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Chapter: 'Analysis of Breast Cancer Cell Invasion Using an Organotypic Culture System' from book: 3D Cell Culture: Methods and Protocols (Book chapter)

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Book Series: Methods in Molecular Biology ISSN: 1064-3745 / 1940-6029 ISBN: 9781493970193 9781493970216 Year: Volume: 1612 Pages: 13 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/9781493970216_15 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-19 15:44:38
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Metastasis is the main cause of cancer patient mortality. Local tumor invasion is a key step in metastatic dissemination whereby cancer cells dislodge from primary tumors, migrate through the peritumoral stroma and reach the circulation. This is a highly dynamic process occurring in three dimensions that involves interactions between tumor, stromal cells, and the extracellular matrix. Here we describe the organotypic culture system and its utility to study breast cancer cell invasion induced by cancer-associated fibroblasts. This is a three-dimensional model that reproduces the biochemical and physiological properties of real tissue and allows for investigating the molecular and cellular mechanisms involving tumor and its microenvironment, and their contribution to cancer cell invasion. This system provides a robust, accurate, and reproducible method for measuring cancer cell invasion and represents a valuable tool to improve the mechanistic understanding of the initial steps in metastasis.

Plant Competition in a Changing World

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452057 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-205-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Competitiveness describes a key ability important for plants to grow and survive abiotic and biotic stresses. Under optimal, but particularly under non-optimal conditions, plants compete for resources including nutrients, light, water, space, pollinators and other. Competition occurs above- and belowground. In resource-poor habitats, competition is generally considered to be more pronounced than in resource-rich habitats. Although competition occurs between different players within an ecosystem such as between plants and soil microorganisms, our topic focusses on plant-plant interactions and includes inter-specific competition between different species of similar and different life forms and intra-specific competition.Strategies for securing resources via spatial or temporal separation and different resource needs generally reduce competition. Increasingly important is the effect of invasive plants and subsequent decline in biodiversity and ecosystem function. Current knowledge and future climate predictions suggest that in some situations competition will be intensified with occurrence of increased abiotic (e.g. water and nutrient limitations) and biotic stresses (e.g. mass outbreak of insects), but competition might also decrease in situations where plant productivity and survival declines (e.g. habitats with degraded soils).Changing interactions, climate change and biological invasions place new challenges on ecosystems. Understanding processes and mechanisms that underlie the interactions between plants and environmental factors will aid predictions and intervention. There is much need to develop strategies to secure ecosystem services via primary productivity and to prevent the continued loss of biodiversity.This Research Topic provides an up-to-date account of knowledge on plant-plant interactions with a focus on identifying the mechanisms underpinning competitive ability. The Research Topic aims to showcase knowledge that links ecological relevance with physiological processes to better understanding plant and ecosystem function.

Diversity and environmental variability of riparian tall herb fringe communities of the order Convolvuletalia sepium in Polish river valleys

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Book Series: Monographiae Botanicae ISSN: 2392-2923 ISBN: 9788395412325 Year: Volume: 108 Pages: 130 DOI: 10.5586/mb.2019.001 Language: English
Publisher: Polish Botanical Society
Subject: Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 13:10:34
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The riparian tall herb fringe communities of the order Convolvuletalia sepium represent an integral part of the natural vegetation in river valleys. The major objective of this study was to assess the relationships between the diversity and variability of these communities and various environmental factors. The survey was conducted in northwestern Poland, along 101 randomly selected 1–2-km long sections of 24 rivers and the Szczecin Lagoon. Samples were collected in 2008–2013 in all types of tall herb fringe vegetation found in the surveyed river sections. Data collected included hydrogeomorphic variables, soil parameters, potential and actual vegetation, and dominant land use form. A total of 24 vegetation units were documented, based on 300 sample plots (relevés). Tall herb fringe communities occurring in valleys of large rivers (Senecionetum fluviatilis, Fallopio-Cucubaletum bacciferi, Achilleo salicifoliae-Cuscutetum lupuliformis, Convolvulo sepium-Cuscutetum europaeae typicum and chaerophylletosum bulbosi subass. nov., Rubus caesius community, Solidago gigantea community) exhibited floristic and ecological differences in comparison with plant communities from small rivers (Eupatorietum cannabini typicum, aegopodietosum and cardaminetosum amarae subass. nov., Epilobio hirsuti-Convolvuletum sepium, Soncho palustris-Archangelicetum litoralis, Convolvulo sepium-Cuscutetum europaeae aegopodietosum, Urtico-Convolvuletum sepium typicum and aegopodietosum, Urtica dioica community, Galeopsis speciosa community, Rubus idaeus community). This finding fully justified their division into two alliances: the Senecionion fluviatilis and the Archangelicion litoralis, respectively. Significant differences between the tall herb fringe communities associated with large rivers and the plant communities occurring along small rivers included plant species richness, moss layer cover, contribution of river corridor plants, level of invasion, influence of adjacent plant communities on the floristic composition, relative elevation and distance away from the riverbed, degree of shading, proportions of all grain size fractions, soil pH, contents of organic matter, humus, organic carbon, total nitrogen, bioavailable phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and calcium in the soil. The differences in environmental characteristics of individual plant communities were significant as well; they showed that most vegetation units were well defined. The variables that best discriminated between riparian tall herb fringe communities included the natural potential vegetation unit Salici-Populetum, headwater seeps, soil pH, sample elevation above the river water level, river size, flooding, degree of shading, soil moisture, K2O and CaO contents, and C/N ratio. The integration of the main riparian gradients (longitudinal, lateral, vertical) and patch perspective (e.g., natural potential vegetation units, and land use forms) significantly improved the comprehensive riparian vegetation patterns, because these two perspectives underpin different processes shaping the vegetation. This study contributed significantly to the knowledge of riparian tall herb fringe communities. Two subassociations are described here for the first time, whereas six others have not been previously reported from Poland. The data summarized in the synoptic table indicated that the species diagnostic for individual plant communities should be revised at the supra-regional scale. Some syntaxonomic issues were also determined. The inclusion of the order Convolvuletalia sepium to the class Epilobietea angustifolii resolved the problem of classifying the community dominated by Eupatorium cannabinum, a species showing two ecological optima: one in riparian tall herb communities and the other in natural gaps of the tree stands and clearings of fertile alder carrs and riparian woodlands. This also resolved the problem of classifying the communities dominated by Galeopsis speciosa and Rubus idaeus, intermediate between riparian tall herb and clearing communities. The results of this study may serve as a reference for management of the vegetation in river valleys and promote their conservation. They may also be essential for any future syntaxonomic revision of riparian tall herb fringe communities at a larger geographical extent.

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