Search results: Found 97

Listing 1 - 10 of 97 << page
of 10
>>
Sort by
Engineering a Safer World

Author:
Book Series: Engineering Systems ISBN: 9780262016629 9780262533690 Year: Pages: 560 Language: English
Publisher: The MIT Press
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:41:31
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

A new approach to safety, based on systems thinking, that is more effective, less costly, and easier to use than current techniques.Engineering has experienced a technological revolution, but the basic engineering techniques applied in safety and reliability engineering, created in a simpler, analog world, have changed very little over the years. In this groundbreaking book, Nancy Leveson proposes a new approach to safety—more suited to today's complex, sociotechnical, software-intensive world—based on modern systems thinking and systems theory. Revisiting and updating ideas pioneered by 1950s aerospace engineers in their System Safety concept, and testing her new model extensively on real-world examples, Leveson has created a new approach to safety that is more effective, less expensive, and easier to use than current techniques.Arguing that traditional models of causality are inadequate, Leveson presents a new, extended model of causation (Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes, or STAMP), then shows how the new model can be used to create techniques for system safety engineering, including accident analysis, hazard analysis, system design, safety in operations, and management of safety-critical systems. She applies the new techniques to real-world events including the friendly-fire loss of a U.S. Blackhawk helicopter in the first Gulf War; the Vioxx recall; the U.S. Navy SUBSAFE program; and the bacterial contamination of a public water supply in a Canadian town. Leveson's approach is relevant even beyond safety engineering, offering techniques for “reengineering” any large sociotechnical system to improve safety and manage risk.

Keywords

cybernetics --- safety

Resilience: A New Paradigm of Nuclear Safety: From Accident Mitigation to Resilient Society Facing Extreme Situations

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319587677 9783319587684 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58768-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 15:37:45
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book summarizes presentations and discussions from the two-day international workshop held at UC Berkeley in March 2015, and derives questions to be addressed in multi-disciplinary research toward a new paradigm of nuclear safety. The consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011 have fuelled the debate on nuclear safety: while there were no casualties due to radiation, there was substantial damage to local communities. The lack of common understanding of the basics of environmental and radiological sciences has made it difficult for stakeholders to develop effective strategies to accelerate recovery, and this is compounded by a lack of effective decision-making due to the eroded public trust in the government and operators. Recognizing that making a society resilient and achieving higher levels of safety relies on public participation in and feedback on decision-making, the book focuses on risk perception and mitigation in its discussion of the development of resilient communities.

Target Suitability and the Crime Drop

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781137525024 9781349707058 9781137525017 9781349995905 Year: Pages: 22 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-137-52502-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:04
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This is a chapter from The Criminal Act: The Role and Influence of Routine Activity Theory edited by Martin A. Andresen and Graham Farrell. This chapter is available open access under a CC BY license. Target suitability is a cornerstone of Marcus Felson's routine activities approach, and critical in determining crime rates. Recent research identifies reduced target suitability, via improved security, as central to the 'crime drop' experienced in many countries. Studies in different countries show car theft fell with far more and better vehicle security. Yet increases in household security were more modest and do not track burglary's decrease as well. In this chapter, the authors explain that apparent anomaly as due more to an improvement in the quality of household security leading to reduced burglary. It is further suggested that improvements to home insulation in the UK that brought double glazing may have, somewhat inadvertently, introduced better frames and locks for doors and windows, that in turn reduced household burglary.; This is a chapter from The Criminal Act: The Role and Influence of Routine Activity Theory edited by Martin A. Andresen and Graham Farrell. This chapter is available open access under a CC BY license. Target suitability is a cornerstone of Marcus Felson's routine activities approach, and critical in determining crime rates. Recent research identifies reduced target suitability, via improved security, as central to the 'crime drop' experienced in many countries. Studies in different countries show car theft fell with far more and better vehicle security. Yet increases in household security were more modest and do not track burglary's decrease as well. In this chapter, the authors explain that apparent anomaly as due more to an improvement in the quality of household security leading to reduced burglary. It is further suggested that improvements to home insulation in the UK that brought double glazing may have, somewhat inadvertently, introduced better frames and locks for doors and windows, that in turn reduced household burglary.

Keywords

Criminology --- Public safety

Land Use and Food Security in 2050

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9782759228805 9782759228812 9782759228799 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-2880-5 Language: English
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-11 11:21:32
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"After a first foresight study on ‘World food security in 2050’ (Agrimonde), CIRAD and INRA have turned their attention to a new foresight exercise on ‘Land use and food security in 2050’ (Agrimonde-Terra). This new study seeks to highlight levers that could modify ongoing land-use patterns for improved food and nutrition security. Agrimonde-Terra proposes a trend analysis on the global context, climate change, food diets, urban-rural linkages, farm structures, cropping and livestock systems, and explores five scenarios. Three scenarios entitled ‘Metropolization’, ‘Regionalization’ and ‘Households’ are based on current competing trends identified in most world regions. Two scenarios entitled ‘Healthy’ and ‘Communities’ involve potential breaks that could change the entire land use and food security system. The ‘Healthy’ scenario is the only one that makes it possible to achieve sustainable world food and nutrition security in 2050. Nevertheless, current trends in agricultural and food systems in most parts of the world converge towards the ‘Metropolization’ scenario, which is not sustainable in terms of both land use and human health. Therefore, changing the course of ongoing trends in favor of sustainable land uses and healthy food systems will be one of the main challenges of the next decades. It will require systemic transformation, strong and coherent public policies across sectors and scales, and consistent actions from a wide range of actors. This foresight provides a large information base on land uses, food systems and food security and constitutes a tool box to stimulate debates, imagine new policies and innovations. It aims to empower decision makers, stakeholders, non-governmental organizations and researchers to develop a constructive dialogue on the futures of land uses and food security at either world, regional and national levels."

Keywords

Agriculture --- food --- Food Safety

Physical Safety

Author:
Book Series: WRR Publications ISBN: 9789089645135 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_439095 Language: English
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-02-16 13:37:07
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Physical safety is a core task of government. It is neither surprising nor unreasonable for government to be held accountable for hazardous substances, for food safety, for flood protection, for the spread of infectious diseases, or for the risks involved in new technologies. In 2011 the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations asked the Scientific Council for Government Policy (wrr) to investigate the scope for the development of a generic risk policy in relation to physical safety. Do citizens and businesses take sufficient responsibility for physical safety? Could the government assume a smaller role, and what part could the business community play in this? In this report the WRR argues that in order to answer these questions a distinction needs to be made between incidents, damage, risk and uncertainty. In addition, the wrr recommends that the thinking about responsibility for safety should not be placed in the perspective of a failing government, but that the central focus should be on the ambition of good governance. Finally, the wrr suggests that thinking about safety from the perspective of damage offers a useful framework for thinking through and reassessing the distribution of responsibilities. Responsibility for preventing, limiting and dealing with damage can only be assigned in advance, not retrospectively.

GASFLOW-MPI: A Scalable Computational Fluid Dynamics Code for Gases, Aerosols and Combustion. Band 1 (Theory and Computational Model (Revision 1.0) und Band 2 (Users' Manual). (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7710 und 7711)

Author:
ISBN: 9783731504474 Year: Pages: 400 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000050392 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is developing the parallel computational fluid dynamics code GASFLOW-MPI as a best-estimate tool for predicting transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containments and other facility buildings. GASFLOW-MPI is a finite-volume code based on proven computational fluid dynamics methodology that solves the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for three-dimensional volumes in Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates.

Selected Papers from the 5th International Symposium on Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Moulds: Challenges and Perspectives

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038424840 9783038424857 Year: Pages: VIII, 190 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2017-09-11 08:15:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The MYTOX association research platform, MYTOX "Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Moulds" was established in 2007 and consists of more than 50 researchers from 12 research laboratories in the Ghent University Association. MYTOX deals with mycotoxin research in a multi-disciplinary way, based on four main themes: (1) mycotoxins; (2) toxigenic fungi; (3) mycotoxins and animal health; and (4) mycotoxins and human health. In this way, MYTOX tackles the mycotoxin issue along the production chain from the field to the end consumer, within the ‘One Health’ concept.We welcomed over 100 scientists, researchers and representatives from industry, government as well as academia at the 5th edition of the MYTOX International Symposium, held in Ghent on May 11, 2016. The program included oral and poster presentations related to fungal-related disease monitoring and mycotoxin production; mycotoxin analysis in food and feed, as well as in animal and human biological samples; prevention on the field; management strategies during food and feed storage and processing.

How Fear and Stress Shape the Mind

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198719 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-871-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The experience of fear and stress leaves an indelible trace on the brain. This indelible trace is observed as both changes in behavior and changes in neuronal structure and function. Fear and stress interact on many levels. The experience of stress may lead to the formation of a fearful memory trace of a place or reminder cue, and fearful memory formation is regulated by the extent of concurrent stress. The concurrent experience of fear and stress may amplify fear and slow fear extinction which may lead to pathology. Fear memory formation involves changes in synaptic plasticity while stress and glucocorticoids change neuronal structure. Thus, both neurons and synapses are changed. These changes can be identified, visualised and mapped within focused microcircuits. In this Research Topic we focus on current advances in both the neurobiology and behavioral consequences of fear and stress.

Snow Sports Trauma and Safety: Conference Proceedings of the International Society for Skiing Safety: 21st Volume

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319527550 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-52755-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Biotechnology --- Sports Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-18 15:20:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book covers the latest in snow sport epidemiology, snow sport injuries and treatment, and biomechanical/mechanical engineering related to snow sports injuries (mechanisms of injury, injury prevention by equipment design, injury prevention by design of resort features, and more). It brings together a collection of papers from the International Congress on Ski Trauma and Safety (the biennal meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety) and presents the latest research on the effectiveness of winter sports equipment, the behavior of winter sports participants, and the epidemiology and biomechanics of winter sports injuries. This is an ideal book for researchers and professionals working in the field of sports medicine and safety.This book also:Covers the latest body of literature dealing with safety in winter sports as well as the prevention and treatment of injuries sustained by participants in these activitiesBroadens readers’ understanding of snow sport injury prevention researchIllustrates ways safety standards for snow sports can be improved based on evidence-based research.

Keywords

skiing --- snow sports --- trauma --- safety --- kinematics --- epidemiology

Beyond Safety Training: Embedding Safety in Professional Skills

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Safety Management ISSN: 2191-5318 ISBN: 9783319655260 9783319655277 Year: Pages: 159 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-65527-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 10:15:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book investigates why, despite more and more resources devoted to safety training, expectations are not entirely met, particularly in the industrial sectors that have already achieved a high safety level. It not only reflects the most precious viewpoints of experts from different disciplines, different countries, with experiences in various industrial fields at the cutting edge of theories and practices in terms of safety, professionalization and their relationships. It also consolidates the positioning of the Foundation for an Industrial Safety Culture, highlighting what is currently considered at stake in terms of safety training, taking into account the system of constraints the different stakeholders are submitted to. It reports some success stories as well as elements which could explain the observed plateau in terms of outcome. It identifies some levers for evolution for at-risk industry and outlines a possible research agenda to go further with experimental solutions.

Listing 1 - 10 of 97 << page
of 10
>>
Sort by