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Hillslope and Watershed Hydrology

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ISBN: 9783038429517 9783038429524 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-952-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-14 11:41:26
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Watershed hydrology is driven by climate forcing, near ground surface characteristics, and human activities, addressing a wide spectrum of environmental and water resource problems regarding both scientific-driven questions and practical engineering issues. This book collates watershed problems and solutions from around the world covering diverse climate types. These cases show complex interactions between hydrological processes and environmental conditions and scientific methods for understanding the hydrological regime and management of human activities. This book can be used as a state-of-the-art resource for academic researchers and water resource professionals, and will also appeal to students, scholars, and general readers interested in watershed models, water management, environmental management, climate change impact assessment, or ecohydrologic interactions.

Sustainable Governance in Northeast Asia: Challenges for Innovation Frontier

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ISBN: 9783038971535 9783038971542 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-154-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Business and Management --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-21 12:02:45
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This special edition is based on the annual conference of Sustainable Asia Conference (http://abf.inha.ac.kr/). The purpose of the conference is to work together for our future challenges. Every year more than 50 papers are presented in the conference and published in the special edition of Sustainability. Your participation on the next SAC conference shall greatly enhance our research human network. Once a friend, forever friend, it is our slogan for the conference.

Hydro-Ecological Modeling

ISBN: 9783038422396 9783038422129 Year: Pages: XIV, 322 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-02 16:08:50
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Water is not only an interesting object to be studied on its own, it also is an important component driving almost all ecological processes occurring in our landscapes. Plant growth depends on soil water content, as well is nutrient turnover by microbes. Water shapes the environment by erosion and sedimentation. Species occur or are lost depending on hydrological conditions, and many infectious diseases are water-borne.Modeling the complex interactions of water and ecosystem processes requires the prediction of hydrological fluxes and stages on the one side and the coupling of the ecosystem process model on the other. While much effort has been given to the development of the hydrological model theory in recent decades, we have just begun to explore the difficulties that occur when coupled model applications are being set up.

Microbial Community Modeling: Prediction of Microbial Interactions and Community Dynamics

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ISBN: 9783038429753 9783038429760 Year: Pages: VIII, 286 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-04 13:24:50
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Investigating the microbiome is on the frontier of science. It has the potential to resolve many issues in the realms of energy, food, human health, the environment, and biotechnology. Scientists are trying to understand, in a fundamental way, how microbes influence each other and how they organize into interaction networks. These are the keys to predicting and engineering community function and properties of the microbiome. In this regard, mathematical modeling and computational analysis play an increasing role. This book is a collection of contributions from lead scientists in the field. It provides innovative approaches and fresh perspectives for modeling environmental communities and engineered microbial consortia. Reading this book will give researchers a solid look at cutting-edge science in microbial community modeling, and at the remaining challenges such modeling poses.

Combined Scheduling and Control

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ISBN: 9783038428053 9783038428060 Year: Pages: VIII, 166 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science --- Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-13 15:56:34
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Scheduling and control are typically viewed as separate applications because of historical factors such as limited computing resources. Now that algorithms and computing resources have advanced, there are new efforts to have short-term decisions (control) interact or merge with longer-term decisions (scheduling). A new generation of numerical optimization methods are evolving to capture additional benefits and unify the approach to manufacturing process automation. This special issue is a collection of some of the latest advancements in scheduling and control for both batch and continuous processes. It contains developments with multi-scale problem formulation, software for the new class of problems, and a survey of the strengths and weaknesses of successive levels of integration.

Water Resource Variability and Climate Change

ISBN: 9783038422440 9783038422303 Year: Pages: XVI, 378 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-11-04 09:40:08
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Climate change affects global and regional water cycling, as well as surficial and subsurface water availability. These changes have increased the vulnerabilities of ecosystems and of human society. Understanding how climate change has affected water resource variability in the past and how climate change is leading to rapid changes in contemporary systems is of critical importance for sustainable development in different parts of the world. This Special Issue focuses on “Water Resource Variability and Climate Change” and aims to present a collection of articles addressing various aspects of water resource variability as well as how such variabilities are affected by changing climates. Potential topics include the reconstruction of historic moisture fluctuations, based on various proxies (such as tree rings, sediment cores, and landform features), the empirical monitoring of water variability based on field survey and remote sensing techniques, and the projection of future water cycling using numerical model simulations.

Metal Metabolism in Animals

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ISBN: 9783038428435 9783038428442 Year: Pages: X, 356 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 14:25:48
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Through evolution of life, animals have adapted to the ubiquitous presence of metals in the biosphere. They utilize the more frequent ones as essential constituents of their biochemical machinery. In fact, about 40% of all proteins present in animal cells are so-called metalloproteins. On the other hand, animals have invented regulatory and detoxifying mechanisms to protect themselves from critical concentrations of both essential and non-essential metal concentrations. Metallomics is a modern approach applying cellular, biochemical, molecular and analytical methods to investigate the relationships of metals in their cellular context. The present edition contains a number of original articles and reviews dealing with various aspects of metallomics in animals, published as Special Issues of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences in 2016 and 2017. The book addresses subjects such as metal definition in biology, metabolism of metals in invertebrate and vertebrate animals, metal detoxification and regulation strategies, supplementation of essential trace elements, metal behavior in pregnancy and embryonic development, as well as metal toxicology and emerging medical implications.

Recent Developments in Cointegration

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ISBN: 9783038429555 9783038429562 Year: Pages: VIII, 210 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-05 13:20:18
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The Cointegrated VAR model allows the user to study both long-run and short-run effects in the same model. It describes an economic system where variables have been pushed away from long-run equilibria by exogenous shocks (the pushing forces) and where short-run adjustments forces pull them back toward long-run equilibria (the pulling forces). In this model framework, basic assumptions underlying an economic theory model can be translated into testable hypotheses of the order of integration and cointegration of key variables and their relationships. While the latter used to be I(1), macroeconomic and financial data have recently shown a tendency for puzzling long and persistent swings around long-run equilibrium values typical of self-reinforcing feed-back mechanisms. Such persistent fluctuations are frequently indistinguishable from I(2) data, pointing to the need for new econometric solutions. In this book, many of our most distinguished scholars in the field of cointegration offer a variety of solutions to these problems by formulating new models, tests, and asymptotics more suitable for an I(2) world. Several of the papers apply these cointegration techniques to a variety of empirical problems, thereby showing how to obtain valuable information about some of the mechanisms that have generated the recent crises.

Biological Networks

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ISBN: 9783038974338 / 9783038974345 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-434-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Internal medicine --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-10 11:14:23
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Networks of coordinated interactions among biological entities govern a myriad of biological functions that span a wide range of both length and time scales—from ecosystems to individual cells and from years to milliseconds. For these networks, the concept “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts” applies as a norm rather than an exception. Meanwhile, continued advances in molecular biology and high-throughput technology have enabled a broad and systematic interrogation of whole-cell networks, allowing the investigation of biological processes and functions at unprecedented breadth and resolution—even down to the single-cell level. The explosion of biological data, especially molecular-level intracellular data, necessitates new paradigms for unraveling the complexity of biological networks and for understanding how biological functions emerge from such networks. These paradigms introduce new challenges related to the analysis of networks in which quantitative approaches such as machine learning and mathematical modeling play an indispensable role. The Special Issue on “Biological Networks” showcases advances in the development and application of in silico network modeling and analysis of biological systems.

Hopf Algebras, Quantum Groups and Yang-Baxter Equations

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ISBN: 9783038973249 / 9783038973256 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-325-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-31 11:04:50
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The Yang-Baxter equation first appeared in theoretical physics, in a paper by the Nobel laureate C.N. Yang and in the work of R.J. Baxter in the field of Statistical Mechanics. At the 1990 International Mathematics Congress, Vladimir Drinfeld, Vaughan F. R. Jones, and Edward Witten were awarded Fields Medals for their work related to the Yang-Baxter equation. It turned out that this equation is one of the basic equations in mathematical physics; more precisely, it is used for introducing the theory of quantum groups. It also plays a crucial role in: knot theory, braided categories, the analysis of integrable systems, non-commutative descent theory, quantum computing, non-commutative geometry, etc. Many scientists have used the axioms of various algebraic structures (quasi-triangular Hopf algebras, Yetter-Drinfeld categories, quandles, group actions, Lie (super)algebras, brace structures, (co)algebra structures, Jordan triples, Boolean algebras, relations on sets, etc.) or computer calculations (and Grobner bases) in order to produce solutions for the Yang-Baxter equation. However, the full classification of its solutions remains an open problem. At present, the study of solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation attracts the attention of a broad circle of scientists. The current volume highlights various aspects of the Yang-Baxter equation, related algebraic structures, and applications.

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