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Chapter 4. Brothers as Partners (Book chapter)

Book title: Nations and Citizens in Yugoslavia and the Post-Yugoslav States

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ISBN: 9781474221559 Year: Pages: 71-88 DOI: 10.5040/9781474221559.ch-005 Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 230239
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-31 11:01:54
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Between 1967 and 1974 Yugoslavia entered a period of intensive constitutional changes that started with a series of amendments to the 1963 Constitution and ended with the adoption of a new, fourth in less than 30 years, Yugoslav Constitution in 1974. These changes transformed the country into a confederation of republics by transferring ever more powers from the federal centre to the subunits. It soon reached the point of making the centre dependent on consensus among quasi-independent republics, empowered even with certain prerogatives usually reserved for sovereign states. Centrifugal federalism describes this system of progressively empowering the subunits to the point of a break-up. The hybrid structure of Yugoslavia was also manifested in the constitutional definitions of federal and republican citizenship. The political primacy of the republics shifted the centre of citizen’s political activity towards his or her republic. Although republican-level citizenship was almost practically irrelevant for ordinary citizens in their everyday life, politically speaking it was republican belonging and citizenship that increasingly took the leading role.

Safe Spaces, Brave Spaces

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ISBN: 9780262037143 9780262535960 Year: Pages: 192 Language: English
Publisher: The MIT Press
Subject: Political Science --- Education --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:41:31
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How the essential democratic values of diversity and free expression can coexist on campus.Safe spaces, trigger warnings, microaggressions, the disinvitation of speakers, demands to rename campus landmarks—debate over these issues began in lecture halls and on college quads but ended up on op-ed pages in the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal, on cable news, and on social media. Some of these critiques had merit, but others took a series of cheap shots at “crybullies” who needed to be coddled and protected from the real world. Few questioned the assumption that colleges must choose between free expression and diversity. In Safe Spaces, Brave Spaces, John Palfrey argues that the essential democratic values of diversity and free expression can, and should, coexist on campus. Palfrey, currently Head of School at Phillips Academy, Andover, and formerly Professor and Vice Dean at Harvard Law School, writes that free expression and diversity are more compatible than opposed. Free expression can serve everyone—even if it has at times been dominated by white, male, Christian, heterosexual, able-bodied citizens. Diversity is about self-expression, learning from one another, and working together across differences; it can encompass academic freedom without condoning hate speech.Palfrey proposes an innovative way to support both diversity and free expression on campus: creating safe spaces and brave spaces. In safe spaces, students can explore ideas and express themselves with without feeling marginalized. In brave spaces—classrooms, lecture halls, public forums—the search for knowledge is paramount, even if some discussions may make certain students uncomfortable. The strength of our democracy, says Palfrey, depends on a commitment to upholding both diversity and free expression, especially when it is hardest to do so.

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