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Interface Oral Health Science 2016: Innovative Research on Biosis–Abiosis Intelligent Interface

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ISBN: 9789811015595 9789811015601 Year: Pages: 277 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-1560-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Manufactures --- Biotechnology --- Medicine (General) --- Dentistry --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-08 13:39:59
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This volume broadens understanding of dentistry and promotes interdisciplinary research across a wide range of related fields, based on the symposium entitled "Innovative Research for Biosis–Abiosis Intelligent Interface 2016". It aims to create highly functional and autonomic intelligent interface by combining highly functional interface science with the technology of an evaluation and a control at the interface, with the various topics of biomaterials, innovation for oral science and application, regenerative oral science, and medical engineering. Since 2002, the Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry has hosted “Interface Oral Health Science” several times as the main theme of dental research in the twenty-first century, and this is the sixth proceedings of the symposiums following the ones in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2014.This book benefits not only dental scientists but also other health scientists including medical physicians and pharmacologists, material scientists, engineers, and any scientist who is involved in variety of disciplines.

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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ISBN: 9783030138646 Year: Pages: 241 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-13864-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:10
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This open access book presents a comprehensive overview of dilated cardiomyopathy, providing readers with practical guidelines for its clinical management. The first part of the book analyzes in detail the disease’s pathophysiology, its diagnostic work up as well as the prognostic stratification, and illustrates the role of genetics and gene-environment interaction. The second part presents current and future treatment options, highlighting the importance of long-term and individualized treatments and follow-up. Furthermore, it discusses open issues, such as the apparent healing phenomenon, the early prognosis of arrhythmic events or the use of genetic testing in clinical practice. Offering a multidisciplinary approach for optimizing the clinical management of DCM, this book is an invaluable aid not only for the clinical cardiologists, but for all physicians involved in the care of this challenging disease.

Adult neurogenesis twenty years later: physiological function versus brain repair

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194940 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-494-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The discovery that mammalian brains contain neural stem cells which perform adult neurogenesis - the production and integration of new neurons into mature neural circuits - has provided a fully new vision of neural plasticity. On a theoretical basis, this achievement opened new perspectives for therapeutic approaches in restorative and regenerative neurology. Nevertheless, in spite of striking advancement concerning the molecular and cellular mechanisms which allow and regulate the neurogenic process, its exploitation in mammals for brain repair strategies remains unsolved. In non-mammalian vertebrates, adult neurogenesis also contributes to brain repair/regeneration. In mammals, neural stem cells do respond to pathological conditions in the so called "reactive neurogenesis", yet without substantial regenerative outcome. Why, even in the presence of stem cells in the brain, we lack an effective reparative outcome in terms of regenerative neurology, and which factors hamper the attainment of this goal? Essentially, what remains unanswered is the question whether (and how) physiological functions of adult neurogenesis in mammals can be exploited for brain repair purposes.

Crosstalk between the osteogenic and neurogenic stem cell niches: how far are they from each other?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197774 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-777-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Somatic stem cells reside in definite compartments, known as “niches”, within developed organs and tissues, being able to renew themselves, differentiate and ensure tissue maintenance and repair. In contrast with the original dogmatic distinction between renewing and non-renewing tissues, somatic stem cells have been found in almost every human organ, including brain and heart. The adult bone marrow, in particular, houses a complex multifunctional niche comprising hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), that intensely interact. HSCs represent the common precursors of all mature blood cells. MSCs are instead able to differentiate along multiple mesodermal lineages and are believed to represent the key somatic stem cell within the skeletogenic niche, being conceptually able to produce any tissue included within a mature skeletal segment (bone, cartilage, blood vessels, adipose tissue, and supporting connective stroma). Despite this high plasticity, the claim that MSCs could be capable of transdifferentiation along non-mesodermal lineages, including neurons, has been strongly argued. Adult osteogenic and neurogenic niches display wide differences: embryo origin, microenvironment, progenitors’ lifespan, lineages of supporting cells. Although similar pathways may be involved, it is hard to believe that the osteogenic and neurogenic lineages can share functional features. The outbreaking research achievements in the field of regenerative medicine, along with the pressing need for effective innovative tools for the treatment of neurodegeneration and neurologic disorders, have been forcing experimental clinical applications, which, despite their scientific weakness, have recently stimulated the public opinion. Based on this contemporary background, this Research Topic wish to provide an in-depth revision of the state of the art on relevant scientific milestones addressing the differences and possible interconnections and overlaps, between the osteogenic and the neurogenic niches. Dissertations on both basic research and clinical aspects, along with ethical and regulatory issues on the use of somatic stem cells for in vivo transplantation, have been covered.

Bioethics Across the Globe

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ISBN: 9789811535727 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-3572-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-16 23:58:49
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This open access book addresses a variety of issues relating to bioethics, in order to initiate cross-cultural dialogue. Beginning with the history, it introduces various views on bioethics, based on specific experiences from Japan. It describes how Japan has been confronted with Western bioethics and the ethical issues new to this modern age, and how it has found its foothold as it decides where it stands on these issues. In the last chapter, the author proposes discarding the overarching term ‘Global Bioethics’ in favor of the new term, ‘Bioethics Across the Globe (BAG)’, which carries a more universal connotation. This book serves as an excellent tool to help readers understand a different culture and to initiate deep and genuine global dialogue that incorporates local and global thinking on bioethics. Bioethics Across the Globe is a valuable resource for researchers in the field of bioethics/medical ethics interested in adopting cross-cultural approaches, as well as graduate and undergraduate students of healthcare and philosophy.

Mechanics of Biomaterials

ISBN: 9783038421283 9783038421276 Year: Pages: 286 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-10 11:55:10
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The mechanical behavior of biomedical materials and biological tissues are important for their proper function. This holds true, not only for biomaterials and tissues whose main function is structural such as skeletal tissues and their synthetic substitutes, but also for other tissues and biomaterials. Moreover, there is an intimate relationship between mechanics and biology at different spatial and temporal scales. It is therefore important to study the mechanical behavior of both synthetic and livingbiomaterials. This Special Issue aims to serve as a forum for communicating the latest findings and trends in the study of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials.

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