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Youth and Jobs in Rural Africa

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ISBN: 9780198848059 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198848059.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-04 10:26:38
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Theories underlying the relationship between urbanization and transformation are being challenged by trends in Sub-Saharan African countries, since many have yet to observe their own “green” or industrial revolutions, despite moderate urbanization. Africa’s trajectory is very different than those of other developing regions, a main reason for which is the region’s significant “youth bulge” and the lack of a labor market outlet for this growing subpopulation. In many countries, the youth are driving the (albeit slow) movement out of agriculture, yet rather than migrating to urban areas, many are finding (usually informal) work in secondary cities, their peri-urban spaces, and the rural nonfarm economy. This book examines the overall trends in youth migration, policies, and political activism, then looks specifically at five African case studies to identify key trends and provide recommendations on encouraging youth to spur structural change. Conclusions reached in this book include that the rate of structural transformation varies among countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, but in most cases, it is the youth who are driving these changes. Education, access to financial services, and agricultural productivity contribute to this structural transformation and can act as pushes or pulls out of agriculture for the youth. However, when structural transformation policies are not pro-poor or inclusive, it can result in higher levels of youth under- and unemployment. Thus, the conclusions point to recommendations focusing on agricultural productivity, the rural nonfarm economy and informal sectors especially along agriculture value chains, access to finance and savings, infrastructure, and education.

Teaching Tolerance in a Globalized World

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Book Series: IEA Research for Education ISSN: 2366-1631 ISBN: 9783319786919 9783319786926 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: 138 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-78692-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA)
Subject: Political Science --- Education --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-27 15:07:49
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This open access thematic report identifies factors and conditions that can help schools and education systems promote tolerance in a globalized world. The IEA’s International Civic and Citizenship Study (ICCS) is a comparative research program designed to investigate the ways in which young people are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens, and provides a wealth of data permitting not only comparison between countries but also comparisons between schools within countries, and students within countries. Advanced analytical methods provide insights into relationships between students’ attitudes towards cultural diversity and the characteristics of the students themselves, their families, their teachers and school principals. The rich diversity of educational and cultural contexts in the 38 countries who participated in ICCS 2009 are also acknowledged and addressed. Readers interested in civic education and adolescents’ attitudes towards cultural diversity will find the theoretical perspectives explored engaging. For readers interested in methodology, the advanced analytical methods employed present textbook examples of how to address cross-cultural comparability of measurement instruments and multilevel data structures in international large-scale assessments (ILSA). Meanwhile, those interested in educational policy should find the identification and comparison of malleable factors across education systems that contribute to positive student attitudes towards cultural diversity a useful and thought-provoking resource.

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