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Geothermal Energy: Delivering on the Global Potential

ISBN: 9783038421337 9783038421344 Year: Pages: 430 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 14:48:30
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After decades of being largely the preserve of countries in volcanic regions, the use of geothermal energy—for both heat and power applications—is now expanding worldwide. This reflects its excellent low-carbon credentials and its ability to offer baseload and dispatchable output - rare amongst the mainstream renewables. Yet uptake of geothermal still lags behind that of solar and wind, principally because of (i) uncertainties over resource availability in poorly-explored reservoirs and (ii) the concentration of full-lifetime costs into early-stage capital expenditure (capex). Recent advances in reservoir characterization techniques are beginning to narrow the bounds of exploration uncertainty, both by improving estimates of reservoir geometry and properties, and by providing pre-drilling estimates of temperature at depth. Advances in drilling technologies and management have potential to significantly lower initial capex, while operating expenditure is being further reduced by more effective reservoir management — supported by robust mathematical models — and increasingly efficient energy conversion systems (flash, binary and combined-heat-and-power). Advances in characterization and modelling are also improving management of shallow low-enthalpy resources that can only be exploited using heat-pump technology. Taken together with increased public appreciation of the benefits of geothermal, the technology is finally ready to take its place as a mainstream renewable technology, This book draws together some of the latest developments in concepts and technology that are enabling the growing realisation of the global potential of geothermal energy in all its manifestations.After decades of being largely the preserve of countries in volcanic regions, the use of geothermal energy—for both heat and power applications—is now expanding worldwide. This reflects its excellent low-carbon credentials and its ability to offer baseload and dispatchable output - rare amongst the mainstream renewables. Yet uptake of geothermal still lags behind that of solar and wind, principally because of (i) uncertainties over resource availability in poorly-explored reservoirs and (ii) the concentration of full-lifetime costs into early-stage capital expenditure (capex). Recent advances in reservoir characterization techniques are beginning to narrow the bounds of exploration uncertainty, both by improving estimates of reservoir geometry and properties, and by providing pre-drilling estimates of temperature at depth. Advances in drilling technologies and management have potential to significantly lower initial capex, while operating expenditure is being further reduced by more effective reservoir management — supported by robust mathematical models — and increasingly efficient energy conversion systems (flash, binary and combined-heat-and-power). Advances in characterization and modelling are also improving management of shallow low-enthalpy resources that can only be exploited using heat-pump technology. Taken together with increased public appreciation of the benefits of geothermal, the technology is finally ready to take its place as a mainstream renewable technology.

Die Uebertragbarkeit von Werbekonzeptionen auf internationale Maerkte

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Book Series: Schriften zu Marketing und Management ISBN: 9783820469868 Year: Pages: 321 DOI: 10.3726/b13596 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Business and Management --- Information theory
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:41
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Die Diskussion, ob Werbekonzeptionen international tätiger Unternehmen international vereinheitlicht werden können (Standardisierung) oder länderspezifisch entwickelt werden müssen (Differenzierung), wird stark kontrovers geführt. Die vorliegende Arbeit strukturiert und analysiert die Bedingungen, unter denen eine Standardisierung internationaler Werbekonzeptionen möglich erscheint. Unter Berücksichtigung der Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung bei 32 international tätigen Werbeagenturen werden alternative Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten internationaler Werbestrategien abgeleitet.

Children's Exploration and Cultural Formation

Authors: ---
Book Series: International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education and Development ISBN: 9783030362713 Year: Pages: 187 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-36271-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Education --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-17 00:00:10
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This open access book examines the educational conditions that support cultures of exploration in kindergartens. It conceptualises cultures of exploration, whether those cultures are created through children’s own engagement or are demanded of them through undertaking specific tasks within different institutional settings. It shows how the conditions for children’s exploration form a web of activities in different settings with social relationships, local landscapes and artefacts. The book builds on the understanding of cultural traditions as deeply implicated in the developmental processes, meaning that local considerations must be reflected in education for sustainable futures. Therefore the book examines and conceptualises exploration and cultural formation through locally situated cases and navigates toward global educational concepts. The book provides different windows into how children may explore in everyday practice settings in kindergarten, and contributes to a loci-based, ecological, integral knowledge relevant for early childhood education.

China's Energy Revolution in the Context of the Global Energy Transition

Book Series: Advances in Oil and Gas Exploration & Production ISBN: 9783030401542 Year: Pages: 700 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-40154-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Technology --- Agriculture (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-16 23:59:04
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This open access book is an encyclopaedic analysis of the current and future energy system of the world’s most populous country and second biggest economy. What happens in China impacts the planet. In the past 40 years China has achieved one of the most remarkable economic growth rates in history. Its GDP has risen by a factor of 65, enabling 850,000 people to rise out of poverty. Growth on this scale comes with consequences. China is the world’s biggest consumer of primary energy and the world’s biggest emitter of CO2 emissions. Creating a prosperous and harmonious society that delivers economic growth and a high quality of life for all will require radical change in the energy sector, and a rewiring of the economy more widely. In China’s Energy Revolution in the Context of the Global Energy Transition, a team of researchers from the Development Research Center of the State Council of China and Shell International examine how China can revolutionise its supply and use of energy. They examine the entire energy system: coal, oil, gas, nuclear, renewables and new energies in production, conversion, distribution and consumption. They compare China with case studies and lessons learned in other countries. They ask which technology, policy and market mechanisms are required to support the change and they explore how international cooperation can smooth the way to an energy revolution in China and across the world. And, they create and compare scenarios on possible pathways to a future energy system that is low-carbon, affordable, secure and reliable. ;

Software for Exascale Computing - SPPEXA 2016-2019

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering ISBN: 9783030479565 Year: Pages: 620 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-47956-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Computer Science --- Science (General) --- Agriculture (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-01 00:03:54
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This open access book summarizes the research done and results obtained in the second funding phase of the Priority Program 1648 "Software for Exascale Computing" (SPPEXA) of the German Research Foundation (DFG) presented at the SPPEXA Symposium in Dresden during October 21-23, 2019. In that respect, it both represents a continuation of Vol. 113 in Springer’s series Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, the corresponding report of SPPEXA’s first funding phase, and provides an overview of SPPEXA’s contributions towards exascale computing in today's sumpercomputer technology. The individual chapters address one or more of the research directions (1) computational algorithms, (2) system software, (3) application software, (4) data management and exploration, (5) programming, and (6) software tools. The book has an interdisciplinary appeal: scholars from computational sub-fields in computer science, mathematics, physics, or engineering will find it of particular interest.

The Economics of Big Science

Authors: ---
Book Series: Science Policy Reports ISBN: 9783030523916 Year: Pages: 137 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-52391-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Mathematics --- Business and Management --- Agriculture (General) --- Computer Science --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-11-19 00:19:29
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The essays in this open access volume identify the key ingredients for success in capitalizing on public investments in scientific projects and the development of large-scale research infrastructures. Investment in science – whether in education and training or through public funding for developing new research tools and technologies – is a crucial priority. Authors from big research laboratories/organizations, funding agencies and academia discuss how investing in science can produce societal benefits as well as identifying future challenges for scientists and policy makers. The volume cites different ways to assess the socio-economic impact of Research Infrastructures and their role as hubs of global collaboration, creativity and innovation. It highlights the different benefits stemming from fundamental research at the local, national and global level, while also inviting us to rethink the notion of “benefit” in the 21st century. Public investment is required to maintain the pace of technological and scientific advancements over the next decades. Far from advocating a radical transformation and massive expansion in funding, the authors suggest ways for maintaining a strong foundation of science and research to ensure that we continue to benefit from the outputs. The volume draws inspiration from the first “Economics of Big Science” workshop, held in Brussels in 2019 with the aim of creating a new space for dialogue and interaction between representatives of Big Science organizations, policy makers and academia. It aspires to provide useful reading for policy makers, scientists and students of science, who are increasingly called upon to explain the value of fundamental research and adopt the language and logic of economics when engaging in policy discussions.

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