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Pathophysiology and Imaging Diagnosis of Demyelinating Disorders

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ISBN: 9783038429432 9783038429449 Year: Pages: X, 168 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-27 15:51:32
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Abstract

Demyelinating disorders are chronic autoimmune disorders characterized by inflammation, demyelination, axonal degeneration, and neuronal loss. They have complex pathophysiology and diverse clinical presentations. The etiology of these disorders lies in the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Due to the complexity in pathophysiology and presentation, diagnosis and treatment can be challenging. Advanced technology, including modern imaging techniques, as well as optical coherence tomography (OCT), enrich our understanding of the disease process, improve diagnostic accuracy, and may guide treatment decisions.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Aging and Diseases of Aging

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ISBN: 9783039213276 / 9783039213283 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-328-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This collection of review articles authored by international experts pulls together current information about the role of mitochondria in aging and diseases of aging. Mitochondria are vitally important cellular organelles and undergo their own aging process becoming less efficient in aged animals including humans. These changes have wide-ranging significance contributing to immune dysfunction (autoimmunity and immune deficiency), inflammation, delayed healing, skin and retinal damage, cancer and most of the degenerative diseases of aging. Mitochondrial aging predisposes to drug toxicity in the geriatric population and to many of the features of normal aging. The research detailed in this book summarizes current understanding of the role of mitochondria in the complex molecular changes of aging, moving on to specific diseases of aging. Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important target for development of treatments for aging and disease. The last article details how exercise is a treatment and combats many features of the aging process.

Keywords

aging --- mitochondria --- inflammation --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- immunosenescence --- cell danger response --- healing cycle --- mitochondria --- purinergic signaling --- metabokines --- sphingolipids --- integrated cell stress response --- de-emergence --- crabtree effect --- pasteur effect --- coenzyme Q10 --- aging --- age-related diseases --- mitochondrial dysfunction --- mitochondria --- skin --- ageing --- reactive oxygen species --- photoageing --- 25(OH)D --- 1,25(OH)2D --- aging --- cytokines --- inflammation --- morbidity and mortality --- prevention --- reactive oxygen species --- ultraviolet --- aging --- mitochondria --- retina --- optic nerve --- diabetic retinopathy --- age-related macular degeneration --- glaucoma --- drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity --- polypharmacy --- aging --- mitochondrial dysfunction --- insulin resistance --- type 2 diabetes --- mitochondrial transfer --- exosomes --- mitochondrial --- genetic mutations --- cardiovascular disease --- heart failure --- cardiomyopathy --- mitochondria --- cancer --- nucleotide metabolism --- DNA damage --- NAD+ --- mitochondria --- ALS --- axonal transport --- mitophagy --- SOD1 --- Miro1 --- PINK1 --- Parkin --- multiple sclerosis --- mitochondria --- neuroinflammation --- neurodegeneration --- Parkinson’s disease --- mitochondria --- ageing --- neurodegenerative disease --- Alzheimer’s disease --- eIF2? --- metabolism --- mitochondria --- proteostasis --- stress response --- aging --- exercise --- mitochondria --- aerobic --- ROS --- inflammation --- senescence --- lysosome --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- n/a

The Molecular and Cellular Basis for Parkinson's Disease

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ISBN: 9783039215485 / 9783039215492 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-549-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The focus on dopamine-sensitive motor symptoms, in association with the improvement of motor complications in the heterogeneous disease entity Parkinson's disease, has led to a certain standstill in research. This Special Issue provides new concepts and new ideas on the pathogenesis, genetics, and clinical maintenance of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Not only new experimental findings, but also clinical outcomes, case series, and research on alternative, non-pharmacological therapies are included. The objective is to bridge the currently increasing gap between experimental and clinical research on Parkinson's disease and related disorders.

Keywords

epigenetics --- Parkinson’s disease --- brain --- DNA methylation --- Parkinson’s disease --- fatty acid ?-oxidation --- long-chain acylcarnitine --- Parkinson’s disease --- fatty acyls --- glycerolipids --- glycerophospholipids --- sphingolipids --- sterol lipids --- lipoproteins --- ?-synuclein-mediated pathology --- disease-modifying effects --- neuroprotection --- autophagy --- cysteinyl-dopamine --- hypochlorite --- oxidative stress --- Parkinson’s disease --- redox cycling --- Parkinson’s disease --- brain iron --- motor dysfunction --- neurometabolites --- magnetic resonance imaging --- magnetic resonance spectroscopy --- GABA --- spectroscopy --- Parkinson’s disease --- neuroinflammation --- alpha-Synuclein --- immunotherapy --- mesenchymal stem cells --- secretome --- exosomes --- Parkinson’s disease --- microRNAs --- Parkinson disease --- multiprofessional therapy --- inpatient treatment --- multimodal complex treatment --- caffeic acid --- chlorogenic acid --- rotenone --- Parkinson’s disease --- neuroprotection --- dopaminergic neuron --- myenteric plexus --- enteric glial cell --- metallothionein --- Parkinson’s disease --- microbiota --- molecular mimicry --- microbiome --- alpha-synuclein --- curli --- gut-brain axis --- neurodegeneration --- glucocerebrosidase --- Parkinson’s disease --- Gaucher’s disease --- Lewy Body Dementia --- REM sleep behavior disorders --- [123I]FP-CIT-SPECT --- DAT --- nigral cells --- Parkinson’s disease --- parkinsonisms --- cell line --- differentiation --- HOG --- immature oligodendrocyte --- Krabbe’s disease --- oligodendrocyte --- mature oligodendrocyte --- MO3.13 --- myelin --- multiple sclerosis --- schizophrenia --- SH-SY5Y

DNA Replication Stress

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ISBN: 9783039213894 / 9783039213900 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-390-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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This Special Issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (IJMS) is dedicated to the mechanisms mediated at the molecular and cellular levels in response to adverse genomic perturbations and DNA replication stress. The relevant proteins and processes play paramount roles in nucleic acid transactions to maintain genomic stability and cellular homeostasis. A total of 18 articles are presented which encompass a broad range of highly relevant topics in genome biology. These include replication fork dynamics, DNA repair processes, DNA damage signaling and cell cycle control, cancer biology, epigenetics, cellular senescence, neurodegeneration, and aging. As Guest Editor for this IJMS Special Issue, I am very pleased to offer this collection of riveting articles centered on the theme of DNA replication stress. The blend of articles builds upon a theme that DNA damage has profound consequences for genomic stability and cellular homeostasis that affect tissue function, disease, cancer, and aging at multiple levels and through unique mechanisms. I thank the authors for their excellent contributions, which provide new insight into this fascinating and highly relevant area of genome biology.

Keywords

barley --- chromosome --- DNA replication pattern --- EdU --- mutagens --- DNA replication --- DNA damage --- DNA repair --- genome integrity --- A549 cells --- H1299 cells --- heterogeneity --- DNA damage response --- 8-chloro-adenosine --- DNA replication --- S phase --- origin firing --- TopBP1 --- ATR --- DNA fiber assay --- APE2 --- ATR-Chk1 DDR pathway --- Genome integrity --- SSB end resection --- SSB repair --- SSB signaling --- DNA replication stress --- genome stability --- ubiquitin --- replication fork restart --- translesion synthesis --- template-switching --- homologous recombination --- Fanconi Anemia --- G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) --- aging --- DNA damage --- ?-arrestin --- G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) --- interactome --- G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2) --- ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) --- clock proteins --- energy metabolism --- neurodegeneration --- cellular senescence --- ageing --- Alzheimer’s disease --- multiple sclerosis --- Parkinson’s disease --- lipofuscin --- SenTraGorTM (GL13) --- senolytics --- DNA replication --- DNA repair --- DNA damage response --- DNA translocation --- DNA helicase --- superfamily 2 ATPase --- replication restart --- fork reversal --- fork regression --- chromatin remodeler --- C9orf72 --- ALS --- motor neuron disease --- R loops, nucleolar stress --- neurodegeneration --- Difficult-to-Replicate Sequences --- replication stress --- non-B DNA --- Polymerase eta --- Polymerase kappa --- genome instability --- common fragile sites --- Microsatellites --- cancer --- DNA double-strand repair --- premature aging --- post-translational modification --- protein stability --- replication stress --- Werner Syndrome --- Werner Syndrome Protein --- dormant origins --- replicative stress --- replication timing --- DNA damage --- genome instability --- cancer --- Thermococcus eurythermalis --- endonuclease IV --- AP site analogue --- spacer --- DNA repair --- DNA repair --- double strand break repair --- exonuclease 1 --- EXO1 --- mismatch repair --- MMR --- NER --- nucleotide excision repair --- strand displacements --- TLS --- translesion DNA synthesis --- POL? --- mutation frequency --- mutations spectra --- SupF --- mutagenicity --- oxidative stress --- DNA damage --- DNA repair --- replication --- 8-oxoG --- epigenetic --- gene expression --- helicase --- cell cycle checkpoints --- genomic instability --- G2-arrest --- cell death --- repair of DNA damage --- adaptation --- n/a

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