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Carbon Fibers

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ISBN: 9783906980690 9783906980706 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-906980-70-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:30:12
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Remarkably, truly novel structures are still being found for materials made of a single element: carbon. Perhaps there is a ‘revolution’ in carbon-only materials. Indeed, recently, two Nobel prizes were awarded for new forms of carbon: for fullerenes in 1996, and for graphene in 2010. And the magic and beauty of carbon nanotubes has held the attention of the scientific world for more than a decade. Yet, there is still more to discover and to explain. In this Special Issue, the focus is on just one area of carbon research: fibers. Even given this relatively narrow focus there is a diversity of research that is both compelling and frustrating. Compelling as it demonstrates the vitality of the subject, and frustrating as it makes it difficult to organize. The topics covered include new fiber fabrication protocols, the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced polymers, new techniques to study the microstructure of fiber containing composites, new uses of fiber structures, the use of carbon fibers as catalyst supports, and studies regarding the difficulties of machining fiber structures for inclusion in complex structures.

Selected Papers from ASEPFPM2015

ISBN: 9783038423140 9783038423157 Year: Pages: VIII, 162 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-18 12:54:24
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This Special Issue cooperates with the 5th Asian Symposium on Emulsion Polymerization and Functional Polymeric Microspheres (ASEPFPM 2015) (http://asepfpm5.csp.escience.cn). Polymeric microspheres are basic materials for recent progress in environmental science, architecture, biomedicine, electronics, food, cosmetics, etc. While much progress has been made over the past few decades, there are still big challenges for the preparation of functional particles and the verification of preparation mechanisms; there is much room for growth in our ability to provide for high performance in these areas. The general theme of this symposium is to discuss recent advances in both fundamentals and applications, as well as to promote science and industrialization translation.

Formula Funding of Public Services

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in Business Organizations and Networks ISBN: 9780203013021 9780415362894 9780415511520 9780415654890 9781134229857 9781134229840 9781134229802 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203013021 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:24
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The use of formulae has become widespread in recent years across most developed countries. In the UK, a conservative estimate is that annually £150 billion of public service expenditure is distributed using formulae, in services such as health care, local government, social security and higher education. This book offers a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice underlying the use of such formulae as a basis for funding public services. The philosophy, design and economic consequences of funding formulae have become key policy issues worldwide. However, till now, there has been no text which brings together the economic, statistical and political issues underlying formula funding. This key book fills that gap. Written by a leading international expert on the design of funding formulae, this important book includes empirical evidence from a range of countries and will be a valuable resource for all those involved in this field.

Keywords

risk --- adjustment --- case --- payment --- capitation --- payments --- mechanism --- mechanisms --- cream --- skimming

Hybrid Advanced Optimization Methods with Evolutionary Computation Techniques in Energy Forecasting

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ISBN: 9783038972860 9783038972877 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-287-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-19 11:45:03
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More accurate and precise energy demand forecasts are required when energy decisions are made in a competitive environment. Particularly in the Big Data era, forecasting models are always based on a complex function combination, and energy data are always complicated. Examples include seasonality, cyclicity, fluctuation, dynamic nonlinearity, and so on. These forecasting models have resulted in an over-reliance on the use of informal judgment and higher expenses when lacking the ability to determine data characteristics and patterns. The hybridization of optimization methods and superior evolutionary algorithms can provide important improvements via good parameter determinations in the optimization process, which is of great assistance to actions taken by energy decision-makers.This book aimed to attract researchers with an interest in the research areas described above. Specifically, it sought contributions to the development of any hybrid optimization methods (e.g., quadratic programming techniques, chaotic mapping, fuzzy inference theory, quantum computing, etc.) with advanced algorithms (e.g., genetic algorithms, ant colony optimization, particle swarm optimization algorithm, etc.) that have superior capabilities over the traditional optimization approaches to overcome some embedded drawbacks, and the application of these advanced hybrid approaches to significantly improve forecasting accuracy.

Kernel Methods and Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms in Energy Forecasting

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ISBN: 9783038972921 9783038972938 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-293-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-22 10:01:53
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The development of kernel methods and hybrid evolutionary algorithms (HEAs) to support experts in energy forecasting is of great importance to improving the accuracy of the actions derived from an energy decision maker, and it is crucial that they are theoretically sound. In addition, more accurate or more precise energy demand forecasts are required when decisions are made in a competitive environment. Therefore, this is of special relevance in the Big Data era. These forecasts are usually based on a complex function combination. These models have resulted in over-reliance on the use of informal judgment and higher expense if lacking the ability to catch the data patterns. The novel applications of kernel methods and hybrid evolutionary algorithms can provide more satisfactory parameters in forecasting models. We aimed to attract researchers with an interest in the research areas described above. Specifically, we were interested in contributions towards the development of HEAs with kernel methods or with other novel methods (e.g., chaotic mapping mechanism, fuzzy theory, and quantum computing mechanism), which, with superior capabilities over the traditional optimization approaches, aim to overcome some embedded drawbacks and then apply these new HEAs to be hybridized with original forecasting models to significantly improve forecasting accuracy.

Biological Activity of Natural Secondary Metabolite Products

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ISBN: 9783038971740 9783038971757 Year: Pages: 466 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-175-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social and Public Welfare --- Biology --- Anthropology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-20 12:02:36
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Natural secondary metabolite products, which are isolated from plants, animals, microorganisms, etc., are classified as polyketides, isoprenoids, aromatics (phenylpropanoids), alkaloids, etc. Their chemical diversity and variety of biological activities have attracted the attention of chemists, biochemists, biologists, etc. The Special Issue on "Biological Activity of Natural Secondary Metabolite Products" is intended to offer biological active natural products as candidates and/or leads for pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, functional foods, cosmetics, food additives, etc. The research fields of this Special Issue include natural products chemistry, phytochemistry, pharmacognosy, food chemistry, bioorganic synthetic chemistry, chemical biology, molecular biology, molecular pharmacology, and other related research fields of bioactive natural secondary metabolite products. Original research and review articles on all topics in these research fields are invited. I am looking forward to receiving many submissions from outstanding experts in these research fields.

First-Principles Approaches to Metals, Alloys, and Metallic Compounds

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ISBN: 9783038973584 9783038973591 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-359-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-26 11:24:24
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Current fundamental electronic-structure theory allows for the accurate prediction and characterization of elemental metals adopting any allotropic structure, intermetallic compounds, and other metal-rich phases. From an engineering perspective, there is a need for structural materials that are suitable for mechanical and civil engineering as well as energy production and conversion. While different microstructural features influence the macroscopic behaviour, quantum-mechanical simulation may enormously accelerate and guide the entire development process since atomistic modelling allows for the generation of structural models and the calculation of enthalpies and other free energies as a function of pressure and temperature. Among other things, this volume covers high-manganese steels, some of which have come to light within Collaborative Research Centre 761 (“Steel ab initio”). In particular, it deals with short-range ordering from experiment and theory, also highlighting carbide-like precipitates, and it bridges the gap between atomistic and continuum levels, in particular for hydrogen embrittlement. Molecular dynamics simulates crack propagation, and first-principles theory helps in growing better intermetallic thin films and predicts structural and elastic properties. Eventually, multiscale modelling of hydrogen transport is provided, and the chemical reasons for H-trapping κ-carbides are highlighted. First-principles theory has acquired a powerful role in the fundamental and applied research of metals, alloys, and metallic compounds.

Models in Microeconomic Theory ('He' Edition)

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ISBN: 9781783749201 9781783749225 Year: Pages: 362 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0204 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-03-31 17:14:18
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Models in Microeconomic Theory covers basic models in current microeconomic theory. Part I (Chapters 1-7) presents models of an economic agent, discussing abstract models of preferences, choice, and decision making under uncertainty, before turning to models of the consumer, the producer, and monopoly. Part II (Chapters 8-14) introduces the concept of equilibrium, beginning, unconventionally, with the models of the jungle and an economy with indivisible goods, and continuing with models of an exchange economy, equilibrium with rational expectations, and an economy with asymmetric information. Part III (Chapters 15-16) provides an introduction to game theory, covering strategic and extensive games and the concepts of Nash equilibrium and subgame perfect equilibrium. Part IV (Chapters 17-20) gives a taste of the topics of mechanism design, matching, the axiomatic analysis of economic systems, and social choice.The book focuses on the concepts of model and equilibrium. It states models and results precisely, and provides proofs for all results. It uses only elementary mathematics (with almost no calculus), although many of the proofs involve sustained logical arguments. It includes about 150 exercises.With its formal but accessible style, this textbook is designed for undergraduate students of microeconomics at intermediate and advanced levels.

Models in Microeconomic Theory ('She' Edition)

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ISBN: 9781783748921 9781783748945 Year: Pages: 362 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0211 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-03-31 17:16:01
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Models in Microeconomic Theory covers basic models in current microeconomic theory. Part I (Chapters 1-7) presents models of an economic agent, discussing abstract models of preferences, choice, and decision making under uncertainty, before turning to models of the consumer, the producer, and monopoly. Part II (Chapters 8-14) introduces the concept of equilibrium, beginning, unconventionally, with the models of the jungle and an economy with indivisible goods, and continuing with models of an exchange economy, equilibrium with rational expectations, and an economy with asymmetric information. Part III (Chapters 15-16) provides an introduction to game theory, covering strategic and extensive games and the concepts of Nash equilibrium and subgame perfect equilibrium. Part IV (Chapters 17-20) gives a taste of the topics of mechanism design, matching, the axiomatic analysis of economic systems, and social choice.The book focuses on the concepts of model and equilibrium. It states models and results precisely, and provides proofs for all results. It uses only elementary mathematics (with almost no calculus), although many of the proofs involve sustained logical arguments. It includes about 150 exercises.With its formal but accessible style, this textbook is designed for undergraduate students of microeconomics at intermediate and advanced levels.

Roles of NF-κB in Cancer and Their Therapeutic Approaches

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ISBN: 9783038971177 9783038971184 Year: Pages: X, 330 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Oncology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 10:52:09
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Although mortality rates have declined in recent years, the majority of cancers are still difficult to treat and the medical need for better cancer treatment is evident. The current anticancer armamentarium includes many active agents that are applied across tumor types. However, most of these broadly-active anticancer drugs have a small therapeutic index and barely discriminate between malignant and normal cells. In recent years the focus has shifted to the development of rationally designed, molecularly-targeted therapy for the treatment of a specific cancer, therefore offering the promise of greater specificity coupled with reduced systemic toxicity. NF-kB transcription factor family as emerged as such a promising target for cancer therapy. This Special Issue will explore the routes from NF-kB basic research, cancer research and oncogenomics into the development of NF-kB-based cancer therapeutics and biomarkers.We invite research and review papers in any area of the NF-kB field that are related, but not limited to, fundamental understanding of NF-kB signaling pathways, gene expression profiling, epigenetic regulation, diagnostic, prognostic and pharmacogenomic biomarkers, molecular targets driving the progression of human cancers, cancer drug development on these targets, clinical trial with new agents, and validation in animal models.We hope that this Special Issue reflects the exciting era that we are living in with respect to the field of NF-kB and its applications in cancer research.

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