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Wound Repair and Regeneration

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ISBN: 9783038427674 9783038427681 Year: Pages: 302 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-26 15:46:58
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Wounds are a largely unrecognized, spiraling epidemic that affect millions of people world-wide. They are complex and involve temporal and spatial involvement of many different cell types and tissue processes. Recent advances in our understanding of wound repair and regeneration, as well as the many novel and exciting approaches aimed at healing chronic/acute wounds and reducing scar formation, make this a pertinent time for a Special Issue aimed at overviewing this important field. The goal of this book is to provide a summary of the field, describe its impact, as well as introduce the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms that underpin wound healing and scar formation. The articles include in this book highlight new developments in therapeutic approaches for wound repair including the use of nanomedicine and biomaterials to deliver cells and/or drugs to promote healing. Cellular responses that underpin angiogenesis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling, as well as advances in cytoskeletal interactions in keratinocytes and fibroblast cell functions. Wound remodeling and scar formation including the roles of growth factors, cytokines and stem cells are included.

Molecular Basis of Cardiovascular Diseases: Implications of Natriuretic Peptides

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ISBN: 9783039215829 / 9783039215836 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-583-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Cardiovascular
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The natriuretic peptides (NPs) family includes a class of hormones and their receptors needed for the physiological control of cardiovascular functions. The discovery of NPs provided a fundamental contribution into our understanding of the physiological regulation of blood pressure, and of heart and kidney functions. NPs have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart failure, and stroke. A fine comprehension of the molecular mechanisms dependent from NPs and underlying the promotion of cardiovascular damage has contributed to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of all major CVDs. Finally, the opportunity to target NPs in order to develop new therapeutic tools for a better treatment of CVDs has been developed over the years. The current Special Issue of the Journal covers all major aspects of the molecular implications of NPs in physiology and pathology of the cardiovascular system, including NP-based therapeutic approaches.

Keywords

PCSK9 --- natriuretic peptides --- adipose tissue --- lipid metabolism --- LDL receptor --- insulin --- natriuretic peptides --- hypertension --- stroke --- cardiac hypertrophy --- linkage analysis --- genetic variants --- animal models --- BNP --- NT-proBNP --- heart failure --- cardiac dysfunction --- forensic medicine --- postmortem biochemistry --- angiotensin receptor–neprilysin inhibitor --- natriuretic peptides --- renin–angiotensin system --- heart failure --- arterial hypertension --- natriuretic peptide --- vascular --- endothelial cell --- cardiomyocyte --- fibroblast --- inflammation --- heart failure --- hypertension --- angiogenesis --- heart failure --- natriuretic peptides --- preserved ejection fraction --- natriuretic peptides --- heart failure --- atrial fibrillation --- remodeling --- Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (IPAH) --- Natriuretic Peptide Clearance Receptor (NPR-C) signaling --- atrial natriuretic peptide --- hypertension --- heart failure --- cardiometabolic disease --- obesity --- metabolic syndrome --- cGMP --- guanylyl cyclase receptor A --- natriuretic peptides --- natriuretic peptide --- cardiorenal syndrome --- vasopressor --- vasodilator --- kidney --- medulla --- renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system --- Atrial Natriuretic peptide --- natriuretic peptides --- cardiac remodelling --- cardiac hypertrophy --- vascular homeostasis --- atrial natriuretic peptide --- guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A --- gene-knockout --- gene-duplication --- hypertension --- congestive heart failure --- natriuretic peptides --- arterial hypertension --- pulmonary arterial hypertension --- heart failure --- stroke --- atrial fibrillation --- ARNi --- MANP

AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signalling

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ISBN: 9783038976622 Year: Pages: 452 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-663-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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Starting from a kinase of interest, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has gone far beyond an average biomolecule. Being expressed in all mammalian cell types and probably having a counterpart in every eukaryotic cell, AMPK has attracted interest in virtually all areas of biological research. Structural and biophysical insights have greatly contributed to a molecular understanding of this kinase. From good old protein biochemistry to modern approaches, such as systems biology and advanced microscopy, all disciplines have provided important information. Thus, multiple links to cellular events and subcellular localizations have been established. Moreover, the crucial involvement of AMPK in human health and disease has been evidenced. AMPK accordingly has moved from an interesting enzyme to a pharmacological target. However, despite our extensive current knowledge about AMPK, the growing community is busier than ever. This book provides a snapshot of recent and current AMPK research with an emphasis on work providing molecular insight, including but not limited to novel physiological and pathological functions, or regulatory mechanisms. Up-to-date reviews and research articles are included.

Keywords

exercise --- glucose uptake --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- TBC1D4 --- AS160 --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) --- hypertension --- kidney disease --- nutrient-sensing signals --- oxidative stress --- renin-angiotensin system --- AMPK --- autophagy --- co-expression --- microarrays --- 3T3-L1 --- adipocyte --- differentiation --- AMPK --- tight junctions --- epithelial cells --- ZO-1 --- par complex --- MDCK --- nectin-afadin --- adherent junctions --- TAK1 --- AMPK --- phosphorylation --- AMPK kinase --- endothelial nitric-oxide synthase --- vasodilation --- phenylephrine --- vasoconstriction --- endothelial cells --- ionomycin --- AMPK --- liver --- lipid metabolism --- fatty acid oxidation --- indirect calorimetry --- atrophy --- regrowth --- sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) --- peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-? (PGC1?) --- heat shock protein --- fiber-type --- AMPK --- monocytes --- macrophages --- differentiation --- autophagy --- AML --- MDS --- CML --- CMML --- pregnancy --- catechol-O-methyltransferase --- 2-methoxyestradiol --- preeclampsia --- gestational diabetes mellitus --- AMPK --- IL-1? --- NLRP3 --- nutrition --- dietary fatty acids --- metabolic-inflammation --- nutrigenomics --- AMPK --- LKB1 --- autophagy --- proteasome --- hypertrophy --- atrophy --- skeletal muscle --- AICAR --- mTOR --- protein synthesis --- AMPK --- epigenetics --- chromatin remodeling --- histone modification --- DNA methylation --- medulloblastoma --- sonic hedgehog --- AMPK --- AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) --- spermatozoa --- motility --- mitochondria --- membranes --- signaling --- stress --- assisted reproduction techniques --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- epigenetics --- protein acetylation --- KATs --- HDACs --- acetyl-CoA --- NAD+ --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- glycogen --- exercise --- metabolism --- cellular energy sensing --- energy utilization --- liver --- skeletal muscle --- metabolic disease --- glycogen storage disease --- resveratrol --- AMPK --- hepatocyte --- liver --- steatosis --- transporter --- carrier --- pump --- membrane --- energy deficiency --- AMPK --- infection --- mycobacteria --- host defense --- energy metabolism --- AMPK --- activation loop --- AID --- ?-linker --- ?-linker --- CBS --- LKB1 --- CaMKK2 --- ?RIM --- hypothalamus --- adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase --- adipose tissue --- food intake --- adaptive thermogenesis --- beiging --- AMPK --- HDAC4/5 --- p70S6K --- MyHC I(?), motor endplate remodeling --- soleus muscle --- mechanical unloading --- hindlimb suspension --- AMPK --- synaptic activation --- PKA --- CREB --- soluble Adenylyl cyclase --- Immediate early genes --- transcription --- AMPK --- autophagy --- metabolism --- mTOR --- ULK --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- protein kinase B --- Akt --- insulin signalling --- A769662 --- endothelial function --- n/a

mTOR in Human Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039210602 / 9783039210619 Year: Pages: 480 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-061-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major signaling intermediary that coordinates favorable environmental conditions with cell growth. Indeed, as part of two functionally distinct protein complexes, named mTORC1 and mTORC2, mTOR regulates a variety of cellular processes, including protein, lipid, and nucleotide synthesis, as well as autophagy. Over the last two decades, major molecular advances have been made in mTOR signaling and have revealed the complexity of the events implicated in mTOR function and regulation. In parallel, the role of mTOR in diverse pathological conditions has also been identified, including in cancer, hamartoma, neurological, and metabolic diseases. Through a series of articles, this book focuses on the role played by mTOR in cellular processes, metabolism in particular, and highlights a panel of human diseases for which mTOR inhibition provides or might provide benefits. It also addresses future studies needed to further characterize the role of mTOR in selected disorders, which will help design novel therapeutic approaches. It is therefore intended for everyone who has an interest in mTOR biology and its application in human pathologies.

Keywords

acute myeloid leukemia --- metabolism --- mTOR --- PI3K --- phosphorylation --- epithelial to mesenchymal transition --- mTOR inhibitor --- pulmonary fibrosis --- transcriptomics --- miRNome --- everolimus --- mTOR --- thyroid cancer --- sodium iodide symporter (NIS)/SLC5A5 --- dopamine receptor --- autophagy --- AKT --- mTOR --- AMPK --- mTOR --- Medulloblastoma --- MBSCs --- mTOR --- T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia --- targeted therapy --- combination therapy --- mTOR --- metabolic diseases --- glucose and lipid metabolism --- anesthesia --- neurotoxicity --- synapse --- mTOR --- neurodevelopment --- mTOR --- rapamycin --- autophagy --- protein aggregation --- methamphetamine --- schizophrenia --- tumour cachexia --- mTOR --- signalling --- metabolism --- proteolysis --- lipolysis --- mTOR --- mTORC1 --- mTORC2 --- rapamycin --- rapalogues --- rapalogs --- mTOR inhibitors --- senescence --- ageing --- aging --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- immunosenescence --- senolytics --- biomarkers --- leukemia --- cell signaling --- metabolism --- apoptosis --- miRNA --- mTOR inhibitors --- mTOR --- tumor microenvironment --- angiogenesis --- immunotherapy --- fluid shear stress --- melatonin --- chloral hydrate --- nocodazole --- MC3T3-E1 cells --- primary cilia --- mTOR complex --- metabolic reprogramming --- cancer --- microenvironment --- nutrient sensor --- oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) --- NVP-BEZ235 --- mTOR --- p70S6K --- mTOR --- advanced biliary tract cancers --- mTOR --- NGS --- illumina --- IonTorrent --- eIFs --- mTOR --- autophagy --- Parkinson’s disease --- mTOR --- PI3K --- cancer --- inhibitor --- therapy --- mTOR --- laminopathies --- lamin A/C --- Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) --- Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) --- autophagy --- cellular signaling --- metabolism --- bone remodeling --- ageing --- mTOR --- fructose --- glucose --- liver --- lipid metabolism --- gluconeogenesis --- Alzheimer’s disease --- autophagy --- mTOR signal pathway --- physical activity --- microRNA --- mTOR --- spermatogenesis --- male fertility --- Sertoli cells --- n/a

Efficiency of Bank Filtration and Post-Treatment

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213054 / 9783039213061 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-306-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Riverbank filtration (RBF) schemes for the production of drinking water are increasingly challenged by new constituents of concern, such as organic micropollutants and pathogens in the source water and hydrological flow variations due to weather extremes. RBF and new technology components are integrated and monitoring and operating regimes are adopted to further optimize water treatment in bank filtration schemes for these new requirements. This Special Issue presents results from the EU project AquaNES “Demonstrating synergies in combined natural and engineered processes for water treatment systems” (www.aquanes.eu). Additionally, papers from other research groups cover the efficiency of bank filtration and post-treatment, advantages and limitations of combining natural and engineered processes, parameter-specific assessment of removal rates during bank filtration, and the design and operation of RBF wells. The feasibility, design, and operation of RBF schemes under specific site conditions are highlighted for sites in the US, India, and South Korea

Keywords

riverbank filtration --- removal efficacy --- dissolved organic carbon (DOC) --- pesticides --- pharmaceutical residues --- riverbank filtration --- organic matter degradation --- manganese --- riverbed --- climate change --- floods --- droughts --- column experiments --- PHREEQC --- decentralized capillary nanofiltration --- anoxic --- suboxic --- organic micropollutants --- bank filtrate --- groundwater --- sulphate --- dissolved organic matter --- high temperature --- sub-oxic conditions --- organic matter composition --- PARAFAC-EEM --- LC-OCD --- redox sensitivity --- micropollutants --- oxypurinol --- gabapentin --- river bank filtration --- hydrological trends --- sustainable water production --- well structure remodeling --- point-bar alluvial setting --- riverbank filtration --- site investigation --- hydrochemistry --- subsurface geology --- riverbank filtration --- organic micropollutants --- water quality --- environmental monitoring --- riverbank filtration --- collector wells --- performance --- entrance velocity --- river bank filtration --- attenuation --- organic micropollutants --- pharmaceuticals --- riverbank filtration --- small communities --- disinfection by-products --- trihalomethanes --- riverbank filtration (RBF) --- Krishna River --- southern India --- water treatment --- water quality --- salinity --- river bank filtration --- ultrafiltration --- surface water treatment --- energy efficiency --- out/in membrane comparison --- inline electrolysis --- bank filtration --- biofilm --- clogging --- filter cake --- pathogen barrier --- pressure loss --- slow sand filtration --- electro-chlorination --- smart villages --- disinfection --- river bank filtration --- rural water supply, online monitoring --- dissolved organic matter --- fluorescence excitation-emission matrix --- LC-OCD --- Nakdong River --- riverbank filtration --- bank filtration --- drinking water treatment --- inorganic chemicals --- organic micropollutants --- Ganga --- Yamuna --- Damodar --- riverbank filtration --- water quality --- organic carbon --- nitrate --- heavy metals --- microorganisms --- riverbank filtration --- riverside water source --- analytical method --- mirror-image method --- optimization --- riverbank filtration --- water quality --- bank filtrate portion --- iron --- manganese --- microorganisms --- system costs --- water supply --- storage tank --- drinking water hydropower --- turbine --- energy generation --- renewable energy

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