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Anopheles mosquitoes

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ISBN: 9789535111887 Year: Pages: 830 DOI: 10.5772/3392 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: Wellcome Trust
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:01

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Anopheles mosquitoes are highly important insects due to their involvement in the transmission of human malaria and its devastating consequences in endemic countries worldwide. In 2010 alone, malaria was responsible for an estimated 660,000 deaths. As the study of Anopheles species and populations is a key element for reaching the goal of malaria elimination, an enormous amount of information has accumulated over the past century, and together in recent decades with the advent of novel technologies the acquisition of new knowledge has accelerated even further. The originality of this book is to offer the latest compilation on various research, new concepts, paradigms and innovative approaches for the control of anophelines using state-of-the-art methodologies and analysis. The 24 chapters, written by internationally recognized experts from 5 continents, cover the rich landscape for the understanding of Anopheles mosquitoes and the development of more effective weapons to control the vector of malaria.

Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases

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ISBN: 9783038427919 9783038427926 Year: Pages: CCCXLVIII, 18 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 16:16:52
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Foodborne disease like salmonellosis and toxoplasmosis are amongst the most significant causes of hospitalization in the U.S. and globally. Gastrointestinal infections alter gut microbiomes and increase permeability to toxins. Various invasions by microbial, fungal, viral and parasitic agents stimulate inflammation, a defensive mechanism of the body’s immune system. Other stimuli include environmental stimuli, oxidative stress, aging and the physiological process. A long-lasting, persistent and excessive inflammatory response is a significant risk factor for developing various chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases.Different nutritional and dietary life styles, whether poor or lacking essential nutritional elements, as well as excess intake, can result in inflammatory complications and loss of function. Nutritional deficiency is linked with several infectious and inflammatory diseases as a cause or consequence. For instance, protein deficiency was reported in orphanages to provoke microbial and fungal complications including Pneumocystis pneumonia. Similarly, protein deficiency is a tell-tale sign of several parasitic diseases. Studies indicate that nutrients, such as amino acids, oligosaccharides, and short-chain fatty acids exert inhibitory and anti-inflammatory functions. These investigations help to understand nutritional contributions to the prevention, treatment and taming of certain inflammatory and infectious diseases. Infectious and inflammatory complications go hand-in-hand with malnutrition.The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish related new, basic and translational findings and clinical trials in this area. Other investigations or review articles were sought to link infectious and inflammatory diseases with nutrients. In addition, novel diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic modalities were invited to aid the development of nutritional strategies for the treatment and/or prevention of inflammation and infection. Original reviews were of particular interest to advance our understanding of signaling pathways, and the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind the effects of nutrients on inflammatory and infectious diseases.

Highlights on Anopheles nili and Anopheles moucheti, Malaria Vectors in Africa (Book chapter)

Book title: Anopheles mosquitoes

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ISBN: 9789535111887 Year: DOI: 10.5772/55153 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: Wellcome Trust - 86423
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:01
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In this chapter, we review knowledge gained so far on mosquitoes from An. moucheti and closely related species, as well as the An. nili complex. We highlight specific bionomical, ecological and genetic attributes that distinguish these species from the most well-known major African malaria vectors, providing opportunities for further research on neglected aspects of vector biology and control.

Of Microbes and Men. War and Peace on the Mucosal Surfaces

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ISBN: 9782722602724 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Collège de France
Added to DOAB on : 2014-02-27 14:16:29
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Our bodies contain ten times more bacteria than cells and their activity is essential for our organisms. A true symbiosis exists between humans and microbes, the complex mechanisms of which can only be decoded using molecular genetics. However these bacteria can also cause infectious and parasitic diseases which kill over 15 million people a year throughout the world. To develop effective treatments and vaccines for such diseases, scientists need to know how bacteria outmanoeuvre the body’s d...

HIV Infection in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment and Some of Its Associated Complications

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ISBN: 9789533077017 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.5772/1752 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a complex illness affecting the immune system. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an advanced form of HIV infection in which the patient has developed opportunistic infections or certain types of cancer and/or the CD4+ T cell count has dropped below 200/μL. More than 40 million persons around the world are infected with HIV, with approximately 14,000 new infections every day. The disease causes 3 million deaths worldwide each year, 95% of them in developing countries. Optimal management of human immunodeficiency virus requires strict adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) regimens, but the complexity of these regimens (e.g., pill burden, food requirements, drug interactions, and severe adverse effects) limits effective treatment. However, more patients with HIV are surviving longer today because of these drugs. This allows further study of commonly associated adverse effects. These may affect all body systems and range from serious toxicities to uncomfortable but manageable events. This book reviews some of HAART-related metabolic and neurological complications.

Understanding Tuberculosis - Global Experiences and Innovative Approaches to the Diagnosis

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ISBN: 9789533079387 Year: Pages: 564 DOI: 10.5772/1483 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a disease that is transmitted through aerosol. This is the reason why it is estimated that a third of humankind is already infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The vast majority of the infected do not know about their status. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a silent pathogen, causing no symptomatology at all during the infection. In addition, infected people cannot cause further infections. Unfortunately, an estimated 10 per cent of the infected population has the probability to develop the disease, making it very difficult to eradicate. Once in this stage, the bacilli can be transmitted to other persons and the development of clinical symptoms is very progressive. Therefore the diagnosis, especially the discrimination between infection and disease, is a real challenge. In this book, we present the experience of worldwide specialists on the diagnosis, along with its lights and shadows.

Understanding Tuberculosis - New Approaches to Fighting Against Drug Resistance

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ISBN: 9789533079486 Year: Pages: 388 DOI: 10.5772/2477 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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In 1957, a Streptomyces strain, the ME/83 (S.mediterranei), was isolated in the Lepetit Research Laboratories from a soil sample collected at a pine arboretum near Saint Raphael, France. This drug was the base for the chemotherapy with Streptomicine. The euphoria generated by the success of this regimen lead to the idea that TB eradication would be possible by the year 2000. Thus, any further drug development against TB was stopped. Unfortunately, the lack of an accurate administration of these drugs originated the irruption of the drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Once the global emergency was declared in 1993, seeking out new drugs became urgent. In this book, diverse authors focus on the development and the activity of the new drug families.

Understanding Tuberculosis - Deciphering the Secret Life of the Bacilli

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ISBN: 9789533079462 Year: Pages: 346 DOI: 10.5772/2479 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as recent investigations demonstrate, has a complex signaling expression, which allows its close interaction with the environment and one of its most renowned properties: the ability to persist for long periods of time under a non-replicative status. Although this skill is well characterized in other bacteria, the intrinsically very slow growth rate of Mycobium tuberculosis, together with a very thick and complex cell wall, makes this pathogen specially adapted to the stress that could be generated by the host against them. In this book, different aspects of these properties are displayed by specialists in the field.

Understanding Tuberculosis - Analyzing the Origin of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Pathogenicity

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ISBN: 9789533079424 Year: Pages: 572 DOI: 10.5772/2478 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an attempt to understand the extent to which the bacilli has adapted itself to the host and to its final target. On the other hand, there is a section in which other specialists discuss how to manipulate this immune response to obtain innovative prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to truncate the intimal co-evolution between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the Homo sapiens.

Current Topics in Tropical Medicine

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ISBN: 9789535102748 Year: Pages: 578 DOI: 10.5772/1335 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Tropical Medicine has emerged and remained as an important discipline for the study of diseases endemic in the tropic, particularly those of infectious etiology. Emergence and reemergence of many tropical pathologies have recently aroused the interest of many fields of the study of tropical medicine, even including new infectious agents. Then evidence-based information in the field and regular updates are necessary. Current Topics in Tropical Medicine presents an updated information on multiple diseases and conditions of interest in the field. It Includes pathologies caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites, protozoans and helminths, as well as tropical non-infectious conditions. Many of them are considering not only epidemiological aspects, but also diagnostic, therapeutical, preventive, social, genetic, bioinformatic and molecular ones. With participation of authors from various countries, many from proper endemic areas, this book has a wide geographical perspective. Finally, all of these characteristics, make an excellent update on many aspects of tropical medicine in the world.

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