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Collider Physics within the Standard Model: A Primer

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Book Series: Lecture Notes in Physics ISSN: 0075-8450 ISBN: 9783319519197 9783319519203 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-51920-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-26 17:06:33
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With this graduate-level primer, the principles of the standard model of particle physics receive a particular skillful, personal and enduring exposition by one of the great contributors to the field.In 2013 the late Prof. Altarelli wrote: The discovery of the Higgs boson and the non-observation of new particles or exotic phenomena have made a big step towards completing the experimental confirmation of the standard model of fundamental particle interactions. It is thus a good moment for me to collect, update and improve my graduate lecture notes on quantum chromodynamics and the theory of electroweak interactions, with main focus on collider physics. I hope that these lectures can provide an introduction to the subject for the interested reader, assumed to be already familiar with quantum field theory and some basic facts in elementary particle physics as taught in undergraduate courses.

Error-Correction Coding and Decoding: Bounds, Codes, Decoders, Analysis and Applications

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Signals and Communication Technology ISSN: 1860-4862 / 1860-4870 ISBN: 9783319511023 9783319511030 Year: Pages: 522 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-51103-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Computer Science --- Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-31 15:07:50
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This book discusses both the theory and practical applications of self-correcting data, commonly known as error-correcting codes. The applications included demonstrate the importance of these codes in a wide range of everyday technologies, from smartphones to secure communications and transactions. Written in a readily understandable style, the book presents the authors’ twenty-five years of research organized into five parts:Part I is concerned with the theoretical performance attainable by using error correcting codes to achieve communications efficiency in digital communications systems.Part II explores the construction of error-correcting codes and explains the different families of codes and how they are designed. Techniques are described for producing the very best codes.Part III addresses the analysis of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, primarily to calculate their stopping sets and low-weight codeword spectrum which determines the performance of these codes.Part IV deals with decoders designed to realize optimum performance.Part V describes applications which include combined error correction and detection, public key cryptography using Goppa codes, correcting errors in passwords and watermarking.This book is a valuable resource for anyone interested in error-correcting codes and their applications, ranging from non-experts to professionals at the forefront of research in their field.

Dignity in the 21st Century: Middle East and West

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Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Philosophy ISSN: 2211-4548 ISBN: 9783319580203 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/10.1007/978-3-319-58020-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-19 16:22:05
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This book offers a unique and insightful analysis of Western and Middle Eastern concepts of dignity and illustrates them with examples of everyday life.Dignity in the 21st Century - Middle East and West is unique and insightful for a range of reasons. First, the book is co-authored by scholars from two different cultures (Middle East and West). As a result, the interpretations of dignity covered are broader than those in most Western publications. Second, the ambition of the book is to use examples from everyday life and fiction to debate a range of dignity interpretations supplemented by philosophical and theological theories. Thus, the book is designed to be accessible to a general readership, which is further facilitated because it is published with full open access. Third, the book does not defend one superior theory of dignity, but instead presents six Western approaches and one based on the Koran and then asks whether a common essence can be detected.The answer to the question whether a common essence can be detected between the Koranic interpretation of dignity and the main Western theories (virtue, Kant) is YES. The essence can be seen in dignity as a sense of self-worth, which persons have a duty to develop and respect in themselves and a duty to protect in others. The book ends with two recommendations. First, given the 7 concepts of dignity introduced in the book, meaningful dialogue can only be achieved if conversation partners clarify which variation they are using. Second, future collaborations between philosophers and psychologists might be helpful in moving theoretical knowledge on dignity as a sense of self-worth into practical action. The “scourges” of a sense of self-worth and dignity are identified by psychologists as violence, humiliation, disregard and embarrassment. To know more about how these can be avoided from psychologists, is helpful when protecting a sense of self-worth in others.

Foundations of Quantum Theory: From Classical Concepts to Operator Algebras

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Book Series: Fundamental Theories of Physics ISSN: 0168-1222 ISBN: 9783319517773 Volume: 188 Pages: 861 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51777-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-19 16:33:13
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This book studies the foundations of quantum theory through its relationship to classical physics. This idea goes back to the Copenhagen Interpretation (in the original version due to Bohr and Heisenberg), which the author relates to the mathematical formalism of operator algebras originally created by von Neumann. The book therefore includes comprehensive appendices on functional analysis and C*-algebras, as well as a briefer one on logic, category theory, and topos theory. Matters of foundational as well as mathematical interest that are covered in detail include symmetry (and its "spontaneous" breaking), the measurement problem, the Kochen-Specker, Free Will, and Bell Theorems, the Kadison-Singer conjecture, quantization, indistinguishable particles, the quantum theory of large systems, and quantum logic, the latter in connection with the topos approach to quantum theory.

Non-Equilibrium Social Science and Policy: Introduction and Essays on New and Changing Paradigms in Socio-Economic Thinking

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Understanding Complex Systems ISSN: 1860-0832 ISBN: 9783319424224 9783319424248 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-42424-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Astronomy (General) --- Physics (General) --- Business and Management --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-13 12:35:53
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The overall aim of this book, an outcome of the European FP7 FET Open NESS project, is to contribute to the ongoing effort to put the quantitative social sciences on a proper footing for the 21st century. A key focus is economics, and its implications on policy making, where the still dominant traditional approach increasingly struggles to capture the economic realities we observe in the world today - with vested interests getting too often in the way of real advances.Insights into behavioral economics and modern computing techniques have made possible both the integration of larger information sets and the exploration of disequilibrium behavior. The domain-based chapters of this work illustrate how economic theory is the only branch of social sciences which still holds to its old paradigm of an equilibrium science - an assumption that has already been relaxed in all related fields of research in the light of recent advances in complex and dynamical systems theory and related data mining.The other chapters give various takes on policy and decision making in this context. Written in nontechnical style throughout, with a mix of tutorial and essay-like contributions, this book will benefit all researchers, scientists, professionals and practitioners interested in learning about the 'thinking in complexity' to understand how socio-economic systems really work.

Knowledge and Action

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Knowledge and Space ISSN: 1877-9220 ISBN: 9783319445878 9783319445885 Year: Volume: 9 Pages: 300 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-44588-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Business and Management --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-14 12:56:35
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This volume explores interdependencies between knowledge, action, and space from different interdisciplinary perspectives. Some of the contributors discuss knowledge as a social construct based on collective action, while others look at knowledge as an individual capacity for action. The chapters contain theoretical frameworks as well as experimental outcomes. Readers will gain insight into key questions such as: How does knowledge function as a prerequisite for action? Why are knowledge gaps growing and not diminishing in a knowledge society? How much knowledge is necessary for action? How do various types of knowledge influence the steps from cognition to action? How do different representations of knowledge shape action? What impact have spatial conditions for the formation of knowledge? What is the relationship between social and geographical space? The contributors consider rationality in social and economic theories as well as in everyday life. Attention is also given to action theoretic approaches and rationality from the viewpoints of psychology, post-structuralism, and human geography, making this an attractive book for students, researchers and academics of various backgrounds.

Control Theory Tutorial: Basic Concepts Illustrated by Software Examples

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Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology ISSN: 2191-530X ISBN: 9783319917061 9783319917078 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-91707-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: US National Science Foundation (NSF); Donald Bren Foundation; University of California
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 16:13:03
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This open access Brief introduces the basic principles of control theory in a concise self-study guide. It complements the classic texts by emphasizing the simple conceptual unity of the subject. A novice can quickly see how and why the different parts fit together. The concepts build slowly and naturally one after another, until the reader soon has a view of the whole. Each concept is illustrated by detailed examples and graphics. The full software code for each example is available, providing the basis for experimenting with various assumptions, learning how to write programs for control analysis, and setting the stage for future research projects. The topics focus on robustness, design trade-offs, and optimality. Most of the book develops classical linear theory. The last part of the book considers robustness with respect to nonlinearity and explicitly nonlinear extensions, as well as advanced topics such as adaptive control and model predictive control. New students, as well as scientists from other backgrounds who want a concise and easy-to-grasp coverage of control theory, will benefit from the emphasis on concepts and broad understanding of the various approaches.

Model-Based Demography: Essays on Integrating Data, Technique and Theory

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Book Series: Demographic Research Monographs ISSN: 1613-5520 ISBN: 9783319654324 9783319654331 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-65433-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 12:41:56
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Late in a career of more than sixty years, Thomas Burch, an internationally known social demographer, undertook a wide-ranging methodological critique of demography. This open access volume contains a selection of resulting papers, some previously unpublished, some published but not readily accessible. Rejecting the idea that demography is simply a branch of applied statistics, his work views it as an autonomous and complete scientific discipline. When viewed from the perspective of modern philosophy of science, specifically the semantic or model-based school, demography is a balanced discipline, with a rich body of techniques and data, but also with more and better theories than generally recognized. As demonstrated in this book, some demographic techniques can also be seen as theoretical models, and some substantive/behavioral models, commonly rejected as theory because of inconsistent observations, are now seen as valuable theoretical models, for example demographic transition theory. This book shows how demography can build a strong theoretical edifice on its broad and deep empirical foundation by adoption of the model-based approach to science. But the full-fruits of this approach will require demographers to make greater use of computer modeling in the statement and manipulation of theoretical ideas, as well as for numerical computation.

Reality Lost: Markets of Attention, Misinformation and Manipulation

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783030008123 9783030008130 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-00813-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Carlsberg Foundation; University of Copenhagen
Subject: Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-11 16:38:15
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This open access book looks at how a democracy can devolve into a post-factual state.The media is being flooded by populist narratives, fake news, conspiracy theories and make-believe. Misinformation is turning into a challenge for all of us, whether politicians, journalists, or citizens. In the age of information, attention is a prime asset and may be converted into money, power, and influence – sometimes at the cost of facts. The point is to obtain exposure on the air and in print media, and to generate traffic on social media platforms. With information in abundance and attention scarce, the competition is ever fiercer with truth all too often becoming the first victim.Reality Lost: Markets of Attention, Misinformation and Manipulation is an analysis by philosophers Vincent F. Hendricks and Mads Vestergaard of the nuts and bolts of the information market, the attention economy and media eco-system which may pave way to postfactual democracy. Here misleading narratives become the basis for political opinion formation, debate, and legislation. To curb this development and the threat it poses to democratic deliberation, political self-determination and freedom, it is necessary that we first grasp the mechanisms and structural conditions that cause it.

Innovations in Derivatives Markets: Fixed Income Modeling, Valuation Adjustments, Risk Management, and Regulation

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics ISSN: 2194-1009 ISBN: 9783319334455 9783319334462 Year: Volume: 165 Pages: 449 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-33446-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Mechanical Engineering --- Therapeutics --- Biotechnology --- Business and Management --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-08 12:08:06
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This book presents 20 peer-reviewed chapters on current aspects of derivatives markets and derivative pricing. The contributions, written by leading researchers in the field as well as experienced authors from the financial industry, present the state of the art in:• Modeling counterparty credit risk: credit valuation adjustment, debit valuation adjustment, funding valuation adjustment, and wrong way risk.• Pricing and hedging in fixed-income markets and multi-curve interest-rate modeling.• Recent developments concerning contingent convertible bonds, the measuring of basis spreads, and the modeling of implied correlations.The recent financial crisis has cast tremendous doubts on the classical view on derivative pricing. Now, counterparty credit risk and liquidity issues are integral aspects of a prudent valuation procedure and the reference interest rates are represented by a multitude of curves according to their different periods and maturities.A panel discussion included in the book (featuring Damiano Brigo, Christian Fries, John Hull, and Daniel Sommer) on the foundations of modeling and pricing in the presence of counterparty credit risk provides intriguing insights on the debate.

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