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Toward a Unified View of the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off: Behaviour, Neurophysiology and Modelling

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197569 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-756-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Everyone is familiar with the speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT). To make good choices, we need to balance the conflicting demands of fast and accurate decision making. After all, hasty decisions often lead to poor choices, but accurate decisions may be useless if they take too long. This notion is intuitive because it reflects a fundamental aspect of cognition: not only do we deliberate over the evidence for decisions, but we can control that deliberative process. This control raises many questions for the study of choice behaviour and executive function. For example, how do we figure out the appropriate balance between speed and accuracy on a given task? How do we impose that balance on our decisions, and what is its neural basis? Researchers have addressed these and related questions for decades, using a variety of methods and offering answers at different levels of abstraction. Given this diverse methodology, our aim is to provide a unified view of the SAT. Extensive analysis of choice behaviour suggests that we make decisions by accumulating evidence until some criterion is reached. Thus, adjusting the criterion controls how long we accumulate evidence and therefore the speed and accuracy of decisions. This simple framework provides the platform for our unified view. In the pages that follow, leading experts in decision neuroscience consider the history of SAT research, strategies for determining the optimal balance between speed and accuracy, conditions under which this seemingly ubiquitous phenomenon breaks down, and the neural mechanisms that may implement the computations of our unifying framework.

I Porti Romani nel Mar Rosso da Augusto al Tardo Antico

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Book Series: Clio: Saggi di scienze storiche, archeologiche e storico-artistiche ISSN: 2532-4608 ISBN: 9788868870348 Year: Volume: 20 Pages: 220 DOI: 10.6093/978-88-6887-034-8 Language: Italian
Publisher: FedOA - Federico II University Press
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-05 16:59:05
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This volume draws upon the scholarship on the international trade between the Roman Empire and Eastern regions such as Arabia, Ethiopia and India. Such trade has been often described by ancient sources as a flourishing and very expensive one. More in detail, the book focuses on the life and the development of the ports on the Red Sea, controlled by Rome. These ports acted for centuries as international hubs, linking points between West and East, and they were the gates though which the eastern merchandise would reach the Roman markets. Keeping these remote settlements alive required a big effort on the part of the imperial administration, and some degree of planning to choose how and when to invest in the area. So, over the centuries, the geography of such ports changed dramatically. Most works published so far have explained such changes in terms of decline and economic shrinking, due to the “late antique phase” of the Roman Empire. This monograph looks for a different explanation and stretches the analysis into the late antique period, showing hot it was not a period of decline and economic recession, but rather of reorganization. The volume aims finally to reach a new and more full level of understanding of the Roman economic policy in the Red Sea between the first century BC and the sixth AD.

Essays in International Trade and Public Economics

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Book Series: Finanzwissenschaftliche Schriften ISBN: 9783631621394 Year: Pages: 139 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:35
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The essays of this book are contributions to the empirical Literature in International Trade and Public Economics. They deal with the relationship between the structure and quality of the public sector and the process of economic integration. Two of the essays add to the empirical determinants of trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) and to the numerous applications of the theory of government decentralization. Decentralization tends to discourage inward FDI and domestic trade and to increase imports and exports. A third essay focuses on the effect of governments’ intangible assets – such as consumer perceptions about countries and products from these countries – on FDI. A country’s nation brand is shown to have a significant and large positive effect on investment flows.

The causes and consequences of microbial community structure

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193615 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-361-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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The causes and consequences of differences in microbial community structure, defined here as the relative proportions of rare and abundant organisms within a community, are poorly understood. Articles in "The Causes and Consequences of Microbial Community Structure", use empirical or modeling approaches as well as literature reviews to enrich our mechanistic understanding of the controls over the relationship between community structure and ecosystem processes. Specifically, authors address the role of trait distributions and tradeoffs, species-species interactions, evolutionary dynamics, community assembly processes and physical controls in affecting ‘who’s there’ and ‘what they are doing’.

The Spanish Connection

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ISBN: 9783412225360 Year: Pages: 458 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_620578 Language: English
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 222
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-03 11:01:28
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In early modern times, the city of Seville was the most important entrepôt between the Old and the New World, attracting numerous merchants from all of Europe. They provided the American market with European merchandise, especially with textiles and metalware from Flanders and France. This book investigates the networks of Flemish and French merchants in Seville, displaying overall structures of trade as well as collective strategies of both merchant colonies.

Effects of Including Agricultural Products in the Customs Union between Turkey and the EU

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Book Series: cege-Schriften ISBN: 9783631519349 Year: Pages: 336 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Economics --- Political Science --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:14
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The inclusion of agricultural products in the current customs union is one of the potential future steps on the road to further political and economic integration between Turkey and the EU. This book examines the effects of such integration of agricultural markets on the Turkish agricultural sector as well as on consumers and the Turkish budget. Results are compared to alternative options for Turkish agricultural policy. To this aim, a detailed partial equilibrium model of the Turkish agricultural sector is developed. The complete liberalization of the agricultural sector is found to lead to significant welfare gains compared to the maintenance of current policies. It appears that including agricultural products in the customs union results in similar results with few but significant exemptions.

Geldpolitik und Beschaeftigung

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Book Series: Hohenheimer volkswirtschaftliche Schriften ISBN: 9783631538470 Year: Pages: 479 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:23
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Anfang 2006 tritt Alan Greenspan als Vorsitzender der Federal Reserve (Fed) ab. Damit endet gleichzeitig eine einschneidende Epoche der amerikanischen Geldpolitik. Das Urteil zur Greenspan-Ära fällt bisher ambivalent aus. Auf der einen Seite wird der pragmatischen und flexiblen Geldpolitik der letzten 18 Jahre ein erheblicher Anteil am Wachstums- und Beschäftigungserfolg der USA zugebilligt. Andererseits wird die einseitige Ausrichtung auf den Vorsitzenden und das Fehlen einer klaren und verständlichen Konzeption bemängelt. Diese Arbeit versucht zu klären, ob die geldpolitische Strategie der Federal Reserve in der heutigen Form ein Erfolgs- oder Auslaufmodell darstellt. Dazu wird die Fed-Strategie seit 1987 umfassend analysiert und bewertet. Die Analyse soll insbesondere Antworten darauf geben, welche Rolle Beschäftigungsziele in der Geldpolitik spielen sollten, und ob die Fed-Strategie für die Europäische Zentralbank (EZB) Vorbildcharakter besitzt.

Indonesia in a Reforming World Economy: Effects on Agriculture, Trade and the Environment

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ISBN: 9780980623871 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.1017/UPO9780980623871 Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2012-05-14 08:42:51
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In the mid-1990s a joint research project was established between CASER (Bogor), CIES (Adelaide), CSIS ( Jakarta) and RSPAS (at ANU, Canberra) to examine interactions between agriculture, trade and the environment in Indonesia. Funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR Project No. 9449), the specific objective of the project was to assess the production, consumption, trade, income distributional, regional, environmental, and welfare eff ects in Indonesia of structural and policy changes at home and abroad. Particular attention was to be paid to those structural and policy changes that could aff ect Indonesia’s agricultural sector over the next 5-10 years.&#xD;&#xD;The implications of national and global economic growth, of regional and multilateral trade liberalisation initiatives, and of Indonesia’s ongoing unilateral policy reforms were the initial focus of the study. However, with the onslaught of the financial crisis that began in the latter part of 1997, the project leaders added that issue to the research agenda.

Menschenrechte im Unternehmen durchsetzen

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Book Series: Forschung aus der Hans-Böckler-Stiftung ISBN: 9783839441794 9783837641790 Year: Pages: 240 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-09 11:01:53
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International labor rights continue to gain in importance as globalization progresses. Based on case studies and expert interviews, the authors discuss the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. In doing so, they identify points of contact for trade unions and works councils and point out strategies, opportunities for participation and instruments for safeguarding workers' rights in companies worldwide.

Poverty and Distributional Impact of Economic Policies and External Shocks

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Book Series: Goettinger Studien zur Entwicklungsoekonomik / Goettingen Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9783631565599 Year: Pages: 154 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:27
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Economists have had much to say about the impact of economic policies on growth, but little on their distributional consequences and poverty impact. The reorientation of development policy from structural adjustment to poverty reduction as the central objective thus called for new tools to examine distributional change. This book analyzes the poverty and distributional impact of policy changes and external shocks in three case studies from Latin America: Trade liberalization in Colombia and Brazil, and the gas boom in Bolivia. It uses an innovative approach that combines computable general equilibrium and microsimulation models. The country applications illustrate that distributional consequences depend very much on the nature of the shock or policy change as well as the characteristics of the country in question. The book issues a warning against policy prescriptions being based on oversimplifying assumptions and models.

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