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Novel roles of non-coding brain RNAs in health and disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193097 Year: Pages: 213 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-309-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), and in particular microRNAs are rapidly becoming the focus of research interest in numerous basic and translational fields, including brain research; and their importance for many aspects in brain functioning merits special discussion. The wide-scope, multi-targeted and highly efficient manner of ncRNA regulatory activities draws attention to this topic by many, but the available research and analysis tools and experimental protocols are still at their infancy, and calls for special discussion given their importance for many aspects in brain functioning. This eBook is correspondingly focused on the search for, identification and exploration of those non-coding RNAs whose activities modulate the multi-leveled functions of the eukaryotic brain. The different articles strive to cover novel approaches for identifying and establishing ncRNA-target relationships, provide state of the art reports of the affected neurotransmission pathways, describe inherited and acquired changes in ncRNA functioning and cover the use of ncRNA mimics and blockade tools for interference with their functions in health and disease of the brain. Non-coding RNAs are here to stay, and this exciting eBook provides a glimpse into their impact on our brain’s functioning at the physiology, cell biology, behavior and immune levels.

Imaging in Acute Stroke - New Options and State of the Art

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455348 Year: Pages: 65 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-534-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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One in six suffers a stroke during their lifetime and stroke remains the major cause of new onset disability in adulthood. The worldwide burden of stroke is increasing due to an ageing population, however, globally haft of stroke victims are young.Stroke is the clinical diagnosis of an acute vascular incident and covers a multitude of pathophysiological causes. The clinician needs imaging to make decisions on acute treatment as well as to plan a secondary prevention strategy: a non-contrast CT and a Duplex of the carotids followed by an aspirin as a one size fits all strategy does not always provide sufficient support for those decisions.Presently, fast, generally available, and non-invasive imaging provides new possibilities of establishing a cause of stroke, provide specific information on the brain parenchyma – including possibly salvageable tissue and micro-bleeds – as well as allowing for more specific prognostication in acute stroke. This eBook covers both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke and includes hot topics such as micro-bleeds, salvageable tissue and spot-sign, clinically challenging issues including movement artefacts in MRI as well as an overview of present options including pragmatic and feasible suggestions for an approach to state of the art acute imaging.

The Ischemic Penumbra: Still the Target for Stroke Therapies?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196357 Year: Pages: 69 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-635-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The ischemic penumbra was initially defined by Symon, Lassen and colleagues in the 1970s as an area of brain tissue with inadequate blood flow to maintain electric activity of neurons but adequate blood flow to preserve the function of the ion channels. This area of tissue, receiving enough blood to survive but not enough to function, often surrounds or abuts the irreversibly damaged core in ischemic stroke. It was shown that if blood flow could be restored to this area of marginal perfusion, the tissue could survive and function again, and growth of the core could be prevented. Based on seminal PET studies, penumbra or "penumbral tissue" eventually took on a subtly different meaning - the area of brain that is destined to progress to infarct unless blood flow is restored within a particular time window. The penumbra thus became the target for all acute stroke interventions - to preserve viability of the tissue and restore function. New imaging techniques, including diffusion and perfusion MRI and CT perfusion, were developed to rapidly identify individuals with penumbra, who were thought to be the best candidates for aggressive interventions to restore blood flow, particularly beyond the licensed time-window for IV thrombolysis. However, most clinical trials have failed to establish the usefulness of identifying candidates for treatment in this way using pre-specified protocols and primary endpoints. These trials have used different and sometimes unvalidated thresholds of hypoperfusion as well as irreversible infarct and various definitions of significant penumbra (or mismatch between irreversible infarct and hypoperfused, but salvageable tissue), and reanalysis of their data using more refined image processing showed post-hoc positivity. They have also evaluated outcome in a variety of ways, with few studies measuring the direct effect of restoring blood flow on the function of the penumbral tissue. Therefore, important remaining questions include how to define, characterize, and image the penumbra in acute stroke to achieve the greatest reliability and validity for what we want to measure, and whether this concept, so defined, provides an optimal target for stroke therapy using state-of-the-art trial design.

Balloon and Stent for Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke: A New Trend for Stroke Prevention and Management

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196944 Year: Pages: 78 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-694-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In recent years, intracranial endovascular use of Balloon and Stent has grown significantly. This issue will focus primarily on recent advances in the use of these methods today. This discussion will also highlight our improvements in understanding the disease process, and not only relying on devices to treat a patient. Wide-necked intracranial aneurysms (IA) were originally thought to be either untreatable or, at the very least, significantly challenging to treat by endovascular means due to the risk of coil protrusion and possibly parent vessel occlusion. However, this view now outdated, today and we will discuss the significant advancment in different flow diverters. The treatment of post-sub arachnoid hemorrhage vasospasm is mature now, as this issue will highlight. In addition, Intracranial atherosclerosis is still a prominent cause of stroke in various populations worldwide. This issue will summarize the challenges of risk factor modification and secondary stroke prevention by defining optimal methods. We will try to outline a new approach for intracranial angioplasty and stenting for stroke prevention. Finally, despite recent impressive increase recanalization rates in acute ischemic stroke treatment, the clinical improvement rate has remained relatively stable. This article will discuss a new means of improving patient selections using the capillary index score (CIS). The future of our specialty relies heavily on better devices, and on a deeper understanding of the disease process. The future is bright and we have already taken the first successful steps.

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