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Mathematical Aspects of Logic Programming Semantics

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ISBN: 9781439829615 Year: Pages: 304 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-29 23:58:06
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Covering the authors’ own state-of-the-art research results, Mathematical Aspects of Logic Programming Semantics presents a rigorous, modern account of the mathematical methods and tools required for the semantic analysis of logic programs. It significantly extends the tools and methods from traditional order theory to include nonconventional methods from mathematical analysis that depend on topology, domain theory, generalized distance functions, and associated fixed-point theory. The book covers topics spanning the period from the early days of logic programming to current times. It discusses applications to computational logic and potential applications to the integration of models of computation, knowledge representation and reasoning, and the Semantic Web. The authors develop well-known and important semantics in logic programming from a unified point of view using both order theory and new, nontraditional methods. They closely examine the interrelationships between various semantics as well as the integration of logic programming and connectionist systems/neural networks. For readers interested in the interface between mathematics and computer science, this book offers a detailed development of the mathematical techniques necessary for studying the semantics of logic programs. It illustrates the main semantics of logic programs and applies the methods in the context of neural-symbolic integration.

What Do We Know About the World? Rhetorical and Argumentative Perspectives

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Book Series: Windsor Studies in Argumentation ISBN: 9780920233702 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 276 Language: English
Publisher: Centre for Research in Reasoning, Argumentation and Rhetoric (CRRAR): Windsor Studies in Argumentation
Added to DOAB on : 2014-05-06 16:27:35
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his book consists of selected papers delivered at “First International Conference on Rhetoric in Croatia: the Days of Ivo Škarić” in May, 2012, and subsequently revised for publication. Through a variety of different routes, the papers explore the role of rhetoric and argumentation in various types of public discourse and present interdisciplinary work connecting linguists, phoneticians, philosophers, law experts and communication scientists in the common ground of rhetoric and argumentation.

Social Media in Trinidad

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Book Series: Why We Post ISBN: 9781787350939 Year: Pages: 250 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 295486
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-17 11:01:53
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Drawing on 15 months of ethnographic research in one of the most under-developed regions in the Caribbean island of Trinidad, this book describes the uses and consequences of social media for its residents. Jolynna Sinanan argues that this semi-urban town is a place in-between: somewhere city dwellers look down on and villagers look up to. The complex identity of the town is expressed through uses of social media, with significant results for understanding social media more generally. Not elevating oneself above others is one of the core values of the town, and social media becomes a tool for social visibility; that is, the process of how social norms come to be and how they are negotiated. Carnival logic and high-impact visuality is pervasive in uses of social media, even if Carnival is not embraced by all Trinidadians in the town and results in presenting oneself and association with different groups in varying ways. The study also has surprising results in how residents are explicitly non-activist and align themselves with everyday values of maintaining good relationships in a small town, rather than espousing more worldly or cosmopolitan values.

The Rise of Informal Logic

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Book Series: Windsor Studies in Argumentation ISBN: 9780920233719 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 259 Language: English
Publisher: Centre for Research in Reasoning, Argumentation and Rhetoric (CRRAR): Windsor Studies in Argumentation
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2014-08-15 19:09:33
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We are pleased to release this digital edition of Ralph Johnson’s The Rise of Informal Logic as Volume 2 in the series Windsor Studies in Argumentation. This edition is a reprint of the previous Vale Press edition with some minor corrections.We have decided to make this the second volume in the series because it is such a compelling account of the formation of informal logic as a discipline, written by one of the founders of the field. The book includes essential chapters on the history and development of informal logic. Other chapters are key reflections on the theoretical issues raised by the attempt to understand informal argument. Many of the papers were previously published in important journals. A number of them were co-authored with J. Anthony Blair. Three of them have appeared only in the present book.

The Mythology in Our Language

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ISBN: 9780990505068 Year: Language: English
Publisher: HAU Books Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101682
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:05
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In 1931 Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote his famous Remarks on Frazer’s “Golden Bough.". At that time, anthropology and philosophy were in close contact—continental thinkers drew heavily on anthropology’s theoretical terms, like mana, taboo, and potlatch, in order to help them explore the limits of human belief and imagination. Now the book receives its first translation by an anthropologist, in the hope that it can kick-start a new era of interdisciplinary fertilization. Wittgenstein’s remarks on ritual, magic, religion, belief, ceremony, and Frazer’s own logical presuppositions are as lucid and thought-provoking now as they were in Wittgenstein’s day. Anthropologists find themselves asking many of the same questions as Wittgenstein—and in a reflection of that, this volume is fleshed out with a series of engagements from some of the world’s leading anthropologists, including Veena Das, David Graeber, Wendy James, Heonik Kwon, Michael Lambek, Michael Puett, and Carlo Severi.

Keywords

Anthropology --- Philosophy --- Magic --- Ritual --- Kingship --- Logic --- Mind

Impossible Worlds

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ISBN: 9780198812791 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.1093/0198812795.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 681404
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-12 09:24:02
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The latter half of the 20th Century witnessed an ‘intensional revolution’: a great collective effort to analyse notions which are absolutely fundamental to our understanding of the world and of ourselves – from meaning and information to knowledge, belief, causation, essence, supervenience, conditionality, as well as nomological, metaphysical, and logical necessity – in terms of a single concept. This was the concept of a possible world: a way things could have been. Possible worlds found applications in logic, metaphysics, semantics, game theory, information theory, artificial intelligence, and the philosophy of mind and cognition. However, possible worlds analyses have been facing numerous problems. This book traces them all back to hyperintensionality: the need for distinctions more fine-grained than the possible worlds apparatus can easily represent. It then introduces impossible worlds – ways things could not have been – as a general tool for modelling hyperintensional phenomena. The book discusses the metaphysics of impossible worlds and applies them to a range of central topics and open issues in logic, semantics, and philosophy: from the problem of logical omniscience in epistemic logic, to the semantics of non-classical logics, the modeling of imagination and mental simulation, the analysis of information and informative inference, truth in fiction, and counterpossible reasoning. The latter half of the 20th Century witnessed an ‘intensional revolution’: a great collective effort to analyse notions which are absolutely fundamental to our understanding of the world and of ourselves – from meaning and information to knowledge, belief, causation, essence, supervenience, conditionality, as well as nomological, metaphysical, and logical necessity – in terms of a single concept. This was the concept of a possible world: a way things could have been. Possible worlds found applications in logic, metaphysics, semantics, game theory, information theory, artificial intelligence, and the philosophy of mind and cognition. However, possible worlds analyses have been facing numerous problems. This book traces them all back to hyperintensionality: the need for distinctions more fine-grained than the possible worlds apparatus can easily represent. It then introduces impossible worlds – ways things could not have been – as a general tool for modelling hyperintensional phenomena. The book discusses the metaphysics of impossible worlds and applies them to a range of central topics and open issues in logic, semantics, and philosophy: from the problem of logical omniscience in epistemic logic, to the semantics of non-classical logics, the modeling of imagination and mental simulation, the analysis of information and informative inference, truth in fiction, and counterpossible reasoning.

Logik. Wiener Logikkolleg 1894/95

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Book Series: Phenomenology & Mind ISSN: 2198-204X ISBN: 9783110345933 Year: Volume: 17 Pages: 268 DOI: 10.1515/9783110345933 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-18 17:28:13
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This book presents the long-awaited critical edition of an unpublished manuscript of 277 pages containing Twardowski’s lecture notes on logic given in German at the University of Vienna. As to length, language and topic, this text is unique among the works of the author, who is renowned for his Zur Lehre vom Inhalt und Gegenstand der Vorstellungen (1894), an influential but short book that has been out of stock for a long time already. In Logik Twardowski’s ideas are exposed in a much more extensive and interestingly revised form. The rest of Twardowski’s production is in Polish, a language inaccessible to many readers.This edition will be of special interest to philosophers interested in the scientific philosophy in Vienna before the Wiener Kreis, to phenomenologists and anyone interested in early phenomenology and Husserl’s thought, to historians of early analytic philosophy, and particularly to specialists of Austrian philosophy and the continental analytic tradition from Bolzano to Tarski, for whom the book will be a truly indispensable source.

Verification-based software-fault detection

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ISBN: 9783866446762 Year: Pages: XVII, 264 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000023002 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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Software is used in many safety- and security-critical systems. Software development is, however, an error-prone task. In this work new techniques for the detection of software faults (or software ""bugs"") are described which are based on a formal deductive verification technology. The described techniques take advantage of information obtained during verification and combine verification technology with deductive fault detection and test generation in a very unified way.

Epistemic Game Theory and Logic

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ISBN: 9783038424222 9783038424239 Year: Pages: X, 178 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-423-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics --- Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-12 11:56:13
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Game theory addresses situations with multiple agents in which the outcome of an agent’s act depends on the acts of the other agents. The agents may be mindless organisms. Epistemic game theory addresses games in which the agents have minds. An agent reasons about the acts of other agents and—if the other agents observe the agent’s act—reasons about the other agents’ responses to the act. The agents use logic to draw conclusions about the prospects of the acts that they can perform. This Special Issue of Games deals with epistemic game theory and the contributions that logic makes to an agent’s practical reasoning about the strategy to adopt in a game. Although behavioral studies are relevant, the emphasis is on rational reasoning. Models of such reasoning may deal with cognitively ideal agents as well as humans. Possible topics include the players’ common knowledge of their game and their rationality; reasoning that supports the players’ in playing their part in a Nash equilibrium of the game; backwards induction, its results, and the conditions that support it; forward induction; learning in sequential games or in repetitions of games; Hintikka models and Kripke models of agents’ information; applications of modal logic’s methods to epistemic logic; interactive epistemology; Bayesian game theory and Bayesian equilibrium; and games with imperfect, incomplete, or asymmetric information.

Terrorismus und moderne Kriegsführung

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Book Series: Sozialtheorie ISBN: 9783837633269 9783839433263 Year: DOI: 10.14361/9783839433263 Language: English
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103348
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-07 11:02:07
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Der Begriff "Terrorismus" ist definitorisch uneindeutig - und das macht jeden Akteur zu einem bestimmten Grad zum Terroristen. Dieses Paradox zieht Eva-Maria Heinke als Ausgangspunkt für eine tiefgreifende Analyse der Strategien moderner Kriegsführung heran und löst es durch die gegenwärtig einmalige Verwendung von sogenannten Fuzzy-Inferenzsystemen zum Zwecke der Typisierung politischer Gewalt auf. Die intensive Verbindung von soziologischer Gewaltforschung mit der Mathematik unscharfer Mengen macht den Grad der Verwendung politischer Gewaltstrategien erstmalig berechenbar - und ermöglicht somit einen völlig neuartigen Blick auf den strategischen Kontext des Handelns politischer Gewaltakteure.

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