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Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus as a Case Study: Using a Precautionary Risk Management Approach for Emerging Blood-Borne Pathogens in Canada (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9809533075827 Year: DOI: 10.5772/38572 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 228064
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:58
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In October 2009 it was reported that 68 of 101 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in the United States, when tested, were infected with a novel gamma retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) (Lombardi et al., 2009). XMRV is a recently discovered human gammaretrovirus first described in prostate cancers that shares significant homology with murine leukemia virus (MLV) (Ursiman et al., 2006). It is known that XMRV can cause leukemias and sarcomas in several rodent, feline, and primate species but has not been shown to cause disease in humans. XMRV was detectable in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma of individuals diagnosed with CFS (Lombardi et al., 2009). After this report was published there was a great deal of uncertainty surrounding this emergent virus and its involvement in the etiology of CFS. The uncertainty was, in part, due to CFS being a complex, poorly understood multi-system disorder with different disease criteria used for its diagnosis. CFS, also known as Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown origin that is estimated to affect 17 million people worldwide. The initial report connecting XMRV to prostate cancers and CFS garnered significant media and scientific interest since it provided a potential Susie ElSaadany2**, Tamer Oraby1 * Daniel Krewski1, 4 and Peter R. Ganz5 1McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 2Blood Safety Surveillance and Health Care Acquired Infections Division, Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 3Aspinall and Associates, Cleveland House, High Street, and Earth Sciences, Bristol University, Bristol, United Kingdom 4Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 5Health Canada, Director’s Office, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ** Corresponding Author , Marian Laderoute2 , Jun Wu2 , Willy Aspinall3 , www.intechopen.com 32 The Continuum of Health Risk Assessments explanation for the disease but also an avenue for possible therapeutic treatments since XMRV is known to be susceptible to some anti-retroviral drugs (Cohen, 2011).

Keywords

case study --- virus

Kasus im Korpus. Zu Struktur und Geographie oberdeutscher Kasusmorphologie

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Book Series: Empirische Linguistik / Empirical Linguistics ISSN: 21988676 ISBN: 9783110681703 Year: Volume: 15 Pages: 265,00 DOI: 10.1515/9783110681703 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-11-12 19:29:15
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Die Studie stellt einen neuen methodischen Ansatz zur korpusbasierten Analyse von Kasusmarkierung in gesprochener Sprache vor und liefert erstmals quantitativ fundierte Erkenntnisse zum Aufbau eines dialektalen Kasussystems und seiner Interaktion mit morphosyntaktischen und semantischen Kategorien sowie zur morphologischen Raumgliederung. Dabei verknüpft sie morphologisch-theoretische mit typologischen und dialektgeographischen Fragestellungen.

A typology of marked-S languages

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Book Series: Studies in Diversity Linguistics ISBN: 9783944675190 Year: Pages: 281 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_533871 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2014-09-24 15:01:43
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Case-systems all over the world exhibit striking similarities. In most lan- guages intransitive subjects (S) receives less overt marking than one of the two transitive arguments (agent-like A or patient-like P); the other one of these two arguments is usually encoded by the same form as S. In some languages the amount of overt marking is identical between S, A, and P. But hardly ever does the S argument receive more overt marking than A or P. Yet there are some languages that do not follow this general pattern. This book is about those languages that behave differently, the marked-S languages. Marked-S languages are well-known to be found in East Africa, where they occur in two different language families, Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Sa- haran. They can also be found in North-Western America and the Pacific region. This book is the first investigation of marked S-languages that treats the phenomenon on a global scale. The study examines the functional distribution of the two main case- forms, the form used for S (S-case) and the case-form of the transitive ar- gument which receives less marking (the zero-case). It offers a very fine- grained perspective considering a wide range of constructions. The con- texts in which the case-marking patterns are investigated include nom- inal, existential and locational predication, subjects in special discourse function (e. g. focused constituents), subjects of passives and dependent clauses, as well as the forms used for addressing someone (vocative form) and for using a noun in isolation (citation form). Apart from the functional distribution of case forms, the formal means of marking are also considered. The main focus is on the synchronic de- scription and comparison of marked-S languages, but historical explana- tions for the unusual case-marking pattern are also discussed.

The evolution of case grammar

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Book Series: Computational Models of Language Evolution ISBN: 9783946234333 9783944675848 9783944675855 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_611694 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Computer Science --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-07-13 11:01:14
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"There are few linguistic phenomena that have seduced linguists so skillfully as grammatical case has done. Ever since Panini (4th Century BC), case has claimed a central role in linguistic theory and continues to do so today. However, despite centuries worth of research, case has yet to reveal its most important secrets. This book offers breakthrough explanations for the understanding of case through agent-based experiments in cultural language evolution. The experiments demonstrate that case systems may emerge because they have a selective advantage for communication: they reduce the cognitive effort that listeners need for semantic interpretation, while at the same time limiting the cognitive resources required for doing so."

New Models of Care for Patients with Severe Mental Illness - Bridging In- and Outpatients

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454365 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-436-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Over the past years, psychiatric services have been continuously faced with the challenge of providing comprehensive care to people suffering from severe mental illnesses. Legal and conceptual advances like the UN convention on the rights of persons with disabilities or the concept of recovery have rendered this challenge more actual and urgent than ever. However, psychiatric institutions often show only low levels of cooperation and integration between their different services. Hence, they need to develop new ways of bridging all sectors of care in order to help people most in need on their way to recovery and full inclusion in society.In this research topic, European researchers and clinicians present new ways of dealing with this essential issue by developing strategies and interventions on both institutional and non-institutional levels. The nine contributions of this ebook thus reflect actual clinical and conceptual considerations. They all aim at improving quality of care and providing adequate support to people suffering from severe mental illness.

Transitions in Segmented Labor Markets

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Book Series: Goettinger Studien zur Entwicklungsoekonomik / Goettingen Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9783631531624 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3726/b13892 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:26
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When labor market economists started to work on segmented labor markets, they classified informal employment as a transitory state. At the end of the 20th century, informal employment still persists governments’ attempts to eradicate it and represents a growing labor market segment not only in developing countries but worldwide. It is evident that informal employment will not disappear but has to be taken into account when designing labor market policies. This study investigates the role of informal dependent employment on the allocation of workers into formal employment in general and on the choice of job search channels in particular. The empirical analysis is based on Cox proportional hazard models and multinomial logistic regression, using Brazilian labor market panel data.

Pro-ecological Restructuring of Companies

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ISBN: 9781911529491 9781911529484 9781911529507 9781911529514 Year: Pages: 225 DOI: 10.5334/bbk Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press
Subject: Business and Management --- Environmental Sciences --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-14 11:21:04
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"This book presents a practical approach to pro-environmental challenges faced by companies in the process of restructuring. It contains a broad variety of case studies from different economic sectors, and small and large businesses, in four European countries: Ukraine, Romania, Germany and Poland. The studies are the results of surveys of companies that had either already restructured or were planning to, and reveal both the weaknesses and strengths in these practices. The book is divided into three parts: explorations of how political and legal factors are embedded in a company’s strategy and how they influence the company’s behaviour; analyses of companies’ activities on matching restructuring with ecology; and approaches to ecoinnovations within the companies. The case studies throughout the book show that the restructuring of a company is an opportunity for the implementation of proecological action and “green” business models. The authors trust that the experiences and good practices of others will prove valuable both for future businessmen (i.e. students), but also for academics and representatives of local government, central environmental agencies, owners and managers of enterprises to be restructured."

Econometric Analysis in Poverty Research

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Book Series: Goettinger Studien zur Entwicklungsoekonomik / Goettingen Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9783631597101 Year: Pages: 147 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:12
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Poverty and inequality persist in many regions of the developing world. This may be due mainly to an ineffective targeting of policies to address the root causes of poverty. Sustainable policy interventions are in need of reliable concepts of poverty and of a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanism that lead to such deprivation. The three essays of this book add to the debate concerning appropriate statistical tools in empirical development economics. The work proposes specific methodologies to analyze the extent of poverty and its underlying factors based on recent household surveys. The first chapter deals with a concept of poverty comparisons when panel data is at hand. The second chapter studies the determinants of spatial inequality using multilevel modelling. The third chapter analyzes the relation between a child’s nutritional status and its survival probability.

Deep and Superficial Cases in Russian

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Book Series: Specimina philologiae Slavicae ISBN: 9783631740835 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3726/b12915 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:49
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The purpose of the present study is to search for some theoretically satisfying way of describing the case system of Russian. The fundamental justification of this study that the problem of superficial cases, in spite of being one of the most researched areas of language, has not been given a satisfactory solution - so much so that even the problem of what to look for in an analysis of cases is completely open.

The Impact of Formal and Informal Institutions on Economic Growth

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Book Series: Hohenheimer volkswirtschaftliche Schriften ISBN: 9783631616161 Year: Pages: 250 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:00
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Regarding the Arab region, GDP per capita virtually stagnated for more than 20 years from 1980. During the same period, GDP per capita in the world’s highly industrialized states further increased and the gap between the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the highly developed countries widened. However, the differences between Arab countries and the Western states exist not only economically. The countries also differ regarding their political, legal, and social systems. This work explains the differences in development on the basis of institutional economics. In addition to a general theoretical part, an empirical analysis demonstrates the effects of institutions on income, and a historical case study explains the divergent development paths of the Arab region and selected advanced economies.

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