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Global Commons im 20. Jahrhundert. Entwürfe für eine globale Welt

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Book Series: Jahrbuch für Europäische Geschichte / European History Yearbook ISSN: 2190-1236 ISBN: 9783110278149 9783110396713 Year: Volume: 15 Pages: x, 224 DOI: 10.1515/9783110278149 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-26 14:40:08
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With its international perspective and by situating itself “beyond the market and state,” this volume promises to generate many new insights for readers. Space and territorialization, global integration and statehood, law and international organizations – these dimensions of the global commons enrich our perspectives on the Cold War, decolonization, and North-South conflicts.

Alexander Lernet-Holenia und Maria Charlotte Sweceny

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ISBN: 9783205788874 Year: Pages: 462 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_574653 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4364
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-07 11:01:16
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In the centre of this study stand some 154 letters exchanged between the Austrian writer Alexander Lernet-Holenia (1897-1976) and Maria Charlotte ("Lotte") Sweceny (née Stein, 1904-1956), the co-proprietor of the Viennese publishing house Manz, between 1938 and 1945. The transcripts are followed by a commentary that aims to elucidate the historical, individual and geographical references. A methodological note explains the corpus' provenance and method of transcribing and commenting on the letters adopted in the thesis. The last chapter of this study is devoted to Lotte Sweceny, the letters' addressee, and her family background. The letters' existence is due to the fact that the couple was separated by the outbreak of WW II and continued their relationship through correspondence. In September 1939 Lernet took part in the "Wehrmacht's" raid on Poland and was lightly wounded. As a result he spent the rest of the war on a leave of absence in his house in St. Wolfgang and, after September 1941, in Berlin. There, he worked as head of development of the "Heeresfilmstelle" (an office in charge of producing NS propaganda films), writing scripts himself and evaluating those by others. In these years, two of his most important novels, Mars im Widder (Mars in Aries) and Beide Sizilien (The Two Sicilies), were written - both are today considered as running counter to NS propaganda. Lotte Sweceny and her friends found their way into the set of characters and into the plot of Mars in Aries. The collection of poems Die Trophae (The Trophy) also originated from these years. When published in 1946, Lernet dedicated this work - which he considered to be his best - to Lotte Sweceny. The letters contain important background and numerous insights about the genesis and subsequent publication of these works. They also provide biographical details that shed light on the conditions of Lernet-Holenia's life and work during these years. Inter alia, they illuminate the circumstances surrounding Lernet-Holenia's posting to and role in the "Heeresfilmstelle". The writer considered his duties there dull and counterproductive to his actual work and unsurprisingly tried to escape from them as soon as possible. The thesis also addresses certain controversial issues in Lernet-Holenia's biography, in particular his involvement with the Nazi regime and his views on antisemitism: The way Lernet-Holenia writes about the regime and its protagonists in the letters suggests a clear political and intellectual distance to the "Third Reich" and thus reinforces scholarly voices that have, in this regard, already spoken in favor of the author. His use of a certain cipher in his letters even indicates that Lernet-Holenia was in touch with victims (or at least opponents) of the Nazi regime on behalf of Lotte Sweceny, the latter being half-Jewish herself. His personal and private dissociation from the Nazis did not, however, keep Lernet-Holenia from participating in their apparatus as long as he considered it beneficial for his career and/or his personal safety. Lotte Sweceny, who was married to an "Aryan" industrialist, came from the assimilated Jewish bourgeoisie of Vienna. The stimulating atmosphere of her parental home was, in part, the product of the commitment of the two preceding generations to assimilate. The chapter also deals with Lotte's marriage with Otto C. Sweceny - a marriage that was intended as a liberal experiment - and with the circle of friends consisting of architects, writers and others portrayed by the Austrian publicist Milan Dubrovic.

Die amerikanische Verheissung Schweizer Aussenpolitik im Wirtschaftskrieg 1917/18

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ISBN: 9783034013697 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_625139 Language: German
Publisher: Chronos Verlag Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH - 170305
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-08 11:01:20
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Abstract in English* The promise of America&#xD;Swiss foreign policy amidst the economic warfare of 1917-18&#xD;&#xD;The book tells the dramatic history of the final two years of World War I, during which Switzerland was in between the fronts of the world powers. The surrounding struggle for global domination caused serious difficulties for the small state. Cut off from important food imports, resulting from the indiscriminate German submarine warfare, it turned for help to the USA. The pleas of a high-ranking “Swiss Mission” sent across the Atlantic were heeded: The USA supplied the landlocked country with grain thus averting famine. While America thus boosted its reputation, the German empire became more of a threat. Agitation increased when German agents were convicted in spy scandals and trials of bombers in Zurich. Despite German propaganda, the German empire was unable to maintain its influence in Switzerland. German diplomats, as representatives of the unpopular old order, were expelled from Switzerland when the Central Powers collapsed in the fall of 1918. The USA under President Woodrow Wilson was, in contrast, enthusiastically celebrated. This study, just barely one hundred years later, enables a new view of one of the most animated periods in Swiss history, offering an opportunity to reflect on the relation of this small country to the rest of the world.

Keywords

usa --- world war i --- germany --- foreign policy

Europäische Lyrik seit der Antike. 14 Vorlesungen

Authors: ---
Book Series: Europäische Schneisen ISBN: 9783937816142 Year: Pages: 484 DOI: 10.15460/HUP.ES.1.66 Language: German
Publisher: Hamburg University Press
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:21

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Since ancient Greek-Latin and Judeo-Christian antiquity and also in a constant return to these two traditions the people of Europe have created a great treasure trove of poems. These poems have expressed and shaped the eras of their history. While myth, epic and novel have told the great stories of the world and of the gods, peoples and heroes, the poem created the ego-telling voice at an early age and thus enabled her to make herself heard and accentuated in the great and small events of the time; to try out feelings, attitudes, values and thus to prepare new mentalities.This division of labour between poem and narrative is always kept in view in the lectures of this book, because they use the now developed approaches of narrative research, narratology, to discover the special possibilities of poetry. Thus, one can see more clearly what role poems and songs play in the subjectivization of religion and love since the Reformation, how they promote the liberation of the individual in the Enlightenment, how they promote a new religion of nature and art, how they stimulate the nationalism of the 19th century and how to adopt new attitudes in the process of modern civilization with daring experiments. The specialist disciplines have distributed this common treasure among themselves and thus almost lost sight of it. The public lecture, however, has made it visible to those involved, always using the example and in a language accessible to all, which has been preserved in this book.

Autoren in religiösen literarischen Texten der späthellenistischen und der frühkaiserzeitlichen Welt

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ISBN: 9783161561115 9783161561382 Year: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1628/978-3-16-156138-2 Language: German
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103723
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 11:21:02
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The contributors to this volume discuss the formation and transformation of ancient concepts of authorship, specifically among those types of texts that are classified as “religious literature” – whether Greco-Roman, early Jewish, and early Christian. In twelve case studies spanning the time from Ben Sira to Tertullian, various ways of how authors considered themselves to be individual producers of texts and religious voices are carved out. The volume presents authors who fashion themselves either as orthonymous, anonymous, or pseudepigraphic writers, and who share the idea of being “religious agents”. The search for these religious voices undertaken here is a valuable contribution to both research in ancient “Autorforschung” and the religio-historical study of how religious knowledge was produced in the ancient Mediterranean world.

Graz 1914

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Book Series: Böhlaus Zeitgeschichtliche Bibliothek ISBN: 9783205208549 Year: DOI: 978-3-205-20854-9 ^ Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103506
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-24 11:01:01
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Bernhard Thonhofer researched street life in Graz at the beginning of World War I 1914 and how the Burgfrieden was shaped subsequently. By that a transformation process from a fragmented militarized society in times of peace to a society in times of war is portrayed, with its asynchrony and discrepancy, but also in its outlines. This "unity" on the streets was full of breaches and contradictions from the start. The people of Graz transformed not into a monolithic "war society" free of political, national, confessional or gender-specific conflicts. In fact the 4 years of "Volkskrieg" damaged coexistence in Graz.

Engagement oder Rückzug? - Göttinger Naturwissenschaften im Ersten Weltkrieg

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ISBN: 9783940344205 Year: Pages: 306 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Science (General) --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2012-04-11 23:04:47
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Der Erste Weltkrieg wirkte auf vielen unterschiedlichen Ebenen auf die Institution Universität ein. Mit Beginn des Wintersemesters 1914/15 hatten sich in Göttingen wie an allen europäischen Hochschulen die Hörsäle geleert. Die wenigen Studierenden, die nicht als Kriegsfreiwillige angenommen worden waren, jagten nun gemeinsam mit der Bevölkerung Spione, wozu sie auch ihre ausländischen Kommilitonen zählten. Die Institute der aufstrebenden naturwissenschaftlichen Fächer mussten mit massiven wirtschaftlichen und personellen Schwierigkeiten kämpfen. Sie konnten keineswegs vom militärischen Interesse an naturwissenschaftlicher Forschung profitieren, da die Militärbehörden sich bewusst nur außeruniversitärer Forschungseinrichtungen, wie der Modellversuchsanstalt Ludwig Prandtls, bedienten. Göttinger Professoren nahmen am schnell aufflammenden internationalen Propagandakrieg teil. Zeitgleich kam es im Innern der Universität zu mit großem Ernst geführten Auseinandersetzungen. Angesichts dieser Rahmenbedingungen überrascht es, dass es den Professoren der Georgia Augusta weitgehend gelang, das Bild einer funktionierenden Universität zu wahren.

Arbeit als Hoffnung. Jüdische Ghettos in Litauen 1941-1944

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Book Series: Quellen und Darstellungen zur Zeitgeschichte ISSN: 04813545 ISBN: 9783110415551 Year: Volume: 108 Pages: 452 DOI: 10.1515/9783110415551 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-06 16:06:17

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In the ghettos of Lithuania an urban infrastructure developed based on the needs of Jewish conscription and forced labor for German occupation forces and the Lithuanian administration. Using the example of the ghettos in Vilnius, Kaunas, and Siauliai, the author reveals for the first time the ways to which Jewish labor conscription was organized inside and outside the ghettos and the patterns of daily ghetto life as seen by the inhabitants.

Denunziation als soziale Praxis

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ISBN: 9783205784326 Year: Pages: 384 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437184 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4110
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:22
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Denunciations were an essential component of everyday life under Nazism and affected almost every aspect of life. During the war, denunciations became a mass phenomenon. In Austria the subject was noticed relatively late. The attention proceeds from a general definition of terms, to a specific interpretation on the basis of archive sources (Wehrmacht legal records) and then to individual case reconstructions on the basis of oral history interviews, that is to say, from a macro to a micro perspective.The closed holding relates to charges on the offence of Wehrkraftzersetzung (subversion of the armed forces), most of which were reported by former residents in the Ostmark at the central court, Vienna, in 1943-1945. Central to this are above all questions of social history and the history of mentality, such as the significance of social milieu (denunciation as “release” from class or interest differences, as a group phenomenon, etc.), and of gender (gender-differentiated behaviour, denunciation as “release” from conflicts concerning gender hierarchy), of generation, of political/ideological orientation, and of the significance of the social environment, the sphere of life and the locality. Of interest, however, are not just the historical conditions under the Nazi regime, but also the room for manoeuvre of men and women - in the military milíeu in the endphase of the war - and the communicative mechanisms that led to political denunciation.

Die Alpen im Frühmittelalter

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ISBN: 9783205787693 Year: Pages: 423 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437227 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4287
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:50:01
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This book follows a new path of describing the Alps from the years 500 to 800. Instead of running through this mountain range from east to west (or reverse) and writing one local history after the other, relevant patterns were captured: patterns of control, borders, communication routes, Christendom, settlement, economy, local methods to establish power and traces of local identity. Comparing theses structures on an interregional level made it possible to establish a new view on the early medieval alpine regions. By the year 500 the inhabitants of this central European mountain range were typically roman-provincial. Some regional differences existed, yet the main factors were quite similar: language, laws, religion (Christendom) and social structures. From the 6th c. on this changed. New political developments made a large part of the alpine provinces turn northwards to the Frankish realms. As a consequence borders were created within the Alps. Many hilltop settlements and strongholds in the valleys were built to guarantee the security both of population and borders. Militia was installed to control these boundaries; they were either recruited from the local population or got especially settled for these means. This change of view made some Roman topoi disappear: the Alps were no longer regarded as hostile and as the walls of Italy. The routes through the Alps changed. One reason for this was the growing number of pilgrims from the British Isles made the passage through Maurienne and over the Mont Cenis more important than the ancient route via Montgenèvre. The central Alps in Curia remained a highly important point to cross the mountains, whereas more eastwards the once important crossing points became mere backroads. Farther east the Avarian-Slavic conquest caused the sources to silence, nevertheless the communication routes remained visible through archaeological findings and place names. A big change for the alpine population was the transformations in settlement patterns, first of all the diminishing importance of Roman cities. Some of them disappeared completely, such as Teurnia, Aguntum and Octodurum. Nevertheless, the wider settlement areas around these former towns always remained important. New centres emerged. Some had roman roots, for example Iuvavum/Salzburg, others were new foundations, like the numerous cloisters from the 8th c. The church played a significant role in this transformation, as a bishop's see or the burial church of a saint constituted a point of attraction for the local population. The antique transalpine and alpine networks of trade underwent some transitions. Goods like olive oil, high quality pottery and sea salt were no longer brought over the Alps. The eastern alpine ore deposits were not exploited on a grand scale anymore. New natural resources became important, for example the salt deposits in the northern Alps. There are some traces of exported products. The vineyards of the Southern Alps produced vine for export to the north-alpine regions and the central alpine soapstone production supplied the population of the whole mountain range with high quality cookware. In addition to this, products like cheese, wool, honey and lumber might have been exported. Alpine agriculture did not change much. Farming was based on subsistence and the surplus was sold locally to travellers or given to the owners of the land. The use of alpine pastures roots in pre-roman times and was practised continually, although the intensity of the pastoralism is difficult to estimate. Local power structures emerged out of late antique roots. In the 8th and beginning of the 9th c. the population of these parts of the Alps still spoke a roman language, were Christian and lived in a very differentiated social structure whose legal habits were based on roman law. Contrary to that, the eastern Alps saw a major cultural shift that resulted in the Slavic reign of Carantania.

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