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All’origine di una burocrazia moderna: il personale del Ministero delle Finanze nel Mezzogiorno di primo Ottocento

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Book Series: Clio: Saggi di scienze storiche, archeologiche e storico-artistiche ISSN: 2532-4608 ISBN: 9788888904115 Year: Volume: 6 Pages: 132 DOI: 10.6093/978-88-88904-11-5 Language: Italian
Publisher: FedOA - Federico II University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-05 18:35:52
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The transition from the French Decade to the years of the Second Restoration represents a qualifying moment in the history of Southern Italy. Closely connected to the topic of the State-Building, studied in its peculiar traits, the construction of a modern bureaucracy begins precisely from that point, contributing to a greater articulation of the Bourbon period. The core of the volume is the structure of the Ministry of Finance, investigated by focusing on its personnel.Through extensive and unpublished records, combined with a consistent bibliography, broadly composed of primary sources, the book crosses different subjects: from governmental action to the institutional one; from the individual prospective to that of the territory. The growth of the administration, which the investigation reveals, seems to influence in many aspects the profile of southern society, suggesting a dynamic dimension of the State. In the background, there was a territory far from being inactive: in fact, the State confirms his role of place identifier and classifier, even through a process of defining a bureaucratic identity in relation to the local dimensions in which it operates

Science Policy under Thatcher

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ISBN: 9781787353411 Year: Pages: 304 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781787353411 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Science (General) --- History --- Social Sciences --- Arts in general --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-03 11:21:05
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Margaret Thatcher was prime minister from 1979 to 1990, during which time her Conservative administration transformed the political landscape of Britain. Science Policy under Thatcher is the first book to examine systematically the interplay of science and government under her leadership.&#xD;Thatcher was a working scientist before she became a professional politician, and she maintained a close watch on science matters as prime minister. Scientific knowledge and advice were important to many urgent issues of the 1980s, from late Cold War questions of defence to emerging environmental problems such as acid rain and climate change. Drawing on newly released primary sources, Jon Agar explores how Thatcher worked with and occasionally against the structures of scientific advice, as the scientific aspects of such issues were balanced or conflicted with other demands and values. To what extent, for example, was the freedom of the individual scientist to choose research projects balanced against the desire to secure more commercial applications? What was Thatcher’s stance towards European scientific collaboration and commitments? How did cuts in public expenditure affect the publicly funded research and teaching of universities?&#xD;In weaving together numerous topics, including AIDS and bioethics, the nuclear industry and strategic defence, Agar adds to the picture we have of Thatcher and her radically Conservative agenda, and argues that the science policy devised under her leadership, not least in relation to industrial strategy, had a prolonged influence on the culture of British science.&#xD;

Ueberwaelzte Leistungen der Administration

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Book Series: Finanzwissenschaftliche Schriften ISBN: 9783631345610 Year: Pages: 352 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:31
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Der Staat überwälzt administrative Leistungen vom öffentlichen auf den privaten Sektor. Im Personal- und Sozialbereich, Steuer- und Abgabenbereich, im Betriebsbereich sowie durch Statistiken und Meldungen entstehen dem privaten Sektor administrative Kosten. Die Kostenanalyse steht im Mittelpunkt der empirischen Untersuchung. Es werden Ergebnisse zur Verbesserung der Schätzmethodik erzielt. Informationsdefizite der Leistungserbringer bezüglich Leistungsumfang und Kostenbelastung werden empirisch nachgewiesen. Die Ergebnisse der finanzwissenschaftlichen Wirkungsanalyse sind die Basis für die Entscheidungsanalyse, die den politischen Prozeß zur Überwälzung einer administrativen Leistung auf den privaten Sektor erklärt. Das Informations- und Entscheidungsverhalten unter Unsicherheit der am politischen Prozeß Beteiligten bestimmt die politische Überwälzbarkeit administrativer Leistungen vom öffentlichen auf den privaten Sektor.

Upravljavska sposobnost lokalnih samoupravnih skupnosti

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Book Series: Local Democracy ISBN: 9789616842358 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.4335/978-961-6842-35-8 (2014) Language: Slovenian
Publisher: Institute for Local Self-Government and Public Procurement Maribor
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-09 22:17:51
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Local communities have an important role in society. According to states legislature they execute local public policies. Those processes include local democracy, public administration, local economy and social entities. Also they combine public and private resources. All of these groups of factors have their own capacity. Capacity is their ability to achieve goals and consists from inside and outside factors. Capacity of local self-government is integrated capacity. It represents holistic capacity for those units. It tells us, whether they are capable of doing things they should do, according to social and political system and its demands. Local units have different level of capacity. With conceptual model and field research we tested our research hypothesis. Our hypothesis is that local self-government communities with higher capacity offer their residents broader local public services and goods. Also we studies influence of political stability and autonomy on capacity. On representative sample of municipalities in Republic of Slovenia we confirmed all ours research hypothesis. Conceptual model of capacity is a tool for analysing individual communities and for analysing the whole system of local-self government. Also many suggestions for improvement can be made.

Ways to improve tumor uptake and penetration of drugs into solid tumors

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193509 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-350-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The main scope of this topic is to give an update on pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches to enhance uptake and penetration of cancer drugs into tumors. Inadequate accumulation of drugs in tumors has emerged over the last decade as one of the main problems underlying therapeutic failure and drug resistance in the treatment of cancer. Insufficient drug uptake and penetration is causally related to the abnormal tumor architecture. Thus, poor vascularization, increased resistance to blood flow and impaired blood supply represent a first obstacle to the delivery of antitumor drugs to tumor tissue. Decreased or even inverted transvascular pressure gradients compromise convective delivery of drugs. Eventually, an abnormal extracellular matrix offers increased frictional resistance to tumor drug penetration. Abnormal tumor architecture also changes the biology of tumor cells, which contributes to drug resistance through several different mechanisms. The variability in vessel location and structure can make many areas of the tumor hypoxic, which causes the tumor cells to become quiescent and thereby resistant to many antitumor drugs. In addition, the abnormally long distance of part of the tumor cell population from blood vessels provides a challenge to delivering cancer drugs to these cells. We have recently proposed additional mechanisms of tumor drug resistance, which are also related to abnormal tumor architecture. First, increased interstitial fluid pressure can by itself induce drug resistance through the induction of resistance-promoting paracrine factors. Second, the interaction of drug molecules with vessel- proximal tumor cell layers may also induce the release of these factors, which can spread throughout the cancer, and induce drug resistance in tumor cells distant from blood vessels. As can be seen, abnormal tumor architecture, inadequate drug accumulation and tumor drug resistance are tightly linked phenomena, suggesting the need to normalize the tumor architecture, including blood vessels, and/or increase the accumulation of cancer drugs in tumors in order to increase therapeutic effects. Indeed, several classes of drugs (that we refer to as promoter drugs) have been described, that promote tumor uptake and penetration of antitumor drugs, including those that are vasoactive, modify the barrier function of tumor vessels, debulk tumor cells, and overcome intercellular and stromal barriers. In addition, also non-pharmacologic approaches have been described that enhance tumor accumulation of effector drugs (e.g. convection-enhanced delivery, hyperthermia, etc.). Some drugs that have already received regulatory approval (e.g. the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab) exert antitumor effects at least in part through normalization of the tumor vasculature and enhancement of the accumulation of effector drugs. Other drugs, acting through different mechanisms of action, are now in clinical development (e.g. NGR-TNF in phase II/III studies) and others are about to enter clinical investigation (e.g. JO-1).

Ethanol, Its Active Metabolites, and Their Mechanisms of Action: Neurophysiological and Behavioral Effects

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455164 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-516-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Ethanol, the main psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, represents a paradigmatic example of a research subject intrinsically able to perpetually self-generate interdisciplinary cutting-edge investigations.This eBook was inspired by the aim of providing an up-to-date characterization of the diverse effects of ethanol, of the possible mechanisms of action on different intracellular systems as well as of the hypothesized actions of ethanol and/or its metabolites on various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators.Indeed, the eBook provides a factual example of an excellent synthesis on the complex relationship between ethanol and its main biologically active metabolites (Chapter 1), on the behavioral and molecular consequences of early exposure to them (Chapter 2), on the recent proposals, advanced by the preclinical research, for new therapeutic approaches to distinct aspects of alcoholism (Chapter 3) and on the most recent and original preclinical evidence of the interactions between ethanol and/or its metabolites and the dopaminergic, adenosinergic and endocannabinoidergic systems (Chapter 4).Overall we believe that this eBook accomplishes its main goals of widening the perspective on this research subject and offering the readership a newer and, simultaneously, up-to-date and comprehensive scenery on ethanol’s and ethanol's active metabolites neurophysiological and behavioral effects.

Policy-Oriented Technology Assessment Across Europe

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ISBN: 9781137561725 Year: Pages: 171 DOI: 10.1057/9781137561725 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Political Science --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-16 18:08:57
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This book is open access under a CC-BY license. Policy-making to address grand challenges faces greater complexity than any previous project of modernization. Future scenarios are haunted by uncertainty and there is real ambivalence as to the values that policy should strive for. In this situation decision-makers look to research and innovation to provide answers and solutions. But neither can the great transitions ahead be planned by science, nor will conventional methods of innovation bring such transitions about. A turn to interactive governance is therefore underway with policy-makers and citizens becoming increasingly involved in processes of deliberating futures. Technology Assessment (TA) is the art of structuring such processes. TA goes beyond traditional expert policy analysis by systematically combining a multi-disciplinary evidence base with participatory approaches to policy deliberation. TA thus seeks to act as a hub for serious and transparent dialogue between policy, industry, science, and society about the challenges ahead and the available options for overcoming them responsibly. This volume offers an up-to-date account of the expansion of technology assessment capacities across new European member states. The contributions of this volume are written by leading European researchers and practitioners in technology assessment (TA) and are based on the PACITA (Parliaments and Civil Society in Technology Assessment) project.

Instruktionen und andere normative Quellen zur Herrschaftsverwaltung auf den Liechtensteinischen Herrschaften Feldsberg und Wilfersdorf in Niederösterreich (1600-1815)

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ISBN: 9783205203544 Year: Pages: 882 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_615396 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 334
Added to DOAB on : 2016-09-19 11:01:26
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This edition collects instructions, police ordinances, decrees and related normative sources concerning the economic activities of landlords and subjects of the estates Feldsberg (today Valtice in the Czech Republic) and Wilfersdorf in the north-eastern corner of Lower Austria from the end of the sixteenth century up to 1815. All this sources illustrate the social, cultural and economic microcosm created and imagined by the authorities and show how the landlords tried to dominate and control their subjects with the help of their administrative apparatus and through regulations.

Practical Economics: Economic Transformation and Government Reform in Georgia 2004–2012

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ISBN: 9783319457680 9783319457697 Year: Pages: 213 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-45769-7 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-10 17:05:55
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In this book, Nika Gilauri reveals his formulas for government reform and economic recovery, including how to fight against corruption, reform fiscal policy and tax systems, privatize state-owned enterprises, build a welfare system for those most in need, create a competitive education and healthcare system, and streamline procurement. All formulas are corroborated by practical experience and empirical evidence gathered during Mr Gilauri's term as a cabinet member (2004-2009) and prime minister (2009-2012) of Georgia, and provide an in-depth view of what worked in the case of Georgia since 2003, and how lessons learned could be applied in other parts of the world.

Chapter: '‘Anachronistic As Colonial Remnants May Be…’ Locating the Rights of the Chagos Islanders As a Case Study of the Operation of Human Rights Law in Colonial Territories' from book: Fifty Years of the British Indian Ocean Territory: Legal Perspectives (Book chapter)

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Book Series: The World of Small States ISBN: 9783319785400 9783319785417 Year: Pages: 39 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-78541-7_8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: European Research Council
Subject: History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-01 17:23:32
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In the colonial era, it was commonplace for treaties binding on the metropolitan state to be applicable in that state’s colonies if the state made a declaration to this effect, via the operation of a ‘colonial clause’ in the treaty. This reflects concepts of trusteeship-over-people and civilizational difference which legitimized colonial rule in general and the role of the colonial authority in determining what standards were appropriate in colonial territories in particular. The colonial-clause model for applicability was adopted in the European Convention on Human Rights of 1950 and certain of its Protocols, but not other subsequent human rights treaties. The standard jurisprudential view is that in the absence of a colonial clause declaration, the Convention cannot be applicable on the alternative basis on which it operates in a state’s territory and to its extraterritorial activities. Such a declaration of applicability was not made in relation to the Chagos Islands, a UK colony, where human rights questions have been raised by the forced displacement by the UK of the indigenous population between 1968 and 1973, the continued denial of this people of their right to return, and more recent allegations concerning the US military base on one of the islands, Diego Garcia. However, in a 2012 decision, the European Court of Human Rights suggested that the standard position on the exclusive determinacy of declarations under the colonial clause may no longer be sustainable. The present piece takes this suggestion and explores its potential, taking into account the significance of the self-determination entitlement in having delegitimized the underlying concepts of trusteeship and civilizational difference on which the standard position is based.

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