Search results: Found 53

Listing 1 - 10 of 53 << page
of 6
>>
Sort by
Vibrio ecology, pathogenesis and evolution

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192892 Year: Pages: 239 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-289-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Vibrios are Gram-negative bacilli that occur naturally in marine, estuarine, and freshwater systems. Some species include human and animal pathogens capable of causing gastroenteritis, wound infections, cholera, and fatal septicemia. Over the past decades, cutting edge research on Vibrio genomics has promoted a tremendous advance in our knowledge of these pathogens. Significant developments include the discovery of emerging epidemic clones, tracking the spread of new strain variants, and an intensified appreciation of the role of mobile genetic elements in antibiotic resistance spread as well as pathogenesis. Furthermore, improved understanding of the interaction of Vibrios with a variety of living organisms in the aquatic environment has documented the significant role of environmental reservoirs in their seasonal cycle favoring persistence of the pathogen during inter-epidemic periods and enhancing disease transmission. This Research Topic is dedicated to our current understanding in these areas and will bring together leading experts in the field to provide a deep overview of Vibrios ecology and evolution, and will suggest the pathway of future research in this field.

Keywords

Vibrio --- Ecology --- Genome --- evolution --- Pathogenesis

Papers of the Conference on Genetics of Aging and Longevity 2012

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193530 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-353-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The 2nd International Conference "Genetics of aging and longevity" took place 22-25 April, 2012 in the main building of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. Top gerontologists and geneticists from 25 countries around the world discussed the current problems in many areas related to the genetics of longevity and mechanisms of aging. This Research Topic is aimed to provide a collection of articles based on the talks, reports and experimental outcomes related to the topics of the conference: "Epigenetic Changes Associated with Longevity", "Hormones and Aging", "Proximal and Cellular Mechanisms of Aging", "Nutrient Signaling, Stress Resistance and Longevity", "Identifying Longevity Genes by Mutational, QTL and Association Mapping", "Fundamental Biological Processes Central to Aging", "Interventions to Extend Lifespan and Promote Healthy Aging", "Longevity: Meta-Analysis and Informatics Approaches". Participants of the Conference submitted 20 papers belonging to Original Research Papers, Review Articles (Including Mini Reviews), Opinion and Perspective Papers. All of the submitted manuscripts were peer-reviewed by excellent Frontiers Review Editors and prepared for publication by highly efficient Frontiers team, and it is a pleasure to thank them all for their work and dedication.

Origin of Tropical Diversity: From Clades to Communities

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450503 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-050-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Ecology --- Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In this volume we aimed to assess progress in determining the processes by which current patterns of tropical biodiversity were established and are maintained. Tropical regions are highly species-rich and we present studies that have improved our understanding of the generation of that diversity at local, regional and global scales. We demonstrate how diverse fields from molecular phylogenetics, phylogeography, palaeontology and palaeoecology continue to improve our understanding of the natural history of the tropics.

Keywords

Tropics --- evolution --- clades --- communities --- Biodiversity

Diversity and Evolution of Butterfly Wing Patterns: An Integrative Approach

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789811049552 9789811049569 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4956-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 11:57:27
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book facilitates an integrative understanding of the development, genetics and evolution of butterfly wing patterns. To develop a deep and realistic understanding of the diversity and evolution of butterfly wing patterns, it is essential and necessary to approach the problem from various kinds of key research fields such as “evo-devo,” “eco-devo,” ”developmental genetics,” “ecology and adaptation,” “food plants,” and “theoretical modeling.”The past decade-and-a-half has seen a veritable revolution in our understanding of the development, genetics and evolution of butterfly wing patterns. In addition, studies of how environmental and climatic factors affect the expression of color patterns has led to increasingly deeper understanding of the pervasiveness and underlying mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. In recognition of the great progress in research on the biology, an international meeting titled “Integrative Approach to Understanding the Diversity of ButterflyWing Patterns (IABP-2016)” was held at Chubu University, Japan in August 2016. This book consists of selected contributions from the meeting. Authors include main active researchers of new findings of corresponding genes as well as world leaders in both experimental and theoretical approaches to wing color patterns.The book provides excellent case studies for graduate and undergraduate classes in evolution, genetics/genomics, developmental biology, ecology, biochemistry, and also theoretical biology, opening the door to a new era in the integrative approach to the analysis of biological problems.

Keywords

nymphalid --- ecology --- evolution --- genetics --- mimicry

Energy metabolism and behavior in the corticotropin-releasing factor family of peptides

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195374 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-537-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Since Hans Selye's seminal work in the 1930s, there have been numerous advances with respect to our understanding of how the nervous and endocrine systems interact to help animals cope with stressors and how chronic stress may adversely impact health. Our modern understanding of stress essentially began in 1954 with the race to discover the hypothalamic releasing factor controlling ACTH secretion and mediating the endocrine response to stressors. Since the isolation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in 1981, interest in CRF has focused not only on its hypophysiotropic function, but also its much broader role in coordinating many of the endocrine, behavioral and autonomic nervous system changes that occur during stress. The goal of this Research Topic is to solicit reviews and general research articles highlighting new research into stress and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the following areas: HPA axis interaction with energy regulating mechanisms during stress; and new studies on the role of CRF and urocortin and urocortins 2 and 3 in behavioral adaptation to stressors.

How Can Development and Plasticity Contribute to Understanding Evolution of the Human Brain?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198894 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-889-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Humans usually attribute themselves the prerogative of being the pinnacle of evolution. They have large brains with many billion neurons and glial cells, trillions of synapses and besides all, a plastic hardware that may change either subtly or strongly in response to the external environment and internal, mental commands. With this hypercomplex apparatus, they are capable of very sophisticated inward computations and outward behaviors that include self-recognition, metacognition, different forms of language expression and reception, prediction of future events, planning and performing long streams of motor acts, subtle emotional feelings, and many other surprising, almost unbelievable properties. The main challenge for research is: how do we explain this gigantic achievement of evolution? Is it a direct consequence of having acquired a brain larger than our primate ancestors, with huge numbers of computational units? Would it be determined by a particular way these units came to relate to each other, building up logic circuits of powerful capacities? What along development has “made the difference” for the construction of such a complex brain machine? How much of this complexity is innate, how much is sculpted by influence of the external world, by social interaction with our human fellows, and by the history of our own mental trajectory along life? Many specific questions can be asked (albeit not necessarily answered so far) to this purpose: (1) which genomic characteristics make us unique among primates? (2) which of developmental events during and beyond embryogenesis define our brain – prolonged neurogenesis? permanent circuit (re)formation? dynamic synaptogenesis? regressive sculpting of the hardware? all of them? (3) is there anything special about plasticity of the human brain that allows us to build the exquisite individual variability characteristic of our brains? Neuroscience is in need of a synthesis. Perhaps associating concepts derived from developmental neurobiology with evolutionary morphology and physiology, together with those that photograph the human brain in action under influence of the external world, would turn on a light at the end of the tunnel, and we would be able to understand what humans do have that is special – if anything – to explain our success in the Earth.

Adaptive Function and Brain Evolution

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193066 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-306-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The brain of each animal shows specific traits that reflect its phylogenetic history and its particular lifestyle. Therefore, comparing brains is not just a mere intellectual exercise, but it helps understanding how the brain allows adaptive behavioural strategies to face an ever-changing world and how this complex organ has evolved during phylogeny, giving rise to complex mental processes in humans and other animals. These questions attracted scientists since the times of Santiago Ramon y Cajal one of the founders of comparative neurobiology. In the last decade, this discipline has undergone a true revolution due to the analysis of expression patterns of morphogenetic genes in embryos of different animals. The papers of this e-book are good examples of modern comparative neurobiology, which mainly focuses on the following four Grand Questions: a) How are different brains built during ontogeny?b) What is the anatomical organization of mature brains and how can they be compared?c) How do brains work to accomplish their function of ensuring survival and, ultimately, reproductive success?d) How have brains evolved during phylogeny? The title of this e-book, Adaptive Function and Brain Evolution, stresses the importance of comparative studies to understand brain function and, the reverse, of considering brain function to properly understand brain evolution. These issues should be taken into account when using animals in the research of mental function and dysfunction, and are fundamental to understand the origins of the human mind.

Roots of language

Author:
Book Series: Classics in Linguistics ISBN: 9783946234098 9783946234104 Year: Pages: 284 + xiii DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_603354 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-18 12:30:07
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Roots of language was originally published in 1981 by Karoma Press (Ann Arbor). It was the first work to systematically develop a theory first suggested by Coelho in the late nineteenth century: that the creation of creole languages somehow reflected universal properties of language. The book also proposed that the same set of properties would be found to emerge in normal first-language acquisition and must have emerged in the original evolution of language. These proposals, some of which were elaborated in an article in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (1984), were immediately controversial and gave rise to a great deal of subsequent research in creoles, much of it aimed at rebutting the theory. The book also served to legitimize and stimulate research in language evolution, a topic regarded as off-limits by linguists for over a century. The present edition contains a foreword by the author bringing the theory up to date; a fuller exposition of many of its aspects can be found in the author’s most recent work, More than nature needs (Harvard University Press, 2014).

Datenbankgestuetzte Rechnungslegungspublizitaet

Author:
Book Series: Bochumer Beitraege zur Unternehmensfuehrung ISBN: 9783631367278 Year: Pages: 314 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Computer Science --- Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:20
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Rechnungslegung und Publizität stehen vor neuen Herausforderungen. Vor allem den Kapitalmarkt sollen sie mit entscheidungsrelevanten Informationen versorgen.
In dieser Arbeit wird untersucht, inwiefern die bestehenden Strukturen dieser Aufgabe gerecht werden. Basierend auf der Unmöglichkeit, eine perfekte Rechnungslegungspublizität theoretisch abzuleiten, werden grundlegende Änderungen in dem Prozeß der Datengewinnung und Präsentation vorgeschlagen, welche die Evolution der Rechnungslegung durch konkurrierende Konzepte erleichtern sollen.
Die Modifikationen führen zur Verlagerung weg von der monodimensionalen, zeitgebundenen Berichtspublizität hin zu einer mehrdimensionalen, zeitkontinuierlichen Datenbankpublizität. Hierfür wird eine exemplarische Client-Server-Umsetzung beschrieben.

Is the Language Faculty Non Linguistic?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199143 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-914-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

A line of research in cognitive science over several decades has been dedicated to finding an innate, language-specific cognitive system, a faculty which allows human infants to acquire languages natively without formal instruction and within short periods of time. In recent years, this search has attracted significant controversy in cognitive science generally, and in the language sciences specifically. Some maintain that the search has had meaningful results, though there are different views as to what the findings are: ranging from the view that there is a rich and rather specific set of principles, to the idea that the contents of the language faculty are - while specifiable - in fact extremely minimal. But other researchers rigorously oppose the continuation of this search, arguing that decades of effort have turned up nothing. The fact remains that the proposal of a language-specific faculty was made for a good reason, namely as an attempt to solve the vexing puzzle of language in our species. Much work has been developing to address this, and specifically, to look for ways to characterize the language faculty as an emergent phenomenon; i.e., not as a dedicated, language-specific system, but as the emergent outcome of a set of uniquely human but not specifically linguistic factors, in combination. A number of theoretical and empirical approaches are being developed in order to account for the great puzzles of language - language processing, language usage, language acquisition, the nature of grammar, and language change and diversification. This research topic aims at reviewing and exploring these recent developments and establishing bridges between these young frameworks, as well as with the traditions that have come before. The goal of this Research Topic is to focus on current developments in what many regard as a paradigm shift in the language sciences. In this Research Topic, we want to ask: If current explicit proposals for an innate, dedicated faculty for language are not supported by data or arguments, how can we solve the problems that UG was proposed to solve? Is it possible to solve the puzzles of language in our species with an appeal to causes that are not specifically linguistic?

Listing 1 - 10 of 53 << page
of 6
>>
Sort by