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Chapter 1: 'Sensing Absence: How to See What Isn't There in the Study of Science and Security' from book: Absence in Science, Security and Policy: From Research Agendas to Global Strategy

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ISBN: 9781137592613 Year: Pages: 34 DOI: 10.1057/9781137493736_1 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Political Science --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-18 11:33:10
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This is a chapter from Absence in Science, Security and Policy edited by Brian Rappert and Brian Balmer. This chapter is available open access under a CC BY license. Part reflection on the forthcoming chapters, part analysis of academic literature, and part programmatic agenda setting, this introduction chapter forwards the importance of questioning taken for granted assumptions in sensing what is absent as a concern. It undertakes this through initially examining what it means to characterize concern as absent or present in the first place. While absence and presence are often treated as binary opposites, it will be argued this distinction is difficult to sustain and unhelpful for analysis. On the back of an appreciation of the inter-relation of absence and presence, this chapter then reviews the literature in sociology, ethics, STS and elsewhere relevant to the themes of the volume. A goal is to outline the methodological and epistemological possibilities and problematics of studying what is missing. By way of then proposing what is required, and to set the stage for the other chapters in Part 1, this chapter ends by asking how autostereograms provide a metaphor for viewing that can guide the study of absence.

Keywords

science --- policy --- philosophy

Humanities World Report 2015

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781137500274 9781137500281 Year: Pages: 215 DOI: 10.1057/9781137500281 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-18 11:50:51
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This book is open access under a CC BY license. The first of its kind, this 'Report' gives an overview of the humanities worldwide. Published as an Open Access title and based on an extensive literature review and enlightening interviews conducted with 90 humanities scholars across 40 countries, the book offers a first step in attempting to assess the state of the humanities globally. Its topics include the nature and value of the humanities, the challenge of globalisation, the opportunities offered by the digital humanities, variations in funding patterns around the world, and the interaction between humanities and society. Despite the stereotypical view of humanists as scholars locked away in their ivory towers, the picture that emerges from this report is that they are deeply committed to the social value of their work and appreciate the long-term importance it has for addressing global challenges. The report will be of interest not only to researchers and students in the humanities themselves, but also to administrators and funders.

Citizen Science

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781787352339 Year: Pages: 580 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781787352339 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Science (General) --- Education
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:00
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Citizen science, the active participation of the public in scientific research projects, is a rapidly expanding field in open science and open innovation. It provides an integrated model of public knowledge production and engagement with science. As a growing worldwide phenomenon, it is invigorated by evolving new technologies that connect people easily and effectively with the scientific community. Catalysed by citizens’ wishes to be actively involved in scientific processes, as a result of recent societal trends, it also offers contributions to the rise in tertiary education. In addition, citizen science provides a valuable tool for citizens to play a more active role in sustainable development.&#xD;&#xD;This book identifies and explains the role of citizen science within innovation in science and society, and as a vibrant and productive science-policy interface. The scope of this volume is global, geared towards identifying solutions and lessons to be applied across science, practice and policy. The chapters consider the role of citizen science in the context of the wider agenda of open science and open innovation, and discuss progress towards responsible research and innovation, two of the most critical aspects of science today.&#xD;

Policy and Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge and Water Banking

ISBN: 9783038420934 9783038420941 Year: Pages: 288 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 09:25:25
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We are pleased to present these 12 papers, all of which were subject to peer review by at least two reviewers. They show the range of economic and policy considerations relevant to the development and implementation of MAR programs. Several papers show novel techniques that can be used to select MAR locations. The importance and economic viability of MAR to semi-arid to arid environments is evident from the use of MAR in both developed and developing regions. Papers demonstrate how MAR can be utilized to meet municipal and agricultural water demands in water-scarce regions, as well as assist in the reuse of wastewater. Some studies explain how stakeholder engagement, ranging from consideration of alternatives to monitoring, and multi-disciplinary analyses to support decision-making are of high value to development and implementation of MAR programs. There is growing recognition of the importance of groundwater and aquifer health to meeting future water needs, as well as the crucial role for strong institutional and governance frameworks for water resources management. The approaches discussed in this collection of papers, along with the complementary and necessary hydrologic and geologic analyses, provide important inputs to water resource managers. We thank the authors for contributing to increased understanding of MAR as a component of sound water management. Sharon B. Megdal and Peter Dillon Guest Editors

The Delusion of Knowledge Transfer: The Impact of Foreign Aid Experts on Policy-making in South Africa and Tanzania

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781928331391 Year: Pages: 396 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.824638 Language: English
Publisher: African Minds
Subject: Political Science --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-29 10:00:37
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With the rise of the ‘knowledge for development’ paradigm, expert advice has become a prime instrument of foreign aid. At the same time, it has been object of repeated criticism: the chronic failure of ‘technical assistance’ – a notion under which advice is commonly subsumed – has been documented in a host of studies. Nonetheless, international organisations continue to send advisors, promising to increase the ‘effectiveness’ of expert support if their technocratic recommendations are taken up. This book reveals fundamental problems of expert advice in the context of aid that concern issues of power and legitimacy rather than merely flaws of implementation. Based on empirical evidence from South Africa and Tanzania, the authors show that aid-related advisory processes are inevitably obstructed by colliding interests, political pressures and hierarchical relations that impede knowledge transfer and mutual learning. As a result, recipient governments find themselves caught in a perpetual cycle of dependency, continuously advised by experts who convey the shifting paradigms and agendas of their respective donor governments. For young democracies, the persistent presence of external actors is hazardous: ultimately, it poses a threat to the legitimacy of their governments if their policy-making becomes more responsive to foreign demands than to the preferences and needs of their citizens.

Digital Kenya: An Entrepreneurial Revolution in the Making

Authors: ---
Book Series: Palgrave Studies of Entrepreneurship in Africa ISBN: 9781137578808 9781137578785 Year: Pages: 509 DOI: 10.1057/978-1-137-57878-5 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Political Science --- Sociology --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-10 17:11:32
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Presenting rigorous and original research, this volume offers key insights into the historical, cultural, social, economic and political forces at play in the creation of world-class ICT innovations in Kenya. Following the arrival of fiber-optic cables in 2009, Digital Kenya examines why the initial entrepreneurial spirit and digital revolution has begun to falter despite support from motivated entrepreneurs, international investors, policy experts and others. Written by engaged scholars and professionals in the field, the book offers 15 eye-opening chapters and 14 one-on-one conversations with entrepreneurs and investors to ask why establishing ICT start-ups on a continental and global scale remains a challenge on the “Silicon Savannah”. The authors present evidence-based recommendations to help Kenya to continue producing globally impactful ICT innovations that improve the lives of those still waiting on the side-lines, and to inspire other nations to do the same.

The Ethics of Educational Healthcare Placements in Low and Middle Income Countries: First Do No Harm?

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319483627 9783319483634 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-48363-4 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Political Science --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-11 13:02:49
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This book examines the current state of elective placements of medical undergraduate students in developing countries and their impact on health care education at home. Drawing from a recent case study of volunteer deployment in Uganda, the authors provide an in-depth evaluation of the impacts on the students themselves and the learning outcomes associated with placements in low resource settings, as well as the impacts that these forms of student mobility have on the host settings. In addition to reviewing the existing literature on elective placements, the authors outline a potential model for the future development of ethical elective placements. As the book concurs with an increasing international demand for elective placements, it will be of immediate interest to universities, intermediary organizations, students as consumers, and hosting organisations in low-resource settings.

Keywords

education --- policy --- poverty --- aid --- development --- Africa

Aquaculture Perspective of Multi-Use Sites in the Open Ocean: The Untapped Potential for Marine Resources in the Anthropocene

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319511573 9783319511597 Year: Pages: 404 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-51159-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Hydraulic Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-26 17:01:20
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This volume addresses the potential for combining large-scale marine aquaculture of macroalgae, molluscs, crustaceans, and finfish, with offshore structures, primarily those associated with energy production, such as wind turbines and oil-drilling platforms. The volume offers a comprehensive overview and includes chapters on policy, science, engineering, and economic aspects to make this concept a reality. The compilation of chapters authored by internationally recognized researchers across the globe addresses the theoretical and practical aspects of multi-use, and presents case studies of research, development, and demonstration-scale installations in the US and EU.

Satellite Earth Observations and Their Impact on Society and Policy

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789811037122 9789811037139 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-3713-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 15:48:14
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The result of a workshop bringing together an international advisory board of experts in science, satellite technologies, industry innovations, and public policy, this book addresses the current and future roles of satellite Earth observations in solving large-scale environmental problems. The book showcases the results of engaging distinct communities to enhance our ability to identify emerging problems and to administer international regimes created to solve them. It also reviews the work of the Policy and Earth Observation Innovation Cycle (PEOIC) project, an effort aimed at assessing the impact of satellite observations on environmental policy and to propose a mission going forward that would launch an “innovation cycle”. The achievements of such a mission would feed back to innovations in next-generation observation technology, thus contributing to global policy demand for policy-relevant information.

Die U.S.-amerikanische Deregulation Policy im Luftverkehrs- und Bankenbereich

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Book Series: Hohenheimer volkswirtschaftliche Schriften ISBN: 9783820415070 Year: Pages: 285 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:23
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Luftverkehr und Banken gehören in den USA zu jenen Bereichen, die vor der Weltwirtschaftskrise durch intensiven Wettbewerb gekennzeichnet waren. Sie wurden in den 30er Jahren in ein engmaschiges Regulierungsnetz eingebunden, das als Substitut für den wettbewerblichen Koordinierungsmechanismus dienen sollte. Seit den 60er Jahren wurden die Schwächen staatlicher Eingriffe in die Wirtschaft immer deutlicher, was in den USA Mitte der 70er Jahre zu einer von Ökonomen, Politikern, Juristen und Verbraucherschützern getragenen Gegenbewegung (Deregulation Policy) führte, die im Luftverkehrs- und Bankensektor durch Intensivierung des Wettbewerbs sehr erfolgreich war und daher ein Beispiel für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland und Europa sein sollte.

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