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Macrocognition: The Science and Engineering of Sociotechnical Work Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454181 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-418-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The increasing complexity of work systems and changes in the nature of workplace technology over the past century have resulted in an exponential shift in the nature of work activities, from physical labor to cognitive work. Modern work systems have many characteristics that make them cognitively complex: They can be highly interactive; comprised of multiple agents and artifacts; information may be limited and distributed across space and time; task goals are frequently ill-defined, conflicting, dynamic and emergent; planning may only be possible at general levels of abstraction or require adaptive solutions; some degree of proficiency or expertise is required; the stakes are often high; and uncertainty, time-constraints and stress are seldom absent. To complicate matters further, cognition in complex work settings is typically constrained by broader professional, organizational, and institutional practice and policy. These features of cognitive work present significant challenges to scientific methodology and theory, and subsequent design of reliable interventions. Historically, philosophers and scientists have attempted to understand the mental activities experienced during cognitive work at multiple levels of analysis using divergent methods. Some have examined cognition at an associative, contextual, functional or holistic level, relying on naturalistic methods to understand the higher mental processes as they work in harmony during goal-directed behavior. Others have embraced experimental methods and favored internal over external validity, often reducing cognition to a psychology of fundamental acts, such as short-term memory access with millisecond shifts in attention. More recently, Macrocognition has evolved as a complementary paradigm. Macrocognitive researchers have studied the cognitive functions and processes associated with skilled, adaptive, collaborative, and resilient cognitive work in the context of the aforementioned complexities of psychotechnical and sociotechnical work systems. Typically, this research has been carried out using cognitive task analytic techniques that draw on both naturalistic and (quasi-)experimental methods. The primary goals of research in Macrocognition are to better understand cognitive adaptations to complexity, to increase our theoretical understanding of the organism-environment relations by studying the mapping between cognitive work and real-world demands, and to promote use-inspired research capable of improving system performance.

Madness and Creativity: Yes, No or Maybe?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196708 Year: Pages: 85 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-670-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-04 13:33:42
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The pervasive idea that madness and creativity are intricately linked is one that holds tremendous fascination for both scientists and the general public alike. Although this view was at first largely driven by anecdotal evidence showcasing the manifestation of mental illness in individuals who exhibited extraordinary levels of creativity in various spheres of life, it initiated a strong impetus to empirically investigate the association between mental health and creativity.A variety of approaches (and combinations of approaches) have been adopted to address this association including clinical, personality, psychometric, behavioral, cognitive, historiometric and neuroscientific. Despite the ever accumulating body of evidence over the past six decades investigating this link, what is lacking is a comprehensive overview of the disparate findings from these different approaches that will enable us to address the question of whether there is an empirically founded relationship between creativity and mental illness. And if such a link does exist, what is the nature of this association? The purpose of this Research Topic was to motivate theorists and researchers to answer this question (or at least attempt to do so) given the available evidence thus far. The themes of interest that were open to exploration in view of this topic included:(a) Which mental disorders are positively associated with creativity?(b) Which mental disorders are negatively associated with creativity?(c) The dynamics of information processing biases (positive versus negative) associated with psychiatric and high-risk populations(d) Theories regarding the madness-creativity link(e) Personality-based studies on creativity(f) Creativity, mental illness and the brain(g) Genes and creativity(h) How can studies on neurological populations inform this debate?(i) What are the areas of impact with regard to real world applications and practice?(j) Historical timeline of this question(k) Evolutionary perspectives on the madness-creativity link(l) Methodological problems associated with this field(m) Philosophical issues to bear in mind when investigating this domain(n) The usefulness of the “troubled genius” concept The invitation to contribute was open to all interested academics regardless of whether they were seasoned explorers within this field of study or just beginning to get their feet wet in its murky waters. As a result of adopting this inclusive approach, the contributions showcase a wide variety of perspectives from academic departments and institutions the world over. What is most encouraging is that so many were willing to openly take on the challenge of tackling this difficult question head on. We hope future discussions that follow through as a result of this collective effort will prove to be just as fruitful.

Creativity and Mental Imagery

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199945 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-994-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Creativity is increasingly attracting attention of scientific community given its role in different aspects of human life. So far we have only began to understand its complexity and how it correlates with other cognitive processes. A further understanding of its key processes is essential to better implement applications of creativity tools to daily life. Therefore, it is the aim of this Research Topics to further elucidate how creativity can be measured, and its components, such as mental imagery, are determined.

The cognitive, emotional and neural correlates of creativity

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196333 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-633-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Across species, humans have an unsurpassed capacity for creative thought and innovation. Human creativity is at the roots of extraordinary achievements in the arts and sciences, and enables individuals and their groups to adapt flexibly to changing circumstances, to manage complex social relations, and to survive and prosper through social, technological, and medical innovations. The ability to generate novel and potentially useful ideas and problem solutions (viz., creativity) is a key driver of human evolution, and among the most valued and sought after competencies in contemporary societies that struggle with complex problems and compete for technological and economic supremacy. Because creativity provides fitness functionality in both ancestral and contemporary societies, it stands to reason that (i) the human brain evolved to sustain and promote creative thinking and we should be able to identify (ii) the brain circuitries, genetic drivers, and neurohormonal modulators of the human capacity for creative problem solving and original ideation; and (iii) the core cognitive and emotional processes underlying creative thought. In this Research Topic, we bring together a collection of papers to provide an encyclopedic, open access snapshot of the current state of the art on the neural, cognitive, and emotional correlates of creativity.

Complex Problem Solving Beyond the Psychometric Approach

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455737 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-573-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Complex problem solving (CPS) and related topics such as dynamic decision-making (DDM) and complex dynamic control (CDC) represent multifaceted psychological phenomena. In abroad sense, CPS encompasses learning, decision-making, and acting in complex and dynamic situations. Moreover, solutions to problems that people face in such situations are often generated in teams or groups. This adds another layer of complexity to the situation itself because of the emerging issues that arise from the social dynamics of group interactions. This framing of CPS means that it is not a single construct that can be measured by using a particular type of CPS task (e.g. minimal complex system tests), which is a view taken by the psychometric community. The proposed approach taken here is that because CPS is multifaceted, multiple approaches need to be taken to fully capture and understand what it is and how the different cognitive processes associated with it complement each other.Thus, this Research Topic is aimed at showcasing the latest work in the fields of CPS, as well as DDM and CDC that takes a holist approach to investigating and theorizing about these abilities. The collection of articles encompasses conceptual approaches as well as experimental and correlational studies involving established or new tools to examine CPS, DDM and CDC. This work contributes to answering questions about what strategies and what general knowledge can be transferred from one type of complex and dynamic situation to another, what learning conditions result in transferable knowledge and skills, and how these features can be trained.

Culture and Development in a Globalizing World

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ISBN: 9780203641019 9780415348768 9780415348775 9781134274581 9781134274574 9781134274536 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203641019 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:27
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Using recent research on development projects around the world, this book argues that culture has become an explicit tool and framework for development discourse and practice. Providing a theoretical and empirically informed critique, this informative book includes conceptual overviews and case studies on topics such as: development for indigenous people natural resource management social capital and global markets for Third World music post-apartheid South Africa cultural difference in the USA’s late capitalism. The editor concludes by evaluating the outcomes of development’s ‘cultural turn’, proposing a framework for future work in this field. By combining case studies from both ‘Third World’ and ‘First World’ countries, the book, ideal for those in the fields of geography, culture and development studies, raises innovative questions about the ‘transferability’ of notions of culture across the world, and the types of actors involved.

The Reasoning Brain: The Interplay between Cognitive Neuroscience and Theories of Reasoning

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451180 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-118-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Despite the centrality of rationality to our identity as a species (let alone the scientific endeavour), and the fact that it has been studied for several millennia, the present state of our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying logical reasoning remains highly fragmented. For example, a recent review concluded that none of the extant (12!) theories provide an adequate account (Khemlani & Johnson- Laird, 2011), while other authors argue that we are on the brink of a paradigm change, where the old binary logic framework will be washed away and replaced by more modern (and correct) probabilistic and Bayesian approaches (see for example Elqayam & Over, 2012; Oaksford & Chater, 2009; Over, 2009). Over the past 15 years neuroscience brain imaging techniques and patient studies have been used to map out the functional neuroanatomy of reasoning processes. The aim of this research topic is to discuss whether this line of research has facilitated, hindered, or has been largely irrelevant for understanding of reasoning processes. The answer is neither obvious nor uncontroversial. We would like to engage both the cognitive and the neuroscience community in this discussion. Some of the questions of interest are: How have the data generated by the patient and neuroimaging studies: • influenced our thinking about modularity of deductive reasoning • impacted the debate between mental logic theory, mental model theory and the dual mechanism accounts • affected our thinking about dual mechanism theories • informed discussion of the relationship between induction and deduction • illuminated the relationship between language, visual spatial processing and reasoning • affected our thinking about the unity of deductive reasoning processes Have any of the cognitive theories of reasoning helped us explain deficits in certain patient populations? Do certain theories do a better job of this than others? Is there any value to localizing cognitive processes and identifying dissociations (for reasoning and other cognitive processes)? What challenges have neuroimaging data raised for cognitive theories of reasoning? How can cognitive theory inform interpretation of patient data or neuroimaging data? How can patient data or neuroimaging data best inform cognitive theory? This list of questions is not exhaustive. Manuscripts addressing other related questions are welcome. We are interested in hearing from skeptics, agnostics and believers, and welcome original research contributions as well as reviews, methods, hypothesis & theory papers that contribute to the discussion of the current state of our knowledge of how neuroscience is (or is not) helping us to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying logical reasoning processes.

Systems Education for a Sustainable Planet

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ISBN: 9783038427896 9783038427902 Year: Pages: VIII, 238 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-24 13:14:17
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The issues facing humanity have become increasingly complex due to the fact they are embedded in a global web of ecological, economic, social, cultural and political processes that are dynamically interlinked. The capacity to conceptualise and redesign solutions, in systems and sustainability terms, will increasingly be what society and employers expect. This “expectation” is globally one of the biggest challenges for education. This Special Issue highlights key developments in the area of systems education and how some of the many challenges are currently being addressed. The 15 articles published fall into five groups: how to design learning systems for systems thinking and sustainability education; insights from the various systems education programs available internationally; different approaches to teaching systems thinking and sustainability; how systems education can be tailored to broaden systems education beyond universities; and possible future pathways for systems education for a sustainable planet. The range and magnitude of the contributions to this book illustrate the diversity of systems education practices and programs (learning systems) in the global systems community, and the relevance of systems thinking and practice to examining issues crucial to the long-term sustainability of the planet.

The Wind ~ An Unruly Living

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ISBN: 9781947447950 9781947447967 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0237.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-26 11:21:03
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A process begun in Pisa, Italy in April of 2016 during a workshop on political theory in the Anthropocene, The Wind ~ An Unruly Living is a philosophical exercise (askêsis, translated, following Ignatius of Loyola, as “spiritual exercise”). In his exercise, Bendik-Keymer throws to the void: the ideology of self-ownership from a society of possession. By using the Stoic kanôn, the rule of living by phûsis, he follows an element. Unhappily for the Stoic and happily for us, the wind is unruly. A swerve of currents through a social fabric, it’s full of holes, all holely. Stretch and stitch as you want, it might settle more shapely tattered into light, but it will never become whole. The wind’s only holesome.

The Psychology of Human Thought

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ISBN: 9783947732333 9783947732340 9783947732357 Year: Pages: 416 DOI: 10.17885/heiup.470 Language: English
Publisher: Heidelberg University Publishing (heiUP)
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-14 11:21:03
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The “Psychology of Human Thought” is an “open access” collection of peer-reviewed chapters from all areas of higher cognitive processes. The book is intended to be used as a textbook in courses on higher process, complex cognition, human thought, and related courses. Chapters include concept acquisition, knowledge representation, inductive and deductive reasoning, problem solving, metacognition, language, expertise, intelligence, creativity, wisdom, development of thought, affect and thought, and sections about history and about methods. The chapters are written by distinguished scholarly experts in their respective fields, coming from such diverse regions as North America, Great Britain, France, Germany, Norway, Israel, and Australia. The level of the chapters is addressed to advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students.

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