sets of virulence-related genes. Therefore, it is not surprising that pathogenic E. coli constitutes a genetically heterogeneous family of bacteria, and they are continuing to evolve. Rapid and accurate molecular methods are critically needed to detect and trace pathogenic E. coli in food and animals. They are also needed for epidemiological investigations to enhance food safety, as well as animal and human health and to minimize the size and geographical extent of outbreaks. The serotype of E. coli strains has traditionally been determined using antisera raised against the >180 different O- (somatic) and 53 H- (flagellar) antigens. However, there are many problems associated with serotyping, including: it is labor-intensive and time consuming; cross reactivity of the antisera with different serogroups occurs; antisera are available only in specialized laboratories; and many strains are non-typeable. Molecular serotyping targeting O-group-specific genes within the E. coli O-antigen gene clusters and genes that are involved in encoding for the different flagellar types offers an improved approach for determining the E. coliO- and H-groups. Furthermore, molecular serotyping can be coupled with determination of specific sets of virulence genes carried by the strain offering the possibility to determine O-group, pathotype, and the pathogenic potential simultaneously. Sequencing of the O-antigen gene clusters of all of the known O-groups of E. coli is now complete, and the sequences have been deposited in the GenBank database. The sequence information has revealed that some E. coli serogroups have identical sequences while others have point mutations or insertion sequences and type as different serogroups in serological reactions. There are also a number of other ambiguities in serotyping that need to be resolved. Furthermore, new E. coli O-groups are being identified. Therefore, there is an essential need to resolve these issues and to revise the E. coli serotype nomenclature based on these findings. There are emerging technologies that can potentially be applied for molecular serotyping and detection and characterization of E. coli. On a related topic, the genome sequence of thousands of E. coli strains have been deposited in GenBank, and this information is revealing unique markers such as CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and virulence gene markers that could be used to identify E. coli pathotypes. Whole genome sequencing now provides the opportunity to study the role of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution and emergence of pathogenic E. coli strains. Whole genome sequencing approaches are being investigated for genotyping and outbreak investigation for regulatory and public health needs; however, there is a need for establishing bioinformatics pipelines able to handle large amounts of data as we move toward the use of genetic approaches for non-culture-based detection and characterization of E. coli and for outbreak investigations.

The Identification of the Genetic Components of Autism Spectrum Disorders 2017

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ISBN: 9783038425205 9783038425212 Year: Pages: X, 462 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 12:54:46
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This textbook is dedicated to the study of genetic factors contributing to autism and includes a collection of original research and review articles related to this topic. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include a collection of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three recognized behavioral domains involving difficulties in communication, social interaction and repetitive behavior. ASD affects 1 to 2 percent of children and is on the increase worldwide. Significant genetic contributions and mechanisms underlie the causation of ASD. Advances in genetic technology and better awareness have led to a diagnosis of 50 to 70 percent of individuals with ASD primarily due to chromosomal abnormalities, submicroscopic deletions or duplications now identified with high-resolution microarray analysis, next-generation DNA (exome) sequencing of gene variants or mutations, recognized single gene disorders or metabolic disturbances. Through discovery by searching genomic databases and peer-reviewed research articles, nearly 800 genes have been identified to contribute to ASD. Highlights in the field of autism research, discovery and identification of genetic components with characterization will be addressed. Furthermore, reviews of current understanding of the causes and diagnostic approaches for ASD and related syndromes will be presented along with discussion of psychiatric/behavior comorbidities and related features, environmental risk factors, parental attitudes and treatment.

New Directions in Dental Anthropology: Paradigms, methodologies and outcomes

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780987171870 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.1017/9780987171870 Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Anthropology
Added to DOAB on : 2012-05-14 07:35:12
License: University of Adelaide Press

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This book contains papers arising from a symposium held during a combined meeting of The International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (IUAES), The Australian Anthropological Society (AAS) and The Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa New Zealand at the University of Western Australia from July 5-8th, 2011. It follows on from a recently published Special Issue Supplement of Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 54, December 2009 that contains papers from an International Workshop on Oral Growth and Development held in Liverpool in 2007 and edited by Professor Alan Brook. Together, these two publications provide a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art approaches to study dental development and variation, and open up opportunities for future collaborative research initiatives, a key aim of the International Collaborating Network in Oro-facial Genetics and Development that was founded in Liverpool in 2007.

The aim of the symposium held at The University of Western Australia in 2011 was to emphasise some of the powerful new strategies offered by the science of dental anthropology to elucidate the historical lineage of human groups and also to reconstruct environmental factors that have acted on the teeth by analysing dental morphological features. In recent years, migration, as well as increases and decreases in the size of different human populations, have been evident as a result of globalisation. Dental features are also changing associated with changes in nutritional status, different economic or social circumstances, and intermarriage between peoples. Dental anthropological studies have explored these changes with the use of advanced techniques and refined methodologies. New paradigms are also evolving in the field of dental anthropology.

When considered together with the recent special issue of Archives of Oral Biology that highlighted the importance of research approaches focused at both the molecular and phenotypic levels, it is clear that we have now reached a very exciting stage in our ability to address key questions and issues about the normal and abnormal development of the dentition, as well as the diseases that commonly affect our teeth and gums.

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