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Peer Review, Peer Education, and Modeling in the Practice of Clinical Ethics Consultation: The Zadeh Project

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ISBN: 9783319909554 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-90955-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Philosophy --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:15
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This open access book about the Zadeh Project demonstrates and explores a core question in clinical ethics: how can ethics consultants be accountable in the face of a robust plurality of ethical standpoints, especially those that underwrite practices and methods for doing ethics consultation as well as those viewpoints and values encountered in daily clinical ethics practice? Underscoring this question is the recognition that the field of clinical ethics consultation has arrived at a crucial point in its maturation. Many efforts are underway to more formally “professionalize” the field, with most aimed toward stabilizing a specific set of institutional considerations. Stretched between these institutional and practical initiatives resides a crucial set of of ethical considerations, chief among them the meaning and scope of responsibility for clinical ethics consultants. Developed around a long-form case scenario, the Zadeh Project provides a multi-layered series of “peer-reviews”: critique of the actions of the case scenario’s ethics consultant; reflection on clinical ethics method; examination of the many ways that commitments to method and practice can, and do, intersect, overlap, and alter one another. The design and format of this book thus models a key element for clinical ethics practice: the need and ability to provide careful and thoughtful explanation of core moral considerations that emerge among diverse standpoints. Specifically designed for those studying to become and those who are ethics consultants, this book, with its innovative and multi-layered approach, allows readers to share a peer-review-like experience that shows accountability to be what it is, an ethical, not merely procedural or administrative, undertaking.

Fragility Fracture Nursing

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Book Series: Perspectives in Nursing Management and Care for Older Adults ISBN: 9783319766812 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-76681-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:17
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This open access book aims to provide a comprehensive but practical overview of the knowledge required for the assessment and management of the older adult with or at risk of fragility fracture. It considers this from the perspectives of all of the settings in which this group of patients receive nursing care. Globally, a fragility fracture is estimated to occur every 3 seconds. This amounts to 25 000 fractures per day or 9 million per year. The financial costs are reported to be: 32 billion EUR per year in Europe and 20 billon USD in the United States. As the population of China ages, the cost of hip fracture care there is likely to reach 1.25 billion USD by 2020 and 265 billion by 2050 (International Osteoporosis Foundation 2016). Consequently, the need for nursing for patients with fragility fracture across the world is immense. Fragility fracture is one of the foremost challenges for health care providers, and the impact of each one of those expected 9 million hip fractures is significant pain, disability, reduced quality of life, loss of independence and decreased life expectancy. There is a need for coordinated, multi-disciplinary models of care for secondary fracture prevention based on the increasing evidence that such models make a difference. There is also a need to promote and facilitate high quality, evidence-based effective care to those who suffer a fragility fracture with a focus on the best outcomes for recovery, rehabilitation and secondary prevention of further fracture. The care community has to understand better the experience of fragility fracture from the perspective of the patient so that direct improvements in care can be based on the perspectives of the users. This book supports these needs by providing a comprehensive approach to nursing practice in fragility fracture care. ; Provides a comprehensive discussion of nursing the frail older person with a fragility fracture across Europe Based on a two-day workshop of like-minded specialist and advanced nurses from over 20 countries Acts as the course text/reader for a Europe-wide education programme in all relevant settings (Emergency Department, Fracture Clinic, Trauma Unit, Orthopaedic Ward, Rehabilitation setting) Open Access

Science Policy under Thatcher

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ISBN: 9781787353411 Year: Pages: 304 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781787353411 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Science (General) --- History --- Social Sciences --- Arts in general --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-03 11:21:05
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Margaret Thatcher was prime minister from 1979 to 1990, during which time her Conservative administration transformed the political landscape of Britain. Science Policy under Thatcher is the first book to examine systematically the interplay of science and government under her leadership. Thatcher was a working scientist before she became a professional politician, and she maintained a close watch on science matters as prime minister. Scientific knowledge and advice were important to many urgent issues of the 1980s, from late Cold War questions of defence to emerging environmental problems such as acid rain and climate change. Drawing on newly released primary sources, Jon Agar explores how Thatcher worked with and occasionally against the structures of scientific advice, as the scientific aspects of such issues were balanced or conflicted with other demands and values. To what extent, for example, was the freedom of the individual scientist to choose research projects balanced against the desire to secure more commercial applications? What was Thatcher’s stance towards European scientific collaboration and commitments? How did cuts in public expenditure affect the publicly funded research and teaching of universities? In weaving together numerous topics, including AIDS and bioethics, the nuclear industry and strategic defence, Agar adds to the picture we have of Thatcher and her radically Conservative agenda, and argues that the science policy devised under her leadership, not least in relation to industrial strategy, had a prolonged influence on the culture of British science.

The Future of Election Administration

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Elections, Voting, Technology ISBN: 9783030185411 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-18541-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:19
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As the American election administration landscape changes as a result of major court cases, national and state legislation, changes in professionalism, and the evolution of equipment and security, so must the work of on-the-ground practitioners change. This Open Access title presents a series of case studies designed to highlight practical responses to these changes from the national, state, and local levels. This book is designed to be a companion piece to The Future of Election Administration, which surveys these critical dimensions of elections from the perspectives of the most forward-thinking practitioner, policy, advocacy, and research experts and leaders in these areas today. Drawing upon principles of professionalism and the practical work that is required to administer elections as part of the complex systems, this book lifts up the voices and experiences of practitioners from around the country to describe, analyze, and anticipate the key areas of election administration systems on which students, researchers, advocates, policy makers, and practitioners should focus. Together, these books add to the emerging body of literature that is part of the election sciences community with an emphasis on the practical aspects of administration.

Ways to improve tumor uptake and penetration of drugs into solid tumors

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193509 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-350-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The main scope of this topic is to give an update on pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches to enhance uptake and penetration of cancer drugs into tumors. Inadequate accumulation of drugs in tumors has emerged over the last decade as one of the main problems underlying therapeutic failure and drug resistance in the treatment of cancer. Insufficient drug uptake and penetration is causally related to the abnormal tumor architecture. Thus, poor vascularization, increased resistance to blood flow and impaired blood supply represent a first obstacle to the delivery of antitumor drugs to tumor tissue. Decreased or even inverted transvascular pressure gradients compromise convective delivery of drugs. Eventually, an abnormal extracellular matrix offers increased frictional resistance to tumor drug penetration. Abnormal tumor architecture also changes the biology of tumor cells, which contributes to drug resistance through several different mechanisms. The variability in vessel location and structure can make many areas of the tumor hypoxic, which causes the tumor cells to become quiescent and thereby resistant to many antitumor drugs. In addition, the abnormally long distance of part of the tumor cell population from blood vessels provides a challenge to delivering cancer drugs to these cells. We have recently proposed additional mechanisms of tumor drug resistance, which are also related to abnormal tumor architecture. First, increased interstitial fluid pressure can by itself induce drug resistance through the induction of resistance-promoting paracrine factors. Second, the interaction of drug molecules with vessel- proximal tumor cell layers may also induce the release of these factors, which can spread throughout the cancer, and induce drug resistance in tumor cells distant from blood vessels. As can be seen, abnormal tumor architecture, inadequate drug accumulation and tumor drug resistance are tightly linked phenomena, suggesting the need to normalize the tumor architecture, including blood vessels, and/or increase the accumulation of cancer drugs in tumors in order to increase therapeutic effects. Indeed, several classes of drugs (that we refer to as promoter drugs) have been described, that promote tumor uptake and penetration of antitumor drugs, including those that are vasoactive, modify the barrier function of tumor vessels, debulk tumor cells, and overcome intercellular and stromal barriers. In addition, also non-pharmacologic approaches have been described that enhance tumor accumulation of effector drugs (e.g. convection-enhanced delivery, hyperthermia, etc.). Some drugs that have already received regulatory approval (e.g. the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab) exert antitumor effects at least in part through normalization of the tumor vasculature and enhancement of the accumulation of effector drugs. Other drugs, acting through different mechanisms of action, are now in clinical development (e.g. NGR-TNF in phase II/III studies) and others are about to enter clinical investigation (e.g. JO-1).

Ethanol, Its Active Metabolites, and Their Mechanisms of Action: Neurophysiological and Behavioral Effects

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455164 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-516-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Ethanol, the main psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, represents a paradigmatic example of a research subject intrinsically able to perpetually self-generate interdisciplinary cutting-edge investigations.This eBook was inspired by the aim of providing an up-to-date characterization of the diverse effects of ethanol, of the possible mechanisms of action on different intracellular systems as well as of the hypothesized actions of ethanol and/or its metabolites on various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators.Indeed, the eBook provides a factual example of an excellent synthesis on the complex relationship between ethanol and its main biologically active metabolites (Chapter 1), on the behavioral and molecular consequences of early exposure to them (Chapter 2), on the recent proposals, advanced by the preclinical research, for new therapeutic approaches to distinct aspects of alcoholism (Chapter 3) and on the most recent and original preclinical evidence of the interactions between ethanol and/or its metabolites and the dopaminergic, adenosinergic and endocannabinoidergic systems (Chapter 4).Overall we believe that this eBook accomplishes its main goals of widening the perspective on this research subject and offering the readership a newer and, simultaneously, up-to-date and comprehensive scenery on ethanol’s and ethanol's active metabolites neurophysiological and behavioral effects.

Pflegeroboter

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ISBN: 9783658226985 Year: Pages: 267 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-22698-5 Language: English|German
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Economics --- Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:21
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Dieses Open-Access-Buch bündelt technische, wirtschaftliche, medizinische und ethische Reflexionen über Pflegeroboter. Pflegeroboter, im Moment noch mehrheitlich Prototypen, unterstützen oder ersetzen menschliche Pflegekräfte bzw. Betreuer. Sie bringen Kranken und Alten die benötigten Medikamente und Nahrungsmittel, helfen beim Hinlegen und Aufrichten oder alarmieren den Notdienst. Vorteile von Pflegerobotern sind durchgehende Verwendbarkeit und gleichbleibende Qualität der Dienstleistung. Nachteile sind Kostenintensität (bei möglicher Amortisation) und Komplexität der Anforderungen. Unter der wissenschaftlichen Leitung von Prof. Dr. Oliver Bendel trafen sich im September 2017 Vertreter verschiedener wissenschaftlicher Disziplinen im Rahmen eines Ladenburger Diskurses der Daimler und Benz Stiftung, um über den aktuellen und künftigen Einsatz von Pflegerobotern zu sprechen und Forschungspotenziale zu identifizieren. Die Autoren gehen in ihren Beiträgen auch Fragen aus Wirtschafts-, Medizin- und Informationsethik nach: Wer trägt die Verantwortung bei einer fehlerhaften Betreuung und Versorgung durch die Maschine? Inwieweit kann diese die persönliche und informationelle Autonomie des Patienten unterstützen oder gefährden? Ist der Roboter eine Entlastung oder ein Konkurrent für Pflegekräfte? Antworten müssen von Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft gefunden werden.

Understanding China’s School Leadership

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ISBN: 9789811507496 Year: Pages: 278 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-0749-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:22
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This open access book outlines key terms of China’s school leadership in Chinese political and legal, financial, administrative, and cultural contexts. It reveals and interprets the real meaning of these practical terms based on existing laws, government documents, school policy texts as well as the latest empirical findings from school leaders and teachers’ surveys and interviews in China. Providing a holistic picture of China’s school leadership through the unique meanings of these terms, the book offers researchers and graduate students insights into school leadership practice and its context in China. Thus, it would likely intensify readers’ knowledge base to analyse and interpret the phenomenon and research data regarding China’s school leadership. ; Outlines key terms reflecting the characteristics and uniqueness of China’s school leadership Provides readers with a holistic picture of China’s school leadership by understanding the real meaning of the terms Offers insights into school leadership context of China to researchers and graduate students in this field Enriches the knowledge base to analyse and interpret the phenomenon or research data regarding China's school leadership Open Access

The Bureaucratic Production of Difference

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Book Series: Kultur und soziale Praxis ISBN: 9783839451045 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.14361/9783839451045 Language: English
Publisher: transcript Verlag
Subject: History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-11 23:58:25
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In the context of the ever-increasing political problematization of migration in Europe, agencies charged with migrant administration create diverse categories of difference to distinguish between the »deserving migrant« and the illegal one: They assess the detainability or the credibility of asylum seekers, the danger posed by Islamic organizations, and make situational decisions that determine whether migration or labour law applies to individual agricultural workers. In this book, each chapter analyses how organizational interpretations of the common good shape bureaucratic practices. Together, these ethnographic analyses reveal how migration policies in different European countries take shape in administrative practice.

Policy-Oriented Technology Assessment Across Europe

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781137561725 Year: Pages: 171 DOI: 10.1057/9781137561725 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Political Science --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-16 18:08:57
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This book is open access under a CC-BY license. Policy-making to address grand challenges faces greater complexity than any previous project of modernization. Future scenarios are haunted by uncertainty and there is real ambivalence as to the values that policy should strive for. In this situation decision-makers look to research and innovation to provide answers and solutions. But neither can the great transitions ahead be planned by science, nor will conventional methods of innovation bring such transitions about. A turn to interactive governance is therefore underway with policy-makers and citizens becoming increasingly involved in processes of deliberating futures. Technology Assessment (TA) is the art of structuring such processes. TA goes beyond traditional expert policy analysis by systematically combining a multi-disciplinary evidence base with participatory approaches to policy deliberation. TA thus seeks to act as a hub for serious and transparent dialogue between policy, industry, science, and society about the challenges ahead and the available options for overcoming them responsibly. This volume offers an up-to-date account of the expansion of technology assessment capacities across new European member states. The contributions of this volume are written by leading European researchers and practitioners in technology assessment (TA) and are based on the PACITA (Parliaments and Civil Society in Technology Assessment) project.

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