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Biology of Brain Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453801 Year: Pages: 586 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-380-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Physiology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Brain disorders, including neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions, represent a challenge for public health systems and society at large. The limited knowledge of their biology hampers the development of diagnostic tools and effective therapeutics. A clear understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the onset and progression of brain disorders is required in order to identify new avenues for therapeutic intervention.Overlapping genetic risk factors across different brain disorders suggest common linkages and pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie brain disorders. Methodological and technological advances are leading to new insights that go beyond traditional hypotheses. Taking account of underlying molecular, cellular and systems biology underlying brain function will play an important role in the classification of brain disorders in future.In this Research Topic, the latest advances in our understanding of biological mechanisms across different brain disorders are presented. The areas covered include developments in neurogenetics, epigenetics, plasticity, glial cell biology, neuroimmune interactions and new technologies associated with the study of brain function. Examples of how understanding of biological mechanisms are translating into research strategies that aim to advance diagnoses and treatment of brain disorders are discussed.

Perception and Cognition: Interactions in the Ageing Brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199372 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-937-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Healthy ageing can lead to declines in both perceptual and cognitive functions. Impaired perception, such as that resulting from hearing loss or reduced visual or tactile resolution, increases demands on ‘higher-level’ cognitive functions to cope or compensate. It is possible, for example, to use focused attention to overcome perceptual limitations. Unfortunately, cognitive functions also decline in old age. This can mean that perceptual impairments are exacerbated by cognitive decline, and vice versa, but also means that interventions aimed at one type of decline can lead to improvements in the other. Just as improved cognition can ameliorate perceptual deficits, improving the stimulus can help offset cognitive deficits. For example, making directions and routes easy to follow can help compensate for declines in navigation abilities. In this Topic, we bring together papers from both auditory and visual researchers that address the interaction between perception and cognition in the ageing brain. Many of the studies demonstrate that a broadening of representations or increased reliance on gist underlie perceptual and cognitive age-related declines. There is also clear evidence that impaired perception is associated with poor cognition although, encouragingly, it can also be seen that good perception is associated with better cognition. Compensatory cognitive strategies were less successful in improving perception than might be expected. We also present papers which highlight important methodological considerations that are required when studying the older brain.

Keywords

older --- Elderly --- visual --- auditory --- Ageing --- Cognition --- cross-modal --- Compensation --- training

Role of Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle Development, Regeneration, Repair, Aging and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198665 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-866-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Adult stem cells are responsible for tissue regeneration and repair throughout life. Their quiescence or activation are tightly regulated by common signalling pathways that often recapitulate those happening during embryonic development, and thus it is important to understand their regulation not only in postnatal life, but also during foetal development. In this regard, skeletal muscle is an interesting tissue since it accounts for a large percentage of body mass (about 40%), it is highly amenable to intervention through exercise and it is also key in metabolic and physiological changes underlying frailty susceptibility in the elderly. While muscle-resident satellite cells are responsible for all myogenic activity in physiological conditions and become senescent in old age, other progenitor cells such as mesoangioblasts do seem to contribute to muscle regeneration and repair after tissue damage. Similarly, fibro-adipogenic precursor cells seem to be key in the aberrant response that fills up the space left from atrophied muscle mass and which ends up with a dysfunctional muscle having vast areas of fatty infiltration and fibrosis. The complex interplay between these stem/progenitor cell types and their niches in normal and pathological conditions throughout life are the subjects of intense investigation. This eBook highlights recent developments on the role of stem cells in skeletal muscle function, both in prenatal and postnatal life, and their regulation by transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, it includes articles on interventions associated with exercise, pathological changes in neuromuscular diseases, and stem cell aging.

Embodied Cognition over the Lifespan and in Applied Settings

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454921 Year: Pages: 293 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-492-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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While Embodied Cognition has now been accepted as mainstream in Cognitive Science, the study of its potential contribution to understding child developemnt and ageing, as well as its potential applications, is still in its infancy. This collection of articles explores the contribution of Embodied Cognition to studying the lifespan and potential applied fields. The contributions are theoretical and empirical and offer an important framework for future research and its applications.

Visual perception and visual cognition in healthy and pathological ageing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192533 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-253-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Our understanding of visual perception and visual cognition has advanced considerably over the last decades. The effects of ageing on visual perception and visual cognition are less well understood. This Research Topic features state-of-the-art approaches to determining the effects of ageing on visual perception, visual attention, visual memory and visually guided behaviour. Studies using methods that incorporate psychophysics, eye movements, electrophysiology, structural and functional neuroimaging, as well as computational modelling are included. In addition to the focus on how ageing effects normal vision, the topic also includes studies on the effects of pathological ageing in the retina (e.g., age-related macular degeneration) and the brain (e.g., neurodegenerative disorders) on vision and visual cognition.

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