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All’origine di una burocrazia moderna: il personale del Ministero delle Finanze nel Mezzogiorno di primo Ottocento

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Book Series: Clio: Saggi di scienze storiche, archeologiche e storico-artistiche ISSN: 2532-4608 ISBN: 9788888904115 Year: Volume: 6 Pages: 132 DOI: 10.6093/978-88-88904-11-5 Language: Italian
Publisher: FedOA - Federico II University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-05 18:35:52
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The transition from the French Decade to the years of the Second Restoration represents a qualifying moment in the history of Southern Italy. Closely connected to the topic of the State-Building, studied in its peculiar traits, the construction of a modern bureaucracy begins precisely from that point, contributing to a greater articulation of the Bourbon period. The core of the volume is the structure of the Ministry of Finance, investigated by focusing on its personnel.Through extensive and unpublished records, combined with a consistent bibliography, broadly composed of primary sources, the book crosses different subjects: from governmental action to the institutional one; from the individual prospective to that of the territory. The growth of the administration, which the investigation reveals, seems to influence in many aspects the profile of southern society, suggesting a dynamic dimension of the State. In the background, there was a territory far from being inactive: in fact, the State confirms his role of place identifier and classifier, even through a process of defining a bureaucratic identity in relation to the local dimensions in which it operates

Peer Review, Peer Education, and Modeling in the Practice of Clinical Ethics Consultation: The Zadeh Project

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ISBN: 9783319909554 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-90955-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Philosophy --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:15
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This open access book about the Zadeh Project demonstrates and explores a core question in clinical ethics: how can ethics consultants be accountable in the face of a robust plurality of ethical standpoints, especially those that underwrite practices and methods for doing ethics consultation as well as those viewpoints and values encountered in daily clinical ethics practice? Underscoring this question is the recognition that the field of clinical ethics consultation has arrived at a crucial point in its maturation. Many efforts are underway to more formally “professionalize” the field, with most aimed toward stabilizing a specific set of institutional considerations. Stretched between these institutional and practical initiatives resides a crucial set of of ethical considerations, chief among them the meaning and scope of responsibility for clinical ethics consultants. Developed around a long-form case scenario, the Zadeh Project provides a multi-layered series of “peer-reviews”: critique of the actions of the case scenario’s ethics consultant; reflection on clinical ethics method; examination of the many ways that commitments to method and practice can, and do, intersect, overlap, and alter one another. The design and format of this book thus models a key element for clinical ethics practice: the need and ability to provide careful and thoughtful explanation of core moral considerations that emerge among diverse standpoints. Specifically designed for those studying to become and those who are ethics consultants, this book, with its innovative and multi-layered approach, allows readers to share a peer-review-like experience that shows accountability to be what it is, an ethical, not merely procedural or administrative, undertaking.

Fragility Fracture Nursing

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Book Series: Perspectives in Nursing Management and Care for Older Adults ISBN: 9783319766812 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-76681-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:17
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This open access book aims to provide a comprehensive but practical overview of the knowledge required for the assessment and management of the older adult with or at risk of fragility fracture. It considers this from the perspectives of all of the settings in which this group of patients receive nursing care. Globally, a fragility fracture is estimated to occur every 3 seconds. This amounts to 25 000 fractures per day or 9 million per year. The financial costs are reported to be: 32 billion EUR per year in Europe and 20 billon USD in the United States. As the population of China ages, the cost of hip fracture care there is likely to reach 1.25 billion USD by 2020 and 265 billion by 2050 (International Osteoporosis Foundation 2016). Consequently, the need for nursing for patients with fragility fracture across the world is immense. Fragility fracture is one of the foremost challenges for health care providers, and the impact of each one of those expected 9 million hip fractures is significant pain, disability, reduced quality of life, loss of independence and decreased life expectancy. There is a need for coordinated, multi-disciplinary models of care for secondary fracture prevention based on the increasing evidence that such models make a difference. There is also a need to promote and facilitate high quality, evidence-based effective care to those who suffer a fragility fracture with a focus on the best outcomes for recovery, rehabilitation and secondary prevention of further fracture. The care community has to understand better the experience of fragility fracture from the perspective of the patient so that direct improvements in care can be based on the perspectives of the users. This book supports these needs by providing a comprehensive approach to nursing practice in fragility fracture care. ; Provides a comprehensive discussion of nursing the frail older person with a fragility fracture across Europe Based on a two-day workshop of like-minded specialist and advanced nurses from over 20 countries Acts as the course text/reader for a Europe-wide education programme in all relevant settings (Emergency Department, Fracture Clinic, Trauma Unit, Orthopaedic Ward, Rehabilitation setting) Open Access

Science Policy under Thatcher

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ISBN: 9781787353411 Year: Pages: 304 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781787353411 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Science (General) --- History --- Social Sciences --- Arts in general --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-03 11:21:05
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Margaret Thatcher was prime minister from 1979 to 1990, during which time her Conservative administration transformed the political landscape of Britain. Science Policy under Thatcher is the first book to examine systematically the interplay of science and government under her leadership. Thatcher was a working scientist before she became a professional politician, and she maintained a close watch on science matters as prime minister. Scientific knowledge and advice were important to many urgent issues of the 1980s, from late Cold War questions of defence to emerging environmental problems such as acid rain and climate change. Drawing on newly released primary sources, Jon Agar explores how Thatcher worked with and occasionally against the structures of scientific advice, as the scientific aspects of such issues were balanced or conflicted with other demands and values. To what extent, for example, was the freedom of the individual scientist to choose research projects balanced against the desire to secure more commercial applications? What was Thatcher’s stance towards European scientific collaboration and commitments? How did cuts in public expenditure affect the publicly funded research and teaching of universities? In weaving together numerous topics, including AIDS and bioethics, the nuclear industry and strategic defence, Agar adds to the picture we have of Thatcher and her radically Conservative agenda, and argues that the science policy devised under her leadership, not least in relation to industrial strategy, had a prolonged influence on the culture of British science.

Ueberwaelzte Leistungen der Administration

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Book Series: Finanzwissenschaftliche Schriften ISBN: 9783631345610 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.3726/b13799 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:31
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Der Staat überwälzt administrative Leistungen vom öffentlichen auf den privaten Sektor. Im Personal- und Sozialbereich, Steuer- und Abgabenbereich, im Betriebsbereich sowie durch Statistiken und Meldungen entstehen dem privaten Sektor administrative Kosten. Die Kostenanalyse steht im Mittelpunkt der empirischen Untersuchung. Es werden Ergebnisse zur Verbesserung der Schätzmethodik erzielt. Informationsdefizite der Leistungserbringer bezüglich Leistungsumfang und Kostenbelastung werden empirisch nachgewiesen. Die Ergebnisse der finanzwissenschaftlichen Wirkungsanalyse sind die Basis für die Entscheidungsanalyse, die den politischen Prozeß zur Überwälzung einer administrativen Leistung auf den privaten Sektor erklärt. Das Informations- und Entscheidungsverhalten unter Unsicherheit der am politischen Prozeß Beteiligten bestimmt die politische Überwälzbarkeit administrativer Leistungen vom öffentlichen auf den privaten Sektor.

Konzeptionen von Förderung, Selektion und Gerechtigkeit

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Book Series: Rekonstruktive Bildungsforschung ISBN: 9783658257828 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-25782-8 Language: German
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:21
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In diesem Open Access Buch wird in einer rekonstruktiven Vorgehensweise der Frage nachgegangen, inwiefern sich an Primarschulen kollektive/divergierende Orientierungen von Förderung und Selektion sowie dahinterliegende Bildungsgerechtigkeitskonzeptionen zeigen. Basierend auf einer sinngenetischen Typologie werden Vorstellungen gelungener Förderung und Selektion theoretischen Gerechtigkeitskonzeptionen gegenübergestellt. Die Analyse der Diskursverläufe zeigt, dass die Organisation eine sinngebende Struktur darstellt, wenn sich die Schulakteure aktiv in der Bearbeitung des Spannungsverhältnisses zwischen Bezugnahme zum Kontext sowie der innerorganisatorischen Ausgestaltung erleben.

The Future of Election Administration

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Book Series: Elections, Voting, Technology ISBN: 9783030185411 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-18541-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:19
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As the American election administration landscape changes as a result of major court cases, national and state legislation, changes in professionalism, and the evolution of equipment and security, so must the work of on-the-ground practitioners change. This Open Access title presents a series of case studies designed to highlight practical responses to these changes from the national, state, and local levels. This book is designed to be a companion piece to The Future of Election Administration, which surveys these critical dimensions of elections from the perspectives of the most forward-thinking practitioner, policy, advocacy, and research experts and leaders in these areas today. Drawing upon principles of professionalism and the practical work that is required to administer elections as part of the complex systems, this book lifts up the voices and experiences of practitioners from around the country to describe, analyze, and anticipate the key areas of election administration systems on which students, researchers, advocates, policy makers, and practitioners should focus. Together, these books add to the emerging body of literature that is part of the election sciences community with an emphasis on the practical aspects of administration.

Upravljavska sposobnost lokalnih samoupravnih skupnosti

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Book Series: Local Democracy ISBN: 9789616842358 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.4335/978-961-6842-35-8 (2014) Language: Slovenian
Publisher: Institute for Local Self-Government and Public Procurement Maribor
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-09 22:17:51
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Local communities have an important role in society. According to states legislature they execute local public policies. Those processes include local democracy, public administration, local economy and social entities. Also they combine public and private resources. All of these groups of factors have their own capacity. Capacity is their ability to achieve goals and consists from inside and outside factors. Capacity of local self-government is integrated capacity. It represents holistic capacity for those units. It tells us, whether they are capable of doing things they should do, according to social and political system and its demands. Local units have different level of capacity. With conceptual model and field research we tested our research hypothesis. Our hypothesis is that local self-government communities with higher capacity offer their residents broader local public services and goods. Also we studies influence of political stability and autonomy on capacity. On representative sample of municipalities in Republic of Slovenia we confirmed all ours research hypothesis. Conceptual model of capacity is a tool for analysing individual communities and for analysing the whole system of local-self government. Also many suggestions for improvement can be made.

Ways to improve tumor uptake and penetration of drugs into solid tumors

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193509 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-350-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The main scope of this topic is to give an update on pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches to enhance uptake and penetration of cancer drugs into tumors. Inadequate accumulation of drugs in tumors has emerged over the last decade as one of the main problems underlying therapeutic failure and drug resistance in the treatment of cancer. Insufficient drug uptake and penetration is causally related to the abnormal tumor architecture. Thus, poor vascularization, increased resistance to blood flow and impaired blood supply represent a first obstacle to the delivery of antitumor drugs to tumor tissue. Decreased or even inverted transvascular pressure gradients compromise convective delivery of drugs. Eventually, an abnormal extracellular matrix offers increased frictional resistance to tumor drug penetration. Abnormal tumor architecture also changes the biology of tumor cells, which contributes to drug resistance through several different mechanisms. The variability in vessel location and structure can make many areas of the tumor hypoxic, which causes the tumor cells to become quiescent and thereby resistant to many antitumor drugs. In addition, the abnormally long distance of part of the tumor cell population from blood vessels provides a challenge to delivering cancer drugs to these cells. We have recently proposed additional mechanisms of tumor drug resistance, which are also related to abnormal tumor architecture. First, increased interstitial fluid pressure can by itself induce drug resistance through the induction of resistance-promoting paracrine factors. Second, the interaction of drug molecules with vessel- proximal tumor cell layers may also induce the release of these factors, which can spread throughout the cancer, and induce drug resistance in tumor cells distant from blood vessels. As can be seen, abnormal tumor architecture, inadequate drug accumulation and tumor drug resistance are tightly linked phenomena, suggesting the need to normalize the tumor architecture, including blood vessels, and/or increase the accumulation of cancer drugs in tumors in order to increase therapeutic effects. Indeed, several classes of drugs (that we refer to as promoter drugs) have been described, that promote tumor uptake and penetration of antitumor drugs, including those that are vasoactive, modify the barrier function of tumor vessels, debulk tumor cells, and overcome intercellular and stromal barriers. In addition, also non-pharmacologic approaches have been described that enhance tumor accumulation of effector drugs (e.g. convection-enhanced delivery, hyperthermia, etc.). Some drugs that have already received regulatory approval (e.g. the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab) exert antitumor effects at least in part through normalization of the tumor vasculature and enhancement of the accumulation of effector drugs. Other drugs, acting through different mechanisms of action, are now in clinical development (e.g. NGR-TNF in phase II/III studies) and others are about to enter clinical investigation (e.g. JO-1).

Ethanol, Its Active Metabolites, and Their Mechanisms of Action: Neurophysiological and Behavioral Effects

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455164 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-516-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Ethanol, the main psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, represents a paradigmatic example of a research subject intrinsically able to perpetually self-generate interdisciplinary cutting-edge investigations.This eBook was inspired by the aim of providing an up-to-date characterization of the diverse effects of ethanol, of the possible mechanisms of action on different intracellular systems as well as of the hypothesized actions of ethanol and/or its metabolites on various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators.Indeed, the eBook provides a factual example of an excellent synthesis on the complex relationship between ethanol and its main biologically active metabolites (Chapter 1), on the behavioral and molecular consequences of early exposure to them (Chapter 2), on the recent proposals, advanced by the preclinical research, for new therapeutic approaches to distinct aspects of alcoholism (Chapter 3) and on the most recent and original preclinical evidence of the interactions between ethanol and/or its metabolites and the dopaminergic, adenosinergic and endocannabinoidergic systems (Chapter 4).Overall we believe that this eBook accomplishes its main goals of widening the perspective on this research subject and offering the readership a newer and, simultaneously, up-to-date and comprehensive scenery on ethanol’s and ethanol's active metabolites neurophysiological and behavioral effects.

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