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Industrial and Host Associated Stress Responses in Food Microbes. Implications for Food Technology and Food Safety

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452934 Year: Pages: 295 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-293-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Throughout the food processing chain and after ingestion by the host, food associated bacteria have to cope with a range of stress factors such as thermal and/or non-thermal inactivation treatments, refrigeration temperatures, freeze-drying, high osmolarity, acid pH in the stomach or presence of bile salts in the intestine, that threaten bacterial survival. The accompanying plethora of microbial response and adaptation phenomena elicited by these stresses has important implications for food technology and safety. Indeed, while resistance development of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms may impose health risks for the consumer and impart great economic losses to food industries, reduced survival of probiotic bacteria may strongly compromise their claimed health benefit attributes. As a result, substantial research efforts have been devoted in the last decades to unravel the mechanisms underlying stress response and resistance development in food associated microorganisms in order to better predict and improve (i) the inactivation of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms on the one hand and (ii) the robustness and performance of beneficial microorganisms on the other. Moreover, the recent implementation of system-wide omics and (single-)cell biology approaches is greatly boosting our insights into the modes of action underlying microbial inactivation and survival. This Research Topic aims to provide an avenue for dissemination of recent advances within the field of microbial stress response and adaptation, with a particular focus not only on food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms but also on beneficial microbes in foods.

Food cravings

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195176 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-517-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Food craving refers to an intense desire or urge to consume a specific food. In Western or Westernized societies, these craved foods usually have high palatability and are energy dense, that is, they have high sugar and/or fat content. Accordingly, the most often craved food is chocolate. Food craving is a multidimensional experience as it includes cognitive (e.g. thinking about food), emotional (e.g. desire to eat or changes in mood), behavioral (e.g. seeking and consuming food), and physiological (e.g. salivation) aspects. Experiences of food craving are common, that is, they do not reflect abnormal eating behavior per se. However, very intense and frequent food craving experiences are associated with obesity and eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. The aim of this research topic was to gather new contributions to a variety of aspects of food craving, which include its assessment, cognitive and emotional triggers, moderators, and correlates of food craving, and the relevance of food cravings in clinical issues, among others.

Biofilms from a Food Microbiology Perspective: Structures, Functions and Control Strategies

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451081 Year: Pages: 197 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-108-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Materials and equipment in food processing industries are colonized by surface-associated microbial communities called biofilms. In these biostructures microorganisms are embedded in a complex organic matrix composed essentially of polysaccharides, nucleic acids and proteins. This organic shield contributes to the mechanical biofilm cohesion and triggers tolerance to environmental stresses such as dehydratation or nutrient deprivation. Notably, cells within a biofilm are more tolerant to sanitation processes and the action of antimicrobial agents than their free living (or planktonic) counterparts. Such properties make conventional cleaning and disinfection protocols normally not effective in eradicating these biocontaminants. Biofilms are thus a continuous source of persistent microorganisms, including spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, leading to repeated contamination of processed food with important economic and safety impact. Alternatively, in some particular settings, biofilm formation by resident or technological microorganisms can be desirable, due to possible enhancement of food fermentations or as a means of bioprotection against the settlement of pathogenic microorganisms. In the last decades substantial research efforts have been devoted to unravelling mechanisms of biofilm formation, deciphering biofilm architecture and understanding microbial interactions within those ecosystems. However, biofilms present a high level of complexity and many aspects remain yet to be fully understood. A lot of attention has been also paid to the development of novel strategies for preventing or controlling biofilm formation in industrial settings. Further research needs to be focused on the identification of new biocides effective against biofilm-associated microorganisms, the development of control strategies based on the inhibition of cell-to-cell communication, and the potential use of bacteriocins, bacteriocin-producing bacteria, phage, and natural antimicrobials as anti-biofilm agents, among others. This Research Topic aims to provide an avenue for dissemination of recent advances within the “biofilms” field, from novel knowledge on mechanisms of biofilm formation and biofilm architecture to novel strategies for biofilm control in food industrial settings.

Biological Hazards in Food

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451135 Year: Pages: 277 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-113-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The ingestion of food containing pathogenic microorganisms (i.e. bacteria and their toxins, fungi, viruses) and parasites can cause food-borne diseases in humans. A growing number of emerging pathogens, changes of virulence of known pathogens and appearance of antibiotic resistance has recently exposed consumers to a major risk of illness. Also infected people and the environment can spread microorganisms on raw or processed food. Outbreaks of food-borne diseases are often unrecognized, unreported, or not investigated and particularly in developing countries their agents and sources are mostly unknown. Surveillance and analytical methods aiming at their detection are to be hoped, as well as good strategies to struggle against these threats. This E-book is subdivided in chapters regarding to pathogenic and spoiling microorganisms, chemical hazards produced by biological agents and food safety management systems.

Application of Nanotechnology in Food Science and Food Microbiology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454884 Year: Pages: 213 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-488-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Nanotechnology is a fast-evolving discipline that already produces outstanding basic knowledge and industrial applications for the benefit of society. It is a new emerging and fascinating field of science, that permits advanced research in many areas. The first applications of nanotechnology mainly concerned material sciences; applications in the agriculture and food sectors are still emerging. Food science nanotechnology is an area of rising attention that unties new possibilities for the food industry. Due to the rapid population growth there is a need to produce food and beverages in a more efficient, safe and sustainable way. The application of nanotechnology in food has also gained great importance in recent years in view of its potential application to improve production of food crops, enhance nutrition, packaging and food safety overall. The new materials, products and applications are anticipated to bring lots of improvements to the food and related sectors, impacting agriculture and food production, food processing, distribution, storage, sanitation as well as the development of innovative products and sensors for effective detection of contaminants. Therefore, nanotechnology present with a large potential to provide an opportunity for the researchers of food science, food microbiology and other fields, to develop new tools for incorporation of nanoparticles into food system that could augment existing functions and add new ones.However, the number of relative publications currently available is rather small. The present Research Topic aims to provide with basic information and practical applications regarding all aspects related to the applications of nanotechnology in food science and food microbiology, namely, nanoparticle synthesis, especially through the eco-friendly perspective, potential applications in food processing, biosensor development, alternative strategies for effective pathogenic bacteria monitoring as well as the possible effects on human health and the environment.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in human, cattle and foods. Strategies for detection and control

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192939 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-293-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen associated with both outbreaks and sporadic cases of human disease, ranging from uncomplicated diarrhoea to haemorrhagic colitis (HC) and haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). STEC affects children, elderly and immuno-compromised patients. STEC is capable of producing Shiga toxin type 1 (Stx1), type 2 (Stx2) or both, encoded by stx1 and stx2 genes, respectively. These strains are likely to produce putative accessory virulence factors such as intimin (encoded by eae), an enterohaemolysin (EhxA) and an autoagglutinating protein commonly associated with eae-negative strains (Saa), both encoded by an enterohaemorrhagic plasmid. Several studies have confirmed that cattle are the principal reservoir of STEC (O157 and non-O157:H7 serotypes) and many of these serotypes have been involved in HUS and HC outbreaks in other countries. Transmission of STEC to humans occurs through the consumption of undercooked meat, vegetables and water contaminated by faeces of carriers and by person-to-person contact. Diagnostic methods have evolved to avoid selective diagnostics, currently using molecular techniques for typing and subtyping of strains. Control is still a challenge, although there are animal vaccines directed against the serotype O157:H7.

Keywords

STEC --- Cattle --- Food --- environment --- Virulence Factors

Energy metabolism and behavior in the corticotropin-releasing factor family of peptides

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195374 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-537-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Since Hans Selye's seminal work in the 1930s, there have been numerous advances with respect to our understanding of how the nervous and endocrine systems interact to help animals cope with stressors and how chronic stress may adversely impact health. Our modern understanding of stress essentially began in 1954 with the race to discover the hypothalamic releasing factor controlling ACTH secretion and mediating the endocrine response to stressors. Since the isolation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in 1981, interest in CRF has focused not only on its hypophysiotropic function, but also its much broader role in coordinating many of the endocrine, behavioral and autonomic nervous system changes that occur during stress. The goal of this Research Topic is to solicit reviews and general research articles highlighting new research into stress and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the following areas: HPA axis interaction with energy regulating mechanisms during stress; and new studies on the role of CRF and urocortin and urocortins 2 and 3 in behavioral adaptation to stressors.

Sustainable Food Systems

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ISBN: 9781911307099 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781911307099 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Political Science --- Sociology --- History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-03 11:01:03
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This book, by a leading expert in urban agriculture, offers a genuine solution to today’s global food crisis. By contributing more to feeding themselves, cities can allow breathing space for the rural sector to convert to more organic sustainable approaches. Biel’s approach connects with current debates about agroecology and food sovereignty, asks key questions, and proposes lines of future research. He suggests that today’s food insecurity – manifested in a regime of wildly fluctuating prices – reflects not just temporary stresses in the existing mode of production, but more profoundly the troubled process of generating a new one. He argues that the solution cannot be implemented at a merely technical or political level: the force of change can only be driven by the kind of social movements which are now daring to challenge the existing unsustainable order. Drawing on both his academic research and teaching, and 15 years’ experience as a practising urban farmer, Biel brings a unique interdisciplinary approach to this key global issue, creating a dialogue between the physical and social sciences

Multisensory Human-Food Interaction

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455188 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-518-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Our food experiences can be significantly influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic multisensory information. Therefore, it is crucial to understand and apply the principles that govern the systematic connections that exist between the senses in the context of Human-Food Interaction (HFI). In our Research Topic, namely Multisensory Human-Food Interaction (MHFI), several studies that consider such connections in the context of HFI are presented. We also have contributions that focus on multisensory technologies that can be used to share and reproduce specific HFIs. This eBook, which resulted from the Research Topic, presents some of the most recent developments in the field of MHFI. In particular, it consists of two main sections and corresponding articles. The eBook begins with the Editorial, which provides an overview of MHFI. Then, it includes six articles that relate to principles in MHFI and three on technologies in MHFI. We hope that the different contributions featured here will support future developments in MHFI research.

Game Changer - Next Generation Sequencing and its Impact on Food Microbiology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454631 Year: Pages: 302 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-463-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies (NGS) are revolutionizing the field of food microbiology. Microbial whole genome sequencing (WGS) can provide identification, characterization, and subtyping of pathogens for epidemiological investigations at a level of precision previously not possible. This allows for connections and source attribution to be inferred between related isolates that may be overlooked by traditional techniques. The archiving and global sharing of genome sequences allow for retrospective analysis of virulence genes, antimicrobial resistance markers, mobile genetic elements and other novel genes. The advent of high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, in combination with the advantages offered by massively parallel second-generation sequencing for metagenomics, enable intensive studies on the microbiomes of food products and the impact of foods on the human microbiome. These studies may one day lead to the development of reliable culture-independent methods for food monitoring and surveillance. Similarly, RNA-seq has provided insights into the transcriptomes and hence the behaviour of bacterial pathogens in food, food processing environments, and in interaction with the host at a resolution previously not achieved through the use of microarrays and/or RT-PCR. The vast un-tapped potential applications of NGS along with its rapidly declining costs, give this technology the ability to contribute significantly to consumer protection, global trade facilitation, and increased food safety and security. Despite the rapid advances, challenges remain. How will NGS data be incorporated into our existing global food safety infrastructure? How will massive NGS data be stored and shared globally? What bioinformatics solutions will be used to analyse and optimise these large data sets? This Research Topic discusses recent advances in the field of food microbiology made possible through the use of NGS.

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