Search results: Found 25

Listing 1 - 10 of 25 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Plasticity of primary afferent neurons and sensory processing after spinal cord injury

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193967 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-396-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Traumatic injury of the spinal cord affects the entire organism directly and indirectly. Primary injury destroys neurons and severs axons which participate in neural circuits. Secondary injuries and pathologies arise from numerous sources including systemic inflammation, consequential damage of cutaneous, muscular, and visceral tissues, and dysregulation of autonomic, endocrine and sensory- motor functions. Evidence is mounting that spinal cord injury (SCI) affects regions of the nervous system spatially remote from the injury site, as well as peripheral tissues, and alters some basic characteristics of primary afferent cell biology and physiology (cell number, size/frequency, electrophysiology, other). The degree of afferent input and processing above the lesion is generally intact, while that in the peri-lesion area is highly variable, though pathologies emerge in both regions, including a variety of pain syndromes. Primary afferent input to spinal regions below the injury and the processing of this information becomes even more important in the face of complete or partial loss of descending input because such spared sensory processing can lead to both adaptive and pathological outcomes. This issue hosts review and research articles considering mechanisms of plasticity of primary afferent neurons and sensory processing after SCI, and how such plasticity contributes to sparing and/or recovery of functions, as well as exacerbation of existing and/or emergent pathologies. A critical issue for the majority of the SCI community is chronic above-, peri-, and below-level neuropathic pain, much of which may arise, at least in part, from plasticity of afferent fibers and nociceptive circuitry. For example, autonomic dysreflexia is common hypertensive syndrome that often develops after SCI that is highly reliant on maladaptive nociceptive sensory input and processing below the lesion. Moreover, the loss of descending input leaves the reflexive components of bladder/bowel/sexual function uncoordinated and susceptible to a variety of effects through afferent fiber plasticity. Finally, proper afferent feedback is vital for the effectiveness of activity-dependent rehabilitative therapies, but aberrant nociceptive input may interfere with these approaches since they are often unchecked due to loss of descending modulation.

Thalamic Function - Beyond a Simple Relay

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198429 Year: Pages: 231 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-842-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The thalamus is often described as a relay. Typified by sensory pathways, this concept leads to thalamic nuclei being viewed as areas that passively streams information from a single source to the cortex, without affecting the nature of that information. However, diverse intrathalamic connections, the varying synaptic and membrane properties of thalamic neurons and the large number of inputs from non-sensory sources make the idea that the thalamus is just a passive relay unlikely. Furthermore, a large number of thalamic nuclei are not primarily driven by sensory signals nor do they exclusively target the cortex, meaning the thalamus must do more than simply pass sensory signals to the cortex. Finally, there is a wealth of research demonstrating that the thalamus does indeed function in ways that are not captured by the concept of a simple relay. So why, given all of this, is the primary paradigm for describing the thalamus, a relay? This Research Topic covers original research, reviews and hypotheses on thalamic function that explore the concept that the thalamus performs computational tasks other than simply passively relaying information.

Autism: The Movement Perspective

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195091 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-509-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is portrayed as cognitive and social disorders. Undoubtedly, impairments in communication and restricted-repetitive behaviors that now define the disorders have a profound impact on social interactions. But can we go beyond the descriptive, observational nature of this definition and objectively measure that amalgamate of motions and sensations that we call behavior?In this Research Topic we bring movement and its sensation to the forefront of autism research, diagnosis, and treatment. We gather researchers across disciplines with the unifying goal of recognizing movement and sensory disturbances as core symptoms of the disorder. We also hear confirmation from the perspective of autism self-advocates and parents. Those important sources of evidence along with the research presented in this topic demonstrate without a doubt that profound movement and sensory differences do exist in ASD and that they are quantifiable.The work presented in this Research Topic shows us that quantifiable differences in movements have a better chance than current observational techniques to help us uncover subtle solutions that the nervous system with autism has already spontaneously self-discovered and utilized in daily living. Where the naked eye would miss the unique subtleties that help each individual cope, instrumentation and fine kinematic analyses of motions help us uncover inherent capacities and predispositions of the person with autism. The work presented in this topic helps us better articulate through the voices of parents and self-advocates those sensory motor differences that current inventories could not possibly uncover. These differences are seldom perceived as they take place at timescales and frequencies that fall largely beneath our conscious awareness. To the person in the spectrum living with this disorder and to the caregiver creating accommodations to help the affected loved one, these subtleties are very familiar though. Indeed they are often used in clever ways to facilitate daily routines. We have waited much too long in science to listen to the very people that we are trying to define, understand and help.Being autism a social problem by definition, it is remarkable that not a single diagnosis inventory measures the dyadic social interaction that takes place between the examiner and the examinees. Indeed we have conceived the autistic person within a social context where we are incapable - by definition - of accepting those differences. The burden is rather placed on the affected person to whom much too often we refer to in the third person as “non-verbal, without intentionality, without empathy or emotions, without a theory of mind”, among other purely psychological guesses. It is then too easy and shockingly allowed to “reshape” that person, to mold that person to better conform to our social expectations and to extinguish “behaviors” that are socially unacceptable, even through the use of aversive punishing reinforcement techniques if need be. And yet none of those techniques have had a single shred of objective scientific evidence of their effectiveness. We have not objectively measured once, nor have we physiologically characterized once any of those perceived features that we so often use to observationally define what we may think the autistic phenotype may be. We have not properly quantified, beyond paper-and-pencil methods, the effectiveness of interventions in autism.

Synaesthesia

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195596 Year: Pages: 211 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-559-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Synaesthesia is a rare experience in which one property of a stimulus evokes a secondary experience that is not typically associated with the first (e.g. hearing words can evoke tastes). In recent years a number of studies have highlighted the authenticity of synaesthesia and attempted to use the experience to inform us about typical processes in perception and cognition.This Research Topic brings together research on synaesthesia and typical cross modal interactions to discuss the mechanisms of synaesthesia and what it can tell us about typical perceptual processes. Topics include, but are not limited to, the neurocognitive mechanisms that give rise to synaesthesia; the extent to which synaesthesia does / does not share commonalities with typical cross-modal correspondences; broader cognitive and perceptual consequences that are linked to synaesthesia; and perspectives on the origins / defining characteristics of synaesthesia.

H5 Consequences of Anthropogenic Changes in the Sensory Landscape of Marine Animals (Book chapter)

Book title: Oceanography and Marine Biology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Oceanography and Marine Biology : An Annual Review ISBN: 9780367134150 9780429026379 Year: Pages: 38 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-14 11:21:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Human activities are altering a wide range of key marine cues at local and global scales, and it is important to know how animals may respond. Species survival and performance depend on the ability of individuals to successfully extract and interpret information from their environment about preferred abiotic conditions and the presence of prey, predators, competitors, mates and suitable habitats. Such information is made available via a wide range of abiotic and biotic cues that can be detected by organisms through various sensory modalities. Global anthropogenic changes, however, are rapidly altering the sensory landscape (‘cuescape’) and behaviour of animals by modifying the production, transmission and interpretation of critical natural cues, as well as introducing novel anthropogenic cues. To date, most studies have focussed on how animals respond to such changes rather than investigating how the cues themselves are changing. Because the responses that individuals show ultimately depend on factors affecting both the generation and reception of cues, better integration is needed to understand how these factors ultimately affect individual performance. This review provides a holistic assessment of how multiple cues (e.g. sounds, visual cues, chemicals, salinity, temperature and electromagnetism) are being altered at different spatial and temporal scales in marine habitats. Natural cuescapes are being modified by humans and novel anthropogenic cues are being introduced into the ocean, both of which can directly and indirectly alter the diversity and strength of natural cues. Examples are provided of how species might respond to such changes, focussing on what coping and adaptation mechanisms are available for species to persist in a future ocean. While ‘sensory generalist’ species may prevail in marine environments with diminishing or masked natural cues, some ‘sensory specialists’ might sustain themselves via sensory compensation, behavioural plasticity or avoidance of detrimental cues in the short term, or via genetic adaptation in the longer term. Due to the rapid loss of natural cuescapes, alternative research agendas are needed to monitor and measure multicue changes throughout the oceans. Together with mechanistic and field studies of animal responses, such research can inform management by identifying the species most at risk and the areas that may be suitable for cuescape preservation.

Interactions between the mammalian main and accessory olfactory systems

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192564 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-256-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The functional cross-talk and structural interaction between the main and accessory olfactory bulb is a central problem in mammalian sensory neurobiology. The early supposition that volatile substances and pheromones, most of them hydrosoluble molecules, are exclusively sensed and decoded by the main (MOS) and accessory olfactory systems (AOS), respectively, needs to be revised. In fact, a large number of structural and functional evidences accumulated during the last few decades, suggests that rather than separated entities, the MOS and AOS act synergically, bringing about physiological and behavioural responses. The goal of the present Research Topic will be to gather original research studies and revision papers, performed by the most authoritative research groups that have recently contributed to the broad area of sensory neurobiology. Special attention should be given to contributions addressed to the MOB and AOB cross-talk, involving current neuroanatomical techniques.

How nature shaped echolocation in animals

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193479 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-347-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Echolocation has evolved in different groups of animals, from bats and cetaceans to birds and humans, and enables localization and tracking of objects in a dynamic environment, where light levels may be very low or absent. Nature has shaped echolocation, an active sense that engages audiomotor feedback systems, which operates in diverse environments and situations. Echolocation production and perception vary across species, and signals are often adapted to the environment and task. In the last several decades, researchers have been studying the echolocation behavior of animals, both in the air and underwater, using different methodologies and perspectives. The result of these studies has led to rich knowledge on sound production mechanisms, directionality of the sound beam, signal design, echo reception and perception. Active control over echolocation signal production and the mechanisms for echo processing ultimately provide animals with an echoic scene or image of their surroundings. Sonar signal features directly influence the information available for the echolocating animal to perceive images of its environment. In many echolocating animals, the information processed through echoes elicits a reaction in motor systems, including adjustments in subsequent echolocation signals. We are interested in understanding how echolocating animals deal with different environments (e.g. clutter, light levels), tasks, distance to targets or objects, different prey types or other food sources, presence of conspecifics or certain predators, ambient and anthropogenic noise. In recent years, some researchers have presented new data on the origins of echolocation, which can provide a hint of its evolution. Theoreticians have addressed several issues that bear on echolocation systems, such as frequency or time resolution, target localization and beam-forming mechanisms. In this Research Topic we compiled recent work that elucidates how echolocation – from sound production, through echolocation signals to perception- has been shaped by nature functioning in different environments and situations. We strongly encouraged comparative approaches that would deepen our understanding of the processes comprising this active sense.

The Vestibular System in Cognitive and Memory Processes in Mammals

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197446 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-744-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Since the beginning of life, all plant and animal kingdoms have been developed or modified based on gravity along with atmospheric composition and solar radiation existing on Earth. Gravity is mainly encoded by the otolithic sensors of the vestibular system but its role has been largely underestimated in favor of the vestibular semicircular canals and reduced to oculomotor and postural coordination. Over the last decade, it has been demonstrated that sensory information provided by the vestibular system is crucial in spatial-memory processes in rats and humans. More recently a role in attention processes has been raised. This topic aims to report and demonstrate the role and integration of vestibular information in cognitive processes in rodent models and human at the behavioral, imaging and electrophysiological levels.

Hack the Experience: Tools for Artists from Cognitive Science

Author:
ISBN: 9781947447653 9781947447660 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0206.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-26 11:21:04
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Hack The Experience will reframe your perspective on how your audience engages your work. This will happen as you learn how to control attention through spatial and time-based techniques that you can harness as you build immersive installations or as you think about how to best arrange your work in an exhibition. You’ll learn things about the senses and how they interface with attention so that you can build in visceral forms of interactivity, engage people’s empathetic responses, and frame their moods. This book is a dense bouillon-cube of techniques that you can adapt and apply to your personal practice, and it’s a book that will walk you step-by-step through skill sets from ethnography, cognitive science, and multi-modal metaphors. The core argument of this book is that art is a form of cognitive engineering and that the physical environment (or objects in the physical environment) can be shaped to maximize emotional and sensory experience. Many types of art will benefit from this handbook (because cognition is pervasive in our experience of art), but it is particularly relevant to immersive experiential works such as installations, participatory/interactive environments, performance art, curatorial practice, architecture and landscape architecture, complex durational works, and works requiring new models of documentation. These types of work benefit from the empirical findings of cognitive science because intentionally leveraging basic human cognition in artworks can give participants new ways of seeing the world that are cognitively relevant. This leveraging process provides a new layer in the construction of conceptually grounded works.

Spiking Neural Network Connectivity and its Potential for Temporal Sensory Processing and Variable Binding

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192397 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-239-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The most biologically-inspired artificial neurons are those of the third generation, and are termed spiking neurons, as individual pulses or spikes are the means by which stimuli are communicated. In essence, a spike is a short-term change in electrical potential and is the basis of communication between biological neurons. Unlike previous generations of artificial neurons, spiking neurons operate in the temporal domain, and exploit time as a resource in their computation. In 1952, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley produced the first model of a spiking neuron; their model describes the complex electro-chemical process that enables spikes to propagate through, and hence be communicated by, spiking neurons. Since this time, improvements in experimental procedures in neurobiology, particularly with in vivo experiments, have provided an increasingly more complex understanding of biological neurons. For example, it is now well understood that the propagation of spikes between neurons requires neurotransmitter, which is typically of limited supply. When the supply is exhausted neurons become unresponsive. The morphology of neurons, number of receptor sites, amongst many other factors, means that neurons consume the supply of neurotransmitter at different rates. This in turn produces variations over time in the responsiveness of neurons, yielding various computational capabilities. Such improvements in the understanding of the biological neuron have culminated in a wide range of different neuron models, ranging from the computationally efficient to the biologically realistic. These models enable the modelling of neural circuits found in the brain. In recent years, much of the focus in neuron modelling has moved to the study of the connectivity of spiking neural networks. Spiking neural networks provide a vehicle to understand from a computational perspective, aspects of the brain's neural circuitry. This understanding can then be used to tackle some of the historically intractable issues with artificial neurons, such as scalability and lack of variable binding. Current knowledge of feed-forward, lateral, and recurrent connectivity of spiking neurons, and the interplay between excitatory and inhibitory neurons is beginning to shed light on these issues, by improved understanding of the temporal processing capabilities and synchronous behaviour of biological neurons. This research topic aims to amalgamate current research aimed at tackling these phenomena.

Listing 1 - 10 of 25 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (23)

Taylor & Francis (1)

punctum books (1)


License

CC by (23)

CC by-nc-nd (1)

CC by-nc-sa (1)


Language

english (25)


Year
From To Submit

2019 (1)

2018 (4)

2017 (5)

2016 (4)

2015 (5)

2014 (6)