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Frontiers of Sulfur Metabolism in Plant Growth, Development, and Stress Response

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199037 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-903-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Growing plants have a constitutive demand for sulfur to synthesize proteins, sulfolipids and other essential sulfur containing molecules for growth and development. The uptake and subsequent distribution of sulfate is regulated in response to demand and environmental cues. The importance of sulfate for plant growth and vigor and hence crop yield and nutritional quality for human and animal diets has been clearly recognized. The acquisition of sulfur by plants, however, has become an increasingly important concern for the agriculture due to the decreasing S-emissions from industrial sources and the consequent limitation of inputs from atmospheric deposition. Molecular characterization involving transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in Arabidopsis thaliana as well as in major crops revealed that sulfate uptake, distribution and assimilation are finely regulated depending on sulfur status and demand, and that these regulatory networks are integrated with cell cycle, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, hormonal signaling, uptake and assimilation of other nutrients, etc., to enable plant growth, development, and reproduction even under different biotic and abiotic stresses. This knowledge can be used to underpin approaches to enhance plant growth and nutritional quality of major food crops around the world. Although considerable progress has been made regarding the central role of sulfur metabolism in plant growth, development and stress response, several frontiers need to be explored to reveal the mechanisms of the cross-talk between sulfur metabolism and these processes. In this research topic the knowledge on plant sulfur metabolism is reviewed and updated. Focus is put not only on molecular mechanisms of control of sulfur metabolism but also on its integration with other vital metabolic events. The topic covers 4 major areas of sulfur research: sulfate uptake, assimilation and metabolism, regulation, and role in stress response. We hope that the topic will promote interaction between researchers with different expertise and thus contribute to a more integrative approach to study sulfur metabolism in plants.

The Importance of Iron in Pathophysiologic Conditions

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195244 Year: Pages: 479 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-524-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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The iron element (Fe) is strictly required for the survival of most forms of life, including bacteria, plants and humans. Fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms for Fe absorption, mobilization and recycling operate to maintain Fe homeostasis, the disruption of which leads to Fe overload or Fe depletion. Whereas the deleterious effect of Fe deficiency relies on reduced oxygen transport and diminished activity of Fe-dependent enzymes, the cytotoxicity induced by Fe overload is due to the ability of this metal to act as a pro-oxidant and catalyze the formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton chemistry. This results in unfettered oxidative stress generation that, by inducing protein, lipid and DNA oxidation, leads to Fe-mediated programmed cell death and organ dysfunction. Major and systemic Fe overloads occurring in hemochromatosis and Fe-loading anemias have been extensively studied. However, localized tissue Fe overload was recently associated to a variety of pathologies, such as infection, inflammation, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. In keeping with the existence of cross-regulatory interactions between Fe homeostasis and the pathophysiology of these diseases, further investigations on the mechanisms that provide cellular and systemic adaptation to tissue Fe overload are instrumental for future therapeutic approaches. Thus, we encourage our colleagues to submit original research papers, reviews, perspectives, methods and technology reports to contribute their findings to a current state of the art on a comprehensive overview of the importance of iron metabolism in pathophysiologic conditions.

Vitamin D and Human Health

ISBN: 9783038420569 9783038420576 Year: Pages: 476 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 08:50:54
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Vitamin D research has expanded greatly over the last 10 years, with a more than two-fold increase in annual publications listed in Pubmed with the key word ‘vitamin D’ from 1675 in 2005 to 3953 in 2014. Part of this increase is due to research showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a wide range of diseases and health outcomes. Until the 1980s, the primary focus of vitamin D research (in combination with calcium supplementation) was on bone diseases. Since then, observational studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with increased risk of many diseases: both acute and chronic. This book contains publications on several of these disease groups linked to vitamin D deficiency.

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