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Modeling and Analysis of Signal Transduction Networks

ISBN: 9783038421412 9783038421429 Year: Pages: 232 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-12 12:19:39
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Biological pathways, such as signaling networks, are a key component of biological systems of each living cell. In fact, malfunctions of signaling pathways are linked to a number of diseases, and components of signaling pathways are used as potential drug targets. Elucidating the dynamic behavior of the components of pathways, and their interactions, is one of the key research areas of systems biology. Biological signaling networks are characterized by a large number of components and an even larger number of parameters describing the network. Furthermore, investigations of signaling networks are characterized by large uncertainties of the network as well as limited availability of data due to expensive and time-consuming experiments. As such, techniques derived from systems analysis, e.g., sensitivity analysis, experimental design, and parameter estimation, are important tools for elucidating the mechanisms involved in signaling networks. This Special Issue contains papers that investigate a variety of different signaling networks via established, as well as newly developed modeling and analysis techniques.

Optomechatronics

ISBN: 9783038420019 9783038420088 Year: Pages: 276 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 15:03:42
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The field of optomechatronics provides synergistic effects of optics, mechanics and electronics for efficient sensor development. Optical sensors for the measurement of mechanical quantities, equipped with appropriate electronic signal (pre)processing means have a wide range of applications, from surface testing, stress monitoring, thin film analysis to biochemical sensing. The aim of this special issue is to provide an overview of actual research and innovative applications of optomechatronics in sensors. Papers addressing, inter alia, optical sensor principles, fiber-optic sensors, electronic speckle pattern interferometry, surface analysis, thin film measurement, FGB sensors, and biochemical sensors are provided.

Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes

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ISBN: 9783038420385 9783038420392 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-039-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 07:00:06
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Microreactors are small devices with sub-millimeter internals which have superb mass and heat transfer. Initially, they were used for reactions with very high demands on the latter, e.g. very exothermic reactions, gas-liquid reactions with interfacial transport issues, reactions with very fast kinetics which demands even faster mixing, and more. In this way, the processing window was opened widely and, also due to the minute volumes only present in the reaction zone, safe processing under otherwise hazardous conditions was enabled. This includes processing of reactions which are prone to thermal runaway and in the explosive regime. Scale-up of promising reactions and products which was hindered with conventional technology is now possible using the new equipment. This has widened the process development possibilities in chemical industry.In the last years, micro process technology was not only used for the very problematic synthetic issues which formerly had a dead-end position in industry’s process development. Rather, the scope of chemical reactions to be processed in microreactors was considerably widened by exploring new process conditions with regard to temperature, pressure, concentration, solvents, and more. This is commonly referred to as flow chemistry. This allowed to reduce the processing time-scale for many reactions to the minute range or even below which fits well to the residence times of microreactors. In addition, the process integration of several reactions in one flow to a multi-step synthesis has opened a new door in molecular diversity as well as system and process complexity. The same holds for the combination of reactions and separations in micro-flow. To achieve throughputs relevant for industrial production, smart scale-out to milli-flow units has established and supplemented the num­bering-up concept (parallelization of microchannels/-reactors operated under equal conditions).New innovations and enabling technologies need anyhow evaluation and benchmarking with conventional technology on the full-system level. Yet, microreactor technology has in the last years deepened so much into process intensification on a holistic scale that the focus increasingly is given towards the process dimension—to process design and automation, real-case applications, cost analysis, life-cycle assessment, and more. The impact on cost competitiveness and sustainability becomes well assessed.Facing this very recent scientific achievement, the special issue “Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes” of the journal Processes aims to cover recent advances in the development of microreactor and smart-scaled flow processes towards the process level — in the sense as given above.

Molecular Science for Drug Development and Biomedicine

ISBN: 9783906980836 9783906980843 Year: Pages: 356
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:15:53
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With the avalanche of biological sequences generated in the postgenomic age, molecular science is facing an unprecedented challenge, i.e., how to timely utilize the huge amount of data to benefit human beings. Stimulated by such a challenge, a rapid development has taken place in molecular science, particularly in the areas associated with drug development and biomedicine, both experimental and theoretical. The current thematic issue was launched with the focus on the topic of “Molecular Science for Drug Development and Biomedicine”, in hopes to further stimulate more useful techniques and findings from various approaches of molecular science for drug development and biomedicine.

ZEMCH Research Initiatives: Mass Customisation and Sustainability

ISBN: 9783038421115 9783038421122 Year: Pages: 254 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 12:10:38
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The earth is experiencing the adverse effect of climate change. In response to growing global warming issues and the constant increase of energy prices, house-builders and housing manufacturers today are becoming more responsive to the delivery of net zero energy and carbon dioxide emission sustainable homes than ever. Within this context, the sustainability may embrace housing economy and adequacy beyond the legitimacy in which the quality barely coincides with individuals' dynamic various needs, desires and expectations. In this special issue, 'mass customisation' is reviewed being considered as a paradoxical concept which has been recognised as a means to lessen production costs of end-user products whilst achieving the customisability through economies of scope rather than economies of scale. Nevertheless, the housing industry's business operation tends to follow routines and the close system mode of operation often hinders the enterprises from adopting unfamiliar inn ovations which may be inevitable in realising the delivery and operation of socially, economically and environmentally sustainable homes. In order to deliver a marketable and replicable zero energy/emission mass custom home, or ZEMCH, the strategic balance between the optional and standard features seems to be critical. The optional features may be provided with the aim to enhance design quality (or customizability) that helps contribute to satisfying desires and expectations of individual stakeholders. The standard equipment, on the other hand, needs to be installed in buildings as it aims to exceed product quality whose levels can be adjusted in conjunction with societal demands and requirements. This edition encompasses a wide spectrum of hopes and fears around the design, production and marketing approaches to the ZEMCH delivery and operation, and showcases some exemplars budding out in different climates around the globe

Phytoalexins: Current Progress and Future Prospects

ISBN: 9783038420583 9783038420590 Year: Pages: 516 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-12 11:33:35
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Phytoalexins are antimicrobial substances of low molecular weight produced by plants in response to infection or stress, which form part of their active defense mechanisms. It is now clear that phytoalexins exhibit toxicity across much of the biological spectrum, prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Starting in the 1950s, research on phytoalexins has begun with biochemistry and bio-organic chemistry, resulting in the determination of their structure, their biological activity as well as mechanisms of their synthesis and their catabolism by microorganisms. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of numerous phytoalexins has also permitted the use of molecular biology tools for the exploration of the genes encoding enzymes of their synthesis pathways and their regulators. This has led to potential applications for increasing plant resistance to diseases. Phytoalexins display an enormous diversity belonging to various chemical families such as isoflavones, isoflavanones, pterocarpans, isoflavans, flavanones, coumestans, furanoacetylenes, phenylpropanoids, steroid glycoalkaloids, norsesquiterpenoids/sesquiterpenoids, coumarins, diterpenes, ent-kaurane-related diterpenoids, acidic sesquiterpenoids, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, naphthaldehydes, indoles and stilbenes.Research papers dealing with all aspects of phytoalexins, including structure elucidation; chemical synthesis; methods for phytoalexin analysis in plant extracts or biological fluids; biosynthesis studies including modulation of phytoalexin synthesis; engineering of phytoalexin biochemical pathways in plants and microbes; biological activities; structure/activity relationships; phytoalexin metabolism in planta and by micro-organisms; roles and ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters or Multi-Drugs Efflux (MDE) transporters are welcome for inclusion in this Special Issue of Molecules. Review articles, particularly those dealing with the themes mentioned above are also particularly welcome for inclusion.

Vitamin D and Human Health

ISBN: 9783038420569 9783038420576 Year: Pages: 476 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 08:50:54
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Vitamin D research has expanded greatly over the last 10 years, with a more than two-fold increase in annual publications listed in Pubmed with the key word ‘vitamin D’ from 1675 in 2005 to 3953 in 2014. Part of this increase is due to research showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a wide range of diseases and health outcomes. Until the 1980s, the primary focus of vitamin D research (in combination with calcium supplementation) was on bone diseases. Since then, observational studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with increased risk of many diseases: both acute and chronic. This book contains publications on several of these disease groups linked to vitamin D deficiency.

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