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Criticality as a signature of healthy neural systems: multi-scale experimental and computational studies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195039 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-503-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Since 2003, when spontaneous activity in cortical slices was first found to follow scale-free statistical distributions in size and duration, increasing experimental evidences and theoretical models have been reported in the literature supporting the emergence of evidence of scale invariance in the cortex. Although strongly debated, such results refer to many different in vitro and in vivo preparations (awake monkeys, anesthetized rats and cats, in vitro slices and dissociated cultures), suggesting that power law distributions and scale free correlations are a very general and robust feature of cortical activity that has been conserved across species as specific substrate for information storage, transmission and processing. Equally important is that the features reminiscent of scale invariance and criticality are observed at scale spanning from the level of interacting arrays of neurons all the way up to correlations across the entire brain. Thus, if we accept that the brain operates near a critical point, little is known about the causes and/or consequences of a loss of criticality and its relation with brain diseases (e.g. epilepsy). The study of how pathogenetical mechanisms are related to the critical/non-critical behavior of neuronal networks would likely provide new insights into the cellular and synaptic determinants of the emergence of critical-like dynamics and structures in neural systems. At the same time, the relation between the impaired behavior and the disruption of criticality would help clarify its role in normal brain function. The main objective of this Research Topic is to investigate the emergence/disruption of the emergent critical-like states in healthy/impaired neural systems.

Functional Imaging in living Plants - Cell Biology meets Physiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194650 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-465-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The study of plant cell physiology is currently experiencing a profound transformation. Novel techniques allow dynamic in vivo imaging with subcellular resolution, covering a rapidly growing range of plant cell physiology. Several basic biological questions that have been inaccessible by the traditional combination of biochemical, physiological and cell biological approaches now see major progress. Instead of grinding up tissues, destroying their organisation, or describing cell- and tissue structure, without a measure for its function, novel imaging approaches can provide the critical link between localisation, function and dynamics. Thanks to a fast growing collection of available fluorescent protein variants and sensors, along with innovative new microscopy technologies and quantitative analysis tools, a wide range of plant biology can now be studied in vivo, including cell morphology & migration, protein localization, topology & movement, protein-protein interaction, organelle dynamics, as well as ion, ROS & redox dynamics. Within the cell, genetic targeting of fluorescent protein probes to different organelles and subcellular locations has started to reveal the stringently compartmentalized nature of cell physiology and its sophisticated spatiotemporal regulation in response to environmental stimuli. Most importantly, such cellular processes can be monitored in their natural 3D context, even in complex tissues and organs – a condition not easily met in studies on mammalian cells. Recent new insights into plant cell physiology by functional imaging have been largely driven by technological developments, such as the design of novel sensors, innovative microscopy & imaging techniques and the quantitative analysis of complex image data. Rapid further advances are expected which will require close interdisciplinary interaction of plant biologists with chemists, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists. High-throughput approaches will become increasingly important, to fill genomic data with ‘life’ on the scale of cell physiology. If the vast body of information generated in the -omics era is to generate actual mechanistic understanding of how the live plant cell works, functional imaging has enormous potential to adopt the role of a versatile standard tool across plant biology and crop breeding. We welcome original research papers, methodological papers, reviews and mini reviews, with particular attention to contributions in which novel imaging techniques enhance our understanding of plant cell physiology and permits to answer questions that cannot be easily addressed with other techniques.

Precision Medicine in Oncology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457052 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-705-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The emerging precision medicine approach aims to tailor disease prevention and treatment to each patient on the basis of individual variability, environmental factors and lifestyle. Fundamental achievements in the last few decades have converged to offer nowadays the compelling opportunity to move towards this innovative approach: i) unprecedented improvements in disease modeling in silico, in vitro and in vivo; ii) acquisition of a wide range of biomedical information combined with the development of computational toolsets for flexible and integrative analyses of multi-assay datasets. Our deeper understanding of oncogenic mechanisms has finally begun to have a crucial impact on clinical decisions at several steps, from cancer prevention and diagnosis to therapeutic intervention. However, precision oncology still encounters several unresolved hurdles including tumour heterogeneity and recurrence as well as unexplained drug resistance and lack of effective ways to monitor response to therapeutic treatments. Notably, limitations in biomedical research regulation and governance represent additional debatable issues that need careful consideration.

Imaging and monitoring astrocytes in health and disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193936 Year: Pages: 189 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-393-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Astrocytes are key cellular partners to neurons in the brain. They play an important role in multiple processes such as neurotransmitter recycling, trophic support, antioxidant defense, ionic homeostasis, inflammatory modulation, neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling, neurogenesis, synapse formation and synaptic plasticity. In addition to their crucial involvement in normal brain physiology, it is well known that astrocytes adopt a reactive phenotype under most acute and chronic pathological conditions such as ischemia, trauma, brain cancer, epilepsy, demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the functional impact of astrocyte reactivity is still unclear. During the last decades, the development of innovative approaches to study astrocytes has significantly improved our understanding of their prominent role in brain function and their contribution to disease states. In particular, new genetic tools, molecular probes, and imaging techniques that achieve high spatial and temporal resolution have revealed new insight into astrocyte functions in situ. This Research Topic provides a collection of cutting-edge techniques, approaches and models to study astrocytes in health and disease. It also suggests new directions to achieve discoveries on these fascinating cells.

Application of genetically encoded indicators to mammalian central nervous system

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198047 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-804-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Genetically encoded indicators emerged as promising tools for cell type-specific and chronic recording of neuronal population activity. Since publication of the first prototypical genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (Cameleons) in 1997, we have witnessed remarkable evolution of the field, with rapid improvement of indicator performance as well as expanded application to many model organisms in the neuroscience community. Challenges still remain, however, concerning the mammalian central nervous system: limited sensitivity of indicators to subtle changes in activity, slow signal kinetics, cytotoxicity after a long-term and high-level expression of indicators, and variable performance across cell types. In addition to improvement of the indicators per se, development of strategies that allow combined use of the indicators and optogenetic tools is also desired. In this Research Topic, we recruited top researchers in the field and their young colleagues to present their cutting-edge research as well as insightful opinions on the following subtopics:1) Latest breakthroughs on development of genetically encoded indicators2) Novel scientific findings obtained with genetically encoded indicators3) Wishlist for the next-generation genetically encoded indicators4) Guideline for selecting an appropriate indicator5) Optimal methodology for indicator delivery to mammalian CNS

In Search of In Vivo MSC

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452354 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-235-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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