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Nanofibres: Friend or Foe?

ISBN: 9783038422785 9783038422792 Year: Pages: XII, 178 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-19 09:28:28
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Nanofibers, particularly those of a carbonaceous content, have received increased interest in the past two decades due to their outstanding physico-chemical characteristics and their possibility to form and contribute towards a plethora of potentially advantageous materials for consumer, industrial and medical applications. Despite this, and together with the numerous research studies and published articles that have sought to investigate these aspects, the potential impact of CNTs is still not understood. Whether or not nanofibers may be able to provide a sophisticated alternative to conventional materials is still debatable, whilst their effects upon both environmental and human health are highly equivocal. How nanofibers are conceived can determine how they may interact with different environments, such as the human body. Understanding each key step of the synthesis and production of nanofibers to their use within potential applications is therefore essential in gaining an insight into how they may be perceived by any biological system and environment. Thus, obtaining such information will enable all scientific communities to begin to realize the potential advantages posed by nanofibers. The aim of this Special Issue therefore, was to provide a collective overview of nanofibers; ‘from synthesis to application’. The Issue particularly focuses upon carbon-based nanofibers, but also highlights alternative nanofiber types. Emphasis is given holistically, with articles discussing the production routes of nanofibers, their plight during their life-cycle (origin to applied form and effects over time), as well as how nanofibers could either incite conflict, or provide aid to human and environmental health.

High Precision X-Ray Measurements

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ISBN: 9783039213177 9783039213184 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-318-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Since their discovery in 1895, the detection of X-rays has had a strong impact on and various applications in several fields of science and human life. Impressive efforts have been made to develop new types of detectors and new techniques, aiming to obtain higher precision both in terms of energy and position. Depending on the applications, solid state detectors, microcalorimeters, and various types of spectrometers currently serve as the best options for spectroscopic and imaging detectors. Recent advancements in micron and meV precision have opened the door for groundbreaking applications in fundamental physics, medical science, astrophysics, cultural heritage, and several other fields. The aim of this Special Issue is to compile an overview, from different communities and research fields, of the most recent developments in X-ray detection and their possible impacts in various sectors, such as in exotic atom measurements, quantum physics studies, XRF, XES, EXAFS, plasma emission spectroscopy, monochromators, synchrotron radiation, telescopes, and space engineering. All the papers included in this Special Issue contribute to emphasizing the importance of X-ray detection in a very broad range of physics topics; most of these topics are covered by the published works, and several others are mentioned in the paper references, providing an interesting and very useful synopsis, from a variety of different communities and research fields, of the most recent developments in X-ray detection and their impact in fundamental research and societal applications.

Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage

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ISBN: 9783039216307 9783039216314 Year: Pages: 278 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-631-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Clean energy and fuel storage are often required for both stationary and automotive applications. Some of these clean energy and fuel storage technologies currently under extensive research and development include hydrogen storage, direct electric storage, mechanical energy storage, solar–thermal energy storage, electrochemical (batteries and supercapacitors), and thermochemical storage. The gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity, energy storage density, power output, operating temperature and pressure, cycle life, recyclability, and cost of clean energy or fuel storage are some of the factors that govern efficient energy and fuel storage technologies for potential deployment in energy harvesting (solar and wind farms) stations and onboard vehicular transportation. This Special Issue thus serves the need for promoting exploratory research and development on clean energy and fuel storage technologies while addressing their challenges to practical and sustainable infrastructures.

Keywords

dye-sensitized solar cells --- carbon materials --- Ag nanoparticles --- freestanding TiO2 nanotube arrays --- gas turbine engine --- lean direct injection --- four-point --- low emissions combustion --- carbonate gas reservoirs --- water invasion --- recovery factor --- aquifer size --- production rate --- hydrogen storage --- complex hydrides --- nanocatalyst --- LiNH2 --- MgH2 --- ball milling --- Li-ion batteries --- nanocomposite materials --- cathode --- anode --- binder --- separator --- ionic liquid --- vertically oriented graphene --- electrical double layers --- charge density --- capacitance --- gas storage --- material science --- rock permeability --- synthetic rock salt testing --- Klinkenberg method --- hydrogen storage systems --- hydrogen absorption --- thermochemical energy storage --- metal hydride --- magnetism --- heat transfer enhancement --- Power to Liquid --- Fischer–Tropsch --- dynamic modeling --- lab-scale --- lithium-ion batteries --- simplified electrochemical model --- state of charge estimator --- extended kalman filter --- hot summer and cold winter area --- PCM roof --- comprehensive incremental benefit --- conjugate phase change heat transfer --- lattice Boltzmann method --- large-scale wind farm --- auxiliary services compensation --- battery energy storage system --- optimal capacity --- equivalent loss of cycle life --- hydrogen storage --- porous media --- bacterial sulfate reduction --- methanogenesis --- gas loss --- diffusion --- reactive transport modeling --- PHREEQC --- energy discharge --- bubbles burst --- bubbles transportation --- crystal growth rates --- undercooling --- salt cavern --- leaching tubing --- flutter instability --- flow-induced vibration --- internal and reverse external axial flows --- thermal energy storage (TES) --- slag --- regenerator --- concentrated solar power (CSP) --- quality function deployment (QFD) --- failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) --- thermal energy storage --- electrochemical energy storage --- hydrogen energy storage --- salt cavern energy storage

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