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Treatment of Micropollutants in Water and Wastewater

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ISBN: 9781843393160 Year: Language: English
Publisher: IWA Publishing Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102468
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-06 08:17:52
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Treatment of Micropollutants in Water and Wastewater gives a comprehensive overview of modern analytical methods and will summarize novel single and hybrid methods to remove continuously emerging contaminants - micropollutants from the aqueous phase. New trends (e.g. sensor technology, nanotechnology and hybrid treatment technologies) are described in detail. The content of the book is divided into chapters that present current descriptive and analytical methods that are available to detect and measure micropollutants together with detailed information on various chemical, biological and physicochemical methods that have evolved over the last few decades. The provides an understanding of why and how micropollutants must be removed from water sources, and what are the most appropriate and available techniques for providing a cost and technologically effective and sustainable solutions for reaching the goal of micropollutant-free water and wastewater.

Role of Intravenous Levetiracetam in Acute Seizure Management

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193226 Year: Pages: 74 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-322-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Intractable epilepsy still remains the main issue despite new advances in medical and surgical treatment of epilepsy. Acute seizure management in a timely manner is crucial to prevent irreversible brain damage. Benzodiazepines still remain the first initial treatment to abort the seizure activity. The approval phenytoin, fosphenytoin, intravenous valproate, and rectal diazepam provided additional options. The approval of intravenous levetiracetam gave another option to physicians if and when the above treatment fails to control the seizure activity. In this Ebook, we have included chapters from renowned researchers in the field of neurology and epilepsy who have covered the various aspects of these agents in detail including the properties, mechanism of action, pharmacology, neurobehavioral effects, and the roles of these agents in special populations including traumatic brain injury and brain tumor related epilepsy. These data further show that intravenous levetiracetam can be used in acute seizure management and in special circumstances.

Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Schizophrenia: How Much Can Be Achieved and How?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450091 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-009-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The introduction of antipsychotic agents in the 1950’s substantially improved the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, clinical and functional outcomes are still far less than optimal for patients, and have not improved in recent years despite the development of several new antipsychotics. Efficacy rates are further compromised by medication non-adherence, which has been reported to affect more than half of patients. In response to these issues, several non-pharmacological interventions have been developed for the treatment of schizophrenia, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive remediation, social cognition training and metacognitive approaches. Although these interventions have produced promising results, there is still much controversy regarding their usefulness and applicability in clinical practice. A major impeding factor for their dissemination is possibly a lack of sufficient evidence regarding their specific indications, mechanisms of action, adverse effects, but also practical issues concerning the interpretability of respective clinical studies, such as the choice of outcome variables and control of confounding factors. The present Research Topic includes original research articles and reviews addressing these issues.

Emerging Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Antibiotic Resistance and Novel Treatment Options

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451890 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-189-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Enterobacteriaceae are spread worldwide and the diseases they cause may be fatal especially in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, the high prevalence of ESBL producing Salmonella and Shigella species diseases worldwide suggests major underlying safety issues. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 2015, approximately 220 million children contract diarrhoeal diseases every year and 96 000 die. As a result, the increase in single or multi drug-resistant foodborne bacterial pathogens is of major public health concern. Moreover, resistance to antimicrobials was found among Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp from animals and food, and since fluoroquinolones became licensed for use in animal foods, especially for poultry, the rate of fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp in animals and human food, and then in human infections, rapidly increased. To that purpose, the findings of the conducted studies in the book chapters, 1) highlight surveillance studies reporting the occurrence and distribution of resistance to antimicrobial agents, namely, to third generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones, 2) describe the mechanisms of transmission of resistance determinants from animals, food products and clinical specimens, that allow implementation of appropriate measures to control their spread and adopt appropriate therapeutic measures, and 3) provide treatment options, useful to medical practice.

Anaerobic Digestion

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456796 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-679-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a naturally-occurring biological process in soils, sediments, ruminants, and several other anoxic environments, that cycles carbon and other nutrients, and converts organic matter into a methane-rich gas. As a biotechnology, AD is now well-established for the treatment of the organic fraction of various waste materials, including wastewaters, but is also increasingly applied for an expanding range of organic feedstocks suitable for biological conversion to biogas. AD applications are classified in various ways, including on the basis of bioreactor design; and operating parameters, such as retention time, temperature, pH, total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) contents, and biodegradability of substrates. AD is an attractive bioenergy and waste / wastewater treatment technology. The advantages of AD for waste treatment include: production of a useable fuel (biogas/methane); possibility of high organic loading; reduced carbon footprint; and suitability for integration into a wide variety of process configurations and scales. Specifically, two important, and developing, applications exemplify the potential of AD technologies: (1) the integration of AD as the basis of the core technologies underpinning municipal wastewater, and sewage, treatment, to displace less sustainable, and more energy-intensive, aerobic biological treatment systems in urban water infrastructures; and (2) technical innovations for higher-rate conversions of high-solids wastestreams, and feedstocks, for the production of energy carriers (i.e. methane-biogas, but possibly also biohydrogen) and other industrially-relevant intermediates, such as organic acids.Internationally, the research effort to maximize AD biogas yield has increased ten-fold over the past decade. Depending on the feedstocks, bioreactor design and process parameters, fundamental and applied knowledge are still required to improve conversion rates and biogas yields. This Research Topic cover aspects related to AD processes, such as the effect of feedstock composition, as well as the effect of feedstock pre-treatment, bioreactor design and operating modes, on process efficiency; microbial community dynamics and systems biology; influence of macro- and micro-nutrient concentrations and availability; process control; upgrading and calibration of anaerobic digestion models (e.g. ADM1) considering the biochemical routes as well as the hydrodynamics in such ecosystems; and novel approaches to process monitoring, such as the development, and application, of novel, and rapid diagnostic assays, including those based on molecular microbiology. Detailed full-scale application studies were also particularly welcomed.

Central Nervous System Metastases in Lung Cancer Patients: From Prevention to Diagnosis and Treatment

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457076 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-707-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Approximately 40% of lung cancer patients will develop central nervous system (CNS) metastases during the course of their disease. Most of these are brain metastases, but up to 10% will develop leptomeningeal metastases. Known risk factors for CNS metastases development are small cell lung cancer (SCLC), adenocarcinoma histology, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearranged lung cancer, advanced nodal status, tumor stage and younger age. CNS metastases can have a negative impact on quality of life (QoL) and overall survival (OS). The proportion of lung cancer patients diagnosed with CNS metastases has increased over the years due to increased use of brain imaging as part of initial cancer staging, advances in imaging techniques and better systemic disease control. Post contrast gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (gd-MRI) is preferred, however when this is contra-indicated a contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) is mentioned as an alternative option. When CNS metastases are diagnosed, local treatment options consist of radiotherapy (stereotactic or whole brain) and surgery. Local treatment can be complicated by symptomatic radiation necrosis for which no high level evidence based treatment exists. Moreover, differential diagnosis with metastasis progression is difficult. Systemic treatment options have expanded over the last years. Until recently, chemotherapy was the only treatment option with a poor penetration in the CNS. Angiogenesis inhibitors are promising in the treatment of primary CNS tumors as well as radiation necrosis but clinical trials of anti-angiogenic agents in NSCLC have largely excluded patients with CNS metastases. Furthermore, research has also focused on methods to prevent development of CNS disease, for example with prophylactic cranial irradiation. Recently, checkpoint inhibitors have become available for NSCLC patients, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have improved prognosis significantly in those with a druggable driver mutation. Newer TKIs are often designed to have better CNS penetration compared to first-generation TKIs. Despite advances in treatment options CNS metastases remain a problem in lung cancer and cause morbidity and mortality.This Research Topic provides an extensive resource of articles describing advances in CNS metastases management in lung cancer patients, from prevention to diagnosis and treatment.

Attachment Assessment in treatments, prevention and intervention programs

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195237 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-523-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Attachment theory, assessment and research offers a broad, far-reaching view of human functioning, and it can enrich a psychologist's understanding of subjects and their relational adjustment, both in clinical and non-clinical settings. Ongoing research in attachment has led to a number of individual treatments and prevention and intervention programs. The assessment of an individual's attachment organization, can play a crucial role in explaining and previewing the unfolding treatment, the relational adjustments or concerns, and the psychological well-being. We hope to receive empirical papers that give evidence for the usefulness of attachment assessment in both clinical (e.g., patients with Eating Disorder; or Axis-II; psychotherapy patients…) or not clinical population (e.g. Adoptive and/or foster families or couples, Mother-infant assessment in prevention field…). These papers should include methodological issues and information about the participants, the methods used to assess attachment, the process of scorer training and the availability of the manual used to obtain inter-scorer reliability. Case studies may be of interest to the extent that they demonstrate the value of a systematic approach to attachment material. A range of theoretical perspectives is welcome as well presentation of new emergent tools on attachment. Because Frontiers in Psychology is an international journal, each empirical paper should comment on the international implications of the findings and discuss its cross-cultural use. Such comments may include, for example, its linguistic specificity, its robustness in translation, and the cross-cultural generalizability of the constructs and behaviors of the measure and its usual correlates. Cross-cultural generalizability is not, however, a requirement.

Keywords

Attachment --- Parenting --- Trauma --- Anorexia --- Addiction --- Obesity --- autism --- Adoption --- Treatment

Immunoglobulin therapy in the 21st century: the dark side of the moon

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197033 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-703-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In the early decades since the introduction in the early '80s of immunoglobulin therapy many studies tried to identify which clinical indications might benefit from the therapy, which treatment’s schedules are effective and safe. It is universally accepted that immunoglobulin therapy is a life-saving treatment in patients with PID. The rise of new indications for further different clinical conditions resulted in a steady increase in demand for immunoglobulins. Currently the consumption of immunoglobulin for PID represents a small fraction of the market. In the recent past we have been observing:1) An increase in the demand for plasma and in the consequent need to increase the number of donors;2) Changes in methods to improve IgG recovery and to increase productivity as a response to growing clinical demand;3) Introduction of immunoglobulin treatments with higher concentration;4) Changes in the timing of administration with an increase in the rate of infusion;5) Introduction of immunoglobulin treatment administered subcutaneously mainly confined initially to patients with PID and later extended to other clinical indications which often require higher volumes of infusion. Doctors following patients with PID were initially alarmed only to a possible risk of shortage. More relevant and less discussed appear the possible consequences of:1) the risk of an improper transfer of information on treatments from a clinical indication to another. In particular, the idea of a mere replacement function in patients with PID might possibly be borrowed from the model of other clinical conditions requiring a replacement such as haemophilia. In PID, immunoglobulin treatment instead is obviously replacing a missing feature. However, other immune alterations are responsible for the large number of PID-associated diseases including inflammatory manifestations and tumors, common causes of morbidity and mortality. The immunomodulatory effects of immunoglobulin administered at replacement dosages on multiple cells and immune system functions are still largely to be checked in in vitro studies and in vivo.2) the changes in the immunoglobulin production and schedules of administration. These should have been assessed in studies of drug surveillance, necessary in order to evaluate on large numbers of what it is initially reported on patients enrolled in the pivotal clinical trials, usually in the absence of most of the main disease-associated clinical conditions affecting pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability. Severe side effects are now more frequently reported. This requires surveillance studies in order to verify the tolerability. Nowadays, personalized health research presents methodologic challenges, since emphasis is placed on the individual response rather than on the population. Even within a universally accepted indication, such as in PID, the identification of prognostic markers should guide the therapeutic intervention.3) the risk of a decrease in the surveillance and monitoring of PID-associated clinical conditions. In fact, self- administration of immunoglobulins administered subcutaneously increased the independence of a number of patients. On the other hand, it led to the reduction in the number of contacts between specialized centers and patients who often require a close monitoring of disease-associated conditions. A wide debate between experts is necessary to afford the new challenge on immunoglobulin usage.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Clinical Manifestations, Microbiology, and Immunology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453627 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-362-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is a major human pathogen that causes both upper and lower respiratory infections, and is one of the leading causes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP), accounting for 11–15% of CAP throughout the world. Additionally it is known to induce an inflammatory process which depends on several mechanisms such as virulence of Mp (lipoproteins, community acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin, oxidative products) and host defenses (cellular immunity and humoral immunity). Although it is a common pathogen, the pathogenesis for Mp infections is not yet fully understood. From the clinical point of view, since the pioneer studies in the 1960s and 1970s on the clinical presentation of Mp associated disease, the diagnostics approaches have changed dramatically leading to a better understanding of the clinical presentation and new issues have emerged - such as antibiotics resistance. The purpose of this Frontiers ebook is to thoroughly review and discuss the clinical presentation in view of the improved diagnostics, microbiological and immunological analysis of Mp infections, with focus on the history of Mp, clinical features of disease, bacterial structure of Mp and mechanism of gliding, clinical and laboratory diagnostics, the role of lipoproteins and Toll-like receptor, CARDS toxin, subtyping of Mp isolates and genome analysis, macrolide resistance and treatment.

Novel Therapeutic Targets and Emerging Treatments for Fibrosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453726 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-372-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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For decades we have known that the overgrowth, hardening and scarring of tissues (so-called fibrosis) represents the final common pathway and best histological predictor of disease progression in most organs. Fibrosis is the culmination of both excess extracellular matrix deposition due to ongoing or severe injury, and a failure to regenerate. An inadequate wound repair process ultimately results in organ failure through a loss of function, and is therefore a major cause of morbidity and mortality in disease affecting both multiple and individual organs.Whilst the pathology of fibrosis and its significance are well understood, until recently we have known little about its molecular regulation. Current therapies are often indirect and non-specific, and only slow progression by a matter of months. The recent identification of novel therapeutic targets, and the development of new treatment strategies based on them, offers the exciting prospect of more efficacious therapies to treat this debilitating disorder.This Research Topic therefore compromises several up-to-date mini-reviews on currently known and emerging therapeutic targets for fibrosis including: the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-family; epigenetic factors; Angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptors; mineralocorticoid receptors; adenosine receptors; caveolins; and the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate and notch signaling pathways. In each case, mechanistic insights into how each of these factors contribute to regulating fibrosis progression are described, along with how they can be targeted (by existing drugs, small molecules or other mimetics) to prevent and/or reverse fibrosis and its contribution to tissue dysfunction and failure. Two additional reviews will discuss various anti-fibrotic therapies that have demonstrated efficacy at the experimental level, but are not yet clinically approved; and the therapeutic potential vs limitations of stem cell-based therapies for reducing fibrosis while facilitating tissue repair. Finally, this Research Topic concludes with a clinical perspective of various anti-fibrotic therapies for cardiovascular disease (CVD), outlining limitations of currently used therapies, the pipeline of anti-fibrotics for CVD and why so many anti-fibrotic drugs have failed at the clinical level.

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